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NEW ITEMS:


(2017 Sept): Recently brought to my attention: DSSU material appears on The New Illuminati website accompanied by some amazing graphics.

New Illuminati –The DSSU is The New Cosmology

New Illuminati –Hidden Substrate of Reality
 


(2017 Sept): "Assorted Comments" added to QuestionsAnswersComments.
 


(2017 Sept): Special purchase offer on the book "Guide to the Construction of the Natural Universe". (Mail-in Order Form.)
 


(2017 July): The book The Nature of Gravitational Collapse is now available.
 

The Nature of Gravitational Collapse

Subtitle: How the photon, the particle of light, is responsible for mass, gravity, superneutron stars, and supermassive black holes


—Reveals the truth about stellar and supermassive black holes.


This new work contains 310+ pages, 67 illustrations, references, and index. … Additional details.


(2016 December): “So easy to understand” comment from an Australian engineer.


(2016 November): “Large-Scale Structure of the Dynamic Steady State Universe” now published in the American Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Vol.4, No.6, 2016, pp.65-77. Astract and Links to HTML and PDF.


(2016 June):
Revolutionary research paper:
The Nature of Gravitational Collapse –published in the American Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Vol.4, No.2, 2016, pp.15-33. Abstract and Links:
—Another major DSSU success, as it reveals amazing new insights! The theory has uncovered the mechanism by which mass undergoes a total conversion to energy. Yes, a mass to energy conversion with 100% efficiency!  As everything else in the DSSU, it is a perfectly natural process. Truly amazing!


Have gravity waves really been detected?

Comments updated  2016 June: Comment #19
 


(2016-4-26:)  A mathematical cosmologist claims the values of the Hubble-expansion parameter and the cosmic-background temperature are the most important elements for understanding the real Universe! Letter and response.


(2016 March)  What is the difference between a physical and a mechanical aether? ...
Be aware of the distinctions among the terms commonly applied to aether: Terms such as physical, mechanical, subquantum, and dynamic. Link to new Question & Answer.


The book, Guide to the Construction of the Natural Universe, is  now available at the Niagara Falls Public Library  (Victoria branch). If you live in the Province of Ontario, your local library can request the book from the Niagara Falls Public Library.
 

Participate in a unique exploration of the Cosmos: venture into the sub-atomic realm, even into the sub-quantum realm where the roots of reality reside, and into the domain of cosmic-scale cell-structure and beyond to infinity. Along the way, discover the cause of mass, the cause of gravitation, and rediscover Einstein’s “nonponderable” aether and Heraclitus’ harmony-of-opposites principle. … The book represents the ultimate vindication for all the skeptics who resisted the "preposterous" Big Bang mythology and who refused to join the exploding-cosmos religion.
This new work contains 317 pages, 61 illustrations, references, and index … Available from C-FAR Books.
Or use this mail-in Order Form.

 


My comments on the latest mass media "Official Science" news story:


Do not be misled by the recent reports of the detection of gravity waves.
What the LIGO apparatus measures is the interference from beams of self-generated electromagnetic waves. It seems highly probable that what LIGO actually detected was some vibrational “noise” or some unexplained interference; and NOT gravity waves originating from a distant binary system (in which two extremely massive black holes are supposedly in the process of merging). How the data, the wave patterns, are interpreted is subject to theory and restricted by theory. Naturally the official interpretation must conform to the Officially-sanctioned theory of gravity —Einstein’s general theory of relativity. Thus, the light patterns recorded by LIGO are interpreted via Einstein’s mathematical concept of gravity. The problem is the general-relativity-gravity interpretation, as is well known, ignores the space medium!

Have gravity waves really been detected?
Think about this: The academic experts do not have the cause and mechanism of gravity (Isaac Newton did not, Albert Einstein did not, and today’s big-bang astrophysicists do not). Their theory of gravity is embarrassingly incomplete! So, if they do not yet understand the nature of gravity itself, how then can they claim to be able to recognize the waves that gravity supposedly emits? The experts cannot even answer the simple question: Specifically, what is it that is waving? What is waving back and forth?
    Here is something else the reports fail to mention: The gravity waves that are actually detectable are those associated with the turbulence in the aether flow (the space medium streaming through our Solar System). Australian physicist Reginald T. Cahill has been examining these aether-flow waves for over 15 years. –CR (2016 May)
Updated 2016 June. See Comment #19


(2016 Jan 6) Now published:
Olbers’ Paradox Resolved for the Infinite Non-Expanding Universe
, American Journal of Astronomy & Astrophysics Vol.4, No.1, (2016 January). Abstract & download links.
Excerpts:
● “The man accredited with discovering universe expansion did not believe that the universe was expanding. Hubble was convinced that the key evidence, the cosmic redshift, was caused by some other factor, something more fundamental than mere expansion.”
● “With the recent discovery of a new cosmic-redshift mechanism, and its theoretical validation, it turns out that Hubble was right.”
● Explains how “an infinite, non-expanding, perpetually regenerating universe" is able to predict a dark night sky.


Press Release (2015 Oct 15):
The Big Bang is no longer a viable hypothesis !

(2016 June) FREE DOWNLOAD:
"DSSU Validated by Redshift Theory and Structural Evidence", Physics Essays, Vol.28, No.4, p455-473 (2015 Dec) —Delivers the coup de grâce to the Big Bang. Abstract & Links.
Both Reviewers enthusiastically endorsed this "well-written and incisive article."
 


(2015-Oct 6) Webpage added for article Cosmic-Redshift Distance Law Without c Without H: Comments & Links  Describes the challenge of getting DSSU papers published.
 


(2015 Aug 20:) Allow me to extend a sincere "Thank You" for the many invitations to join social media and professional networks. Unfortunately I must decline. It’s simply a matter of precious time —there is just too little of it. All my available time is taken up by research, writing, and website maintenance —in fact, two more web domains have been purchased. It is all being done for the purpose of providing the educated and interested public with the ammunition to refute and replace the utterly bankrupt big-bang Worldview. (However, not to give the impression of a total recluse, seclusionist, or misanthrope, I do manage to squeeze in a few delightful hours of ballroom dancing every week or two.) –CR
 


(2015 Aug:) Brief update on the status of the neutrino and its adaptation into the DSSU particle theory. See Section 5 of the Discussion webpage for the article: The Fundamental Process of Energy

(2015 Aug:) The article The Universe Is Infinite (Part 1) has been revised.

(2015 July:) Comments and questions from a 14-year old student.
 


RECENT RESEARCH PAPERS:

"The Nature of Gravitational Collapse"
–Published in American Journal of Astronomy & Astrophysics. ( Abstract and Links.)
(Note, there is a typo in AJA&A posted version in the Fig-10 caption. It should read: … acceleration is proportional to 1/r2.)
-------------------------
"Olbers’ Paradox Resolved for the Infinite Non-Expanding Universe" –Published in American Journal of Astronomy & Astrophysics. ( Abstract & download links.)
-------------------------
"DSSU Validated by Redshift Theory and Structural Evidence" published in Physics Essays, Vol.28, No.4, p455-473 (2015 Dec). Abstract.
Both Reviewers enthusiastically endorsed this "well-written and incisive article."
-------------------------
Published in the American Journal of Astronomy & Astrophysics, AJAA, Vol.3, No.2, 2015:
Ellipticity, Its Origin & Progression in Comoving Galaxies  
Local  high-resolution PDF.

HIGHLIGHTS:
• Provides the first-ever natural explanation for the cause of the elliptical shape of nonrotating galaxies
• Retains the foundation premise of all modern cosmology but rejects the absurd concept of whole-universe expansion
• Takes full advantage of the universe’s cosmic cellular structure and exploits the DSSU theory of unified gravity domains
• Amazingly, the mechanism that stretches galaxies turns out to be the very same mechanism that causes the cosmic spectral redshift!


Published Dec 2014 in the American Journal of Astronomy & Astrophysics:

"Cosmic Redshift in the Nonexpanding Cellular Universe” —details the actual causal mechanism. Abstract.
Preprint with larger images.
HIGHLIGHTS:
• Entirely new concept for cosmic redshift mechanism;
• Retains the foundation premise of all modern cosmology;
• But does not require whole-universe expansion;
• A redshift based on the DSSU theory of unified gravity & cosmic cellular structure;
• Remarkable agreement with independently established redshift distances.



Higgs Boson Discovered?
After 50 long years of searching, Physicists claim to have detected the Higgs boson, the "particle" that ostensibly bestows the property of mass on all other such particles. Is it now time to celebrate? … Definitely not.
   The question now is this: If the Higgs ‘particle’ is the giver of mass to all other particles, what then gives the Higgs itself its mass?! (Yes, the newly discovered particle has mass, lots of it!) A difficult and embarrassing question indeed. It is like asking:
If God created everything, then who, or what, created God?
   While physicists think they have solved the mass problem, the reality is that they have unwittingly exposed an even bigger problem —the riddle of “First Cause”.
 

Glossary of Terms used in Cosmology and Astrophysics with particular emphasis on DSSU theory.
(Opens in separate Window or Tab)

GENERAL INTEREST ARTICLES:

Mysteries & Paradoxes that Plague Standard Cosmology  (Updated 2015-7)

Cosmology Crisis of 1998 (Revised 2015-5)

Critique of Conventional Cosmology ... comments relating to the 'preposterous' expanding-universe paradigm.
Bafflement —the remarkable admission of a physicist.
The Cosmology Debate That Never Happened   —During the 20th century there was a decades-long debate: The cataclysmic expanding universe VS the stable expanding universe. But there has never been a debate of the dynamic expanding universe VS the dynamic non-expanding universe. (Posted 2011 Oct)

Models of the Universe —Historical, Expanding, and Cellular universes. INCLUDES A USEFUL TABLE FOR COMPARING THEORIES.

The Universe Is Infinite (Part 1) —overcoming a "central" problem of cosmology theories.

The Universe Is Infinite (Part 2) —an explanation of how the universe can always have existed and will always exist.

DSSU, The Non-Expanding Universe: Structure, Redshift, Distance —A long sought-after goal of astrophysicists has been a formulation of cosmic distance that is independent of the speed of light. The goal has now been achieved. The present Paper details the surprisingly simple distance expression and its validating agreement with Supernova data.

Why Copernicus Did Not Need a Force of Gravity —Explores the question of why no one, except Newton, invoked a force. (Posted April, 2011)

Gravity and Lambda —A Story of Opposites (.htm) —A story of opposites in harmony. Key differences between the Conventional Cosmology and the New Cosmology are presented.

Dynamic Cosmic Cell —The Structural Component of the DSSU —Animated image and discussion of the self-sustaining, self-balancing system.

Why Einstein Did Not Receive the Nobel Prize for His Theory of Relativity —“By 1922 Einstein had been nominated about fifty times —most were for his relativity theories.”


Questions & Answers & Comments
 

COSMOLOGY ARTICLES, etc:

(2016 June) FREE DOWNLOAD details:
DSSU Validated by Redshift Theory and Structural Evidence, Physics Essays, Vol.28, No.4, p455-473 (2015 Dec) —Delivers the coup de grâce to the Big Bang. Abstract & Links.
Both Reviewers enthusiastically endorsed this "well-written and incisive article."


The Dynamic Steady State Universe.
This work brings together the main pieces of the cosmic puzzle in a step-by-step construction of the Natural Universe. Published in Physics Essays Vol.27 No.2 (2014 June issue) (PDF download)  "... the arguments are well-made. The article is competent, enjoyable and readable." —Reviewer for Physics Essays Journal


Revolutionary:
Olbers’ Paradox Resolved for the Infinite Non-Expanding Universe
, American Journal of Astronomy & Astrophysics Vol.4, No.1, (2016 January). Abstract & download links.
Excerpts:
● “The man accredited with discovering universe expansion did not believe that the universe was expanding. Hubble was convinced that the key evidence, the cosmic redshift, was caused by some other factor, something more fundamental than mere expansion.”
● “With the recent discovery of a new cosmic-redshift mechanism, and its theoretical validation, it turns out that Hubble was right.”


"Cosmic Redshift in the Nonexpanding Cellular Universe" (Journal pdf) —details the actual causal mechanism. Published in the American Journal of Astronomy & Astrophysics, Vol.2, No.5 (2014) Abstract.
Local copy with quality images: (Preprint pdf).
HIGHLIGHTS:
• Entirely new concept for cosmic redshift mechanism;
• Retains the foundation premise of all modern cosmology;
• But does not require whole-universe expansion;
• A redshift based on the DSSU theory of unified gravity & cosmic cellular structure;
• Remarkable agreement with independently established redshift distances.

The Cosmology Debate That Never Happened
What historians call "the greatest cosmological debate in history” was between TWO  expanding universes —two hypothetical models that share the same, I repeat, the same foundational property! If one is to claim some great clash of ideas (let alone the "greatest") then surely there must exist some deep dividing difference! (Posted 2011 Oct)

The Case for a Cellular Universe
—the Story of a Baffling Omission in Modern Cosmology    (Revised 2015)
 

Large-Scale Structure of the Dynamic Steady State Universe published in the American Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Vol.4, No.6, 2016, pp.65-77. Astract and Links.
Highlights:
■ Presents the first 2 of the 4 main postulates that define the DSSU.
■ Space-medium expansion and contraction are perpetually held in balance, thus ensuring a non-expanding universe.
■ Explains how the two dynamic processes of the DSSU’s space medium sustain the cellular structure responsible for the pattern of matter distribution in our Universe.

Cosmic-Redshift Distance Law Without c Without H Comments & Links Simplifying the redshift-distance formula by removing the speed-of-light constant and the Hubble parameter —while maintaining agreement with observational evidence.
 

DSSU Theory:

DSSU Validated by Redshift Theory and Structural Evidence, Physics Essays, Vol.28, No.4, p455-473 (2015 Dec) —Delivers the coup de grâce to the Big Bang. Abstract & Links.
Both Reviewers enthusiastically endorsed this "well-written and incisive article."



Theoretical Foundation and Pillars of the DSSU (Introduction) —This introductory essay gives a thematic tour of historical and modern universes culminating with the Natural Universe.

Currently undergoing revision and updating: Theoretical Foundation and Pillars of the Dynamic Steady State Universe (pdf) —The first complete presentation of all four postulates of DSSU theory. A powerful paper that resolves the cause-of-causes paradox, explains the non-independent nature of time, and reveals the 'supreme advantage'. It includes a concise comparison with standard cosmology focusing on real-world viability.
Supplementary Discussion: The Primary Process

 


The Fundamental Process of Energy —A Qualitative Unification of Energy, Mass, and Gravity. (Abstract & Reviews & Links) … This article reveals the secret behind photon confinement. (Contains only a bare minimum of mathematics and mainly in one of the 14 sections.)
PART 1 published in Infinite Energy Magazine Issue #113 (Jan/Feb 2014)
PART 2 published in Infinite Energy Magazine    Issue #114 (Mar/Apr 2014)

Headlined as:
A "Conceptual Unification of Energy, Mass and Gravity"



Dynamic Cosmic Cell —The Structural Component of the DSSU —Animated image and discussion of the self-sustaining, self-balancing system.

Unified Gravitation Cells of the DSSU —Constructing the Universe with Cosmic Gravity Cells

Space Flow Equations and Expansion-Contraction Rates (pdf) —This paper explores the mathematical aspects of the two space postulates of DSSU theory —and uncovers some profound consequences.
 

ARTICLES on AETHER:

Documentary movie footage in which Einstein states, "There exists an aether"
High resolution .mpg video.
Low resolution .wmv video.


The Aether Experiments and the Impact on Cosmology —The aether has been detected at least 6 times in recent history. Its most recent "re-discovery", in 2001, led to the long-sought causal mechanism of gravity —a discovery which, in turn, is revolutionizing cosmology.

Michelson-Morley and the Story of the Aether Theory —Richard Milton's analysis of the historical details involving the misrepresentation, bias, and cover-up that hampered the Aether theory.

The History of the Aether Theory —The historic development of the aether as a scientific theory of space itself. What started as the "fifth element" of Antiquity becomes molded by theoretical constraints and experimental evidence into the dual-dynamic sub-quantum medium —the Essence of the Universe. (Updated 2016-2)

Relativity of Time in the Aether-Space of the DSSU —How intrinsic time and relative time are related.

DSSU Relativity –The Lorentz Transformations Applied to Aether-Space —Ranzan
Reprinted by permission of Physics Essays Publication, Physics  Essays Vol.23, No.3, p520. (2010). ABSTRACT

The Physical Nature of Length Contraction —the DSSU Theory of Length Contraction Induced by Absolute Motion.
An easy to follow examination of how the mode by which matter is “conducted” through luminiferous aether causes the matter to contract. A simple derivation of the mathematical expression for this physical phenomenon is presented. There is also a brief discussion of relevant historical aspects and of nonphysical length contraction.
Reviewer's comments: “This is amazing …”  “The paper is interesting …” –Applied Physics Research reviewer. Published in Applied Physics Research journal Vol.5, No.1 (2013 Feb).

Contradiction Divides Two Aether Theories —An exploration into the three parts of the speed-of-light postulate.
Reprinted by permission of PEP, from  Physics Essays Journal (Vol 24, No.3, Sept, 2011) ... ABSTRACT

Basic - level mathematical and graphical exploration of dynamic aether flow: PDF

Here is an external webpage with an extensive list of research papers on the aether-drift experiments, and the larger question of energy in space.

DSSU RESEARCH PAPERS:

DSSU Cosmic Redshift-Distance Relation (htm) —Converting the cosmic redshift into distance for our Cellular Universe using a simple and elegant equation.

Large Scale Structure of the Dynamic Steady State Universe (pdf)  How a dual-dynamic space medium sustains the cellular structure (published in AJAA in 2016).
  —Presents the postulates and implications of regional space-medium expansion and contraction.

Cosmic-Scale Structural Features Explained (pdf) (Chapter 2 of original DSSU Manuscript)
—The Spacing of Clusters
—Sheets of Galaxies
—Supernodes
—Right-angled Walls of Galaxies.


The Cosmic Background Radiation in the DSSU —The natural explanation of the microwave background radiation applicable to the natural Cellular Universe.

Ellipticity, Its Origin & Progression in Comoving GalaxiesAmerican Journal of Astronomy & Astrophysics, AJAA, Vol.3, No.2, 2015.
Local  high-resolution PDF.
HTML version available from AJAA here.

GRAVITY:

"The Nature of Gravitational Collapse"
–Published in American Journal of Astronomy & Astrophysics Vol.4, No.2, 2016, pp.15-33. (Abstract and Links.)
(Note, there is a typo in AJA&A posted version in the Fig-10 caption. It should read: … acceleration is proportional to 1/r2.)



The Processes of Gravitation –The Cause and Mechanism of Gravitation by C. Ranzan –A revolutionary paper on gravity published in the Journal of Modern Physics and Applications Vol.2014:3  (2014).
( Abstract & Reviews & Links. Includes link to hi-resolution PDF) "Revolutionary".



Why Copernicus Did Not Need a Force of Gravity —Explores the question of why no one, except Newton, invoked a force. (Rev 2011-9)

First ever, journal-published paper featuring the DSSU:
The Story of Gravity and Lambda –How the Theory of Heraclitus Solved the Dark Matter Mystery –Ranzan

Reprinted by permission of PEP, from Physics Essays, Vol 23, No1, p75-87 (2010 Mar). ABSTRACT
This is the cure for the fallacious belief in cosmic-scale Dark Matter.

The Story of Gravity and Lambda –How the Theory of Heraclitus Solved the Dark Matter Mystery (Color version) Ranzan Considered "an excellent contribution to the [PE journal]" --professional reviewer.

Unified Gravitation Cells of the DSSU —Constructing the Universe with Cosmic Gravity Cells

 

RELATIVITY ARTICLES:

Why Einstein Did Not Receive the Nobel Prize for His Theory of Relativity (●Abstract ●Links ●Excerpts ●Extras) —“By 1922 Einstein had been nominated about fifty times —most were for his relativity theories.”

Einstein’s Simple Mathematical Trick –and the Illusion of a Constant Speed of Light  (Abridged version with links to Journal-published version. Posted July 2013)

Extended Relativity –Exploiting the Loopholes in Einstein's Relativity. A Logical extension of special relativity. Reprinted by permission of PEP, from Physics Essays Vol.25, No.3 (2012 Sept).
Abstract & Links & Reviews


The Three Components of the Speed-of-Light Postulate.  Published in Physics Essays journal Vol.26,No.1 (2013 March)
Local copy: The Three Components of the Speed-of-Light Postulate (pdf) Absolute vs relative. Variance vs invariance. Another instance of the Heraclitian "Harmony of Opposites." (Reprinted by permission of PEP, from Physics Essays, Vol.26, No.1, 2013).

Relativity of Time in the Aether Medium of the DSSU —Absolute Motion and Intrinsic Time

Resolving a Paradox in Special Relativity –Absolute Motion and the Unified Doppler Equation.
(Posted 2011, July). Reprinted by permission of PEP, from Physics  Essays Vol.23, No.4, p594 (2010). ABSTRACT

How DSSU Relativity Resolves the Speed Paradox (Introductory Discussion)   —Absolute Motion Resolves a (speed) Paradox in Einstein’s Special Relativity. (Supplementary Discussion)

DSSU Relativity –The Lorentz Transformations Applied to Aether-Space (Posted 2011, July). Reprinted by permission of Physics Essays Publication, Physics  Essays Vol.23, No.3, p520. (2010). ABSTRACT

The Key that Extends Einstein’s Relativity (Part 1) —Response to a reviewer critical of DSSU aether-space relativity
The Key that Extends Einstein’s Relativity (Part 2) —How to convert abstract-space equations into aether-space equations

Restoring the Physical Meaning of Energy
Published in Applied Physics Research journal Vol.5, No.2 (2013 May).
LOCAL COPY: Restoring the Physical Meaning of Energy —distinguishing between the apparent energy and the real energy of moving mass.
 

An Open Letter to the Scientific Community
(Published in New Scientist, May 22, 2004)

"The big bang today relies on a growing number of hypothetical entities, things that we have never observed-- inflation, dark matter and dark energy are the most prominent examples. Without them, there would be a fatal contradiction between the observations made by astronomers and the predictions of the big bang theory. In no other field of physics would this continual recourse to new hypothetical objects be accepted as a way of bridging the gap between theory and observation. It would, at the least, raise serious questions about the validity of the underlying theory. ..."  continues ...
 

A devastating Declaration of opposition to Big Bang cosmology signed by more than 400 Researchers.

For the full text click on:
CosmologyStatement.org or alternate site.

INTELLECTUAL FREEDOM:
This website is mainly concerned with revisionism in cosmology. Those of us involved in replacing the unnatural expanding-universe paradigm are aware of the difficulties involved.
   However, other revisionists have unimaginable difficulties. Consider the ongoing persecution of revisionists in other fields of intellectual pursuit: 
"It makes you wonder —about the immense effort being made by State and State-sponsored organizations with budgets of tens of millions of dollars and thousands of employees and associates to smother and punish these few men and women. Every punishing instrument imaginable is used, every vicious slander conceivable, every flagrant and pervasive form of censorship that law allows, including the imprisonment of simple writers for thought crimes against the State. ... Makes you wonder."Bradley R. Smith (2011)


"Discussing truth is so controversial, so dangerous … In most of the world it is simply illegal.” Gordon Duff, Senior Editor, Veterans Today (2011)

DEDICATION: This website is solemnly dedicated to those individuals who have conducted research in their chosen field and have informed others of their inquiries and suffered the consequences when subpoenaed by the Inquisition or some variant thereof. The dedication extends to those individuals currently imprisoned, and those facing trial and persecution simply for exercising their basic human right of freedom of expression supposedly granted to them under the UN Charter of Human Rights.
"Every year, hundreds of writers and other literary professionals around the world are imprisoned, prosecuted, persecuted, attacked, threatened, forced into exile or even murdered as a result of their work."

ALSO: Be aware of the continuing threat to our precious freedom of expression on the Internet. The threat is serious and relentless. It is described as “… the formal effort to mimic Communist China’s system of Internet censorship.” See The Secret Behind SOPA  (2012-Jan). Update.
More information on threats to internet freedom: https://battleforthenet.com/


Reporter-journalist Arthur Topham, Canadian victim of the Inquisition, arrested (2012) for posting his research.
“Arthur Topham faces prison time for daring to speak his mind on his own website, as he faces criminal charges under Canada’s hate crimes legislation contained in Section 318 - 320 of the criminal code.” –Rights and Freedoms Bulletin Issue No. 204 Feb 7, 2015.
VERDICT: Arthur Topham found “guilty” AND “not guilty” of hate speech by a brain-dead jury!
 –Dr. James Sears, reporting in “The world’s Largest Anti-Marxist Publication” (Issue 2015 December, http://www.yourwardnews.com/backissues.html)
2016 Update: Panel Discussion on The Trial of Arthur Topham


Free-speech crusader Bill Whatcott defies British Colombia Human Rights Tribunal efforts to impose gender language tyranny

“I have no intention on wasting money on a lawyer for the Morgane Oger vs Bill Whatcott case, as human rights tribunals are kangaroo courts and the odds of … getting justice in these biased tribunals is next to zero.” –2017 June (www.freenorthamerica.ca …)



The struggle for freedom and justice in Canada lost its greatest champion, its most dedicated defender. On March 11, 2013, Douglas Christie passed away.



British Maverick Psychologist jailed for publishing his research. … “The ambivalence of librarians getting writers imprisoned quite defies comprehension.” –Simon Sheppard (2013)



The repression of free speech in Canada has degenerated to the point where …

■ Freedom advocates, such as Marc Lemire, are censured for merely expressing their reasoned opinions. Freedomsite, whose motto is “Fighting for freedom against the censorship enforcers”, documents the official persecution.
■ A tenured professor has lost his position for revealing his research and views on history. This is unprecedented. Professor Anthony J. Hall at the University of Lethbridge, Alberta, has been suspended (2016 October 5) without pay.
“… Any thinking person should recognize that there is something deeply wrong when a history professor is persecuted for saying we should be able to examine our history.” –Monika Schaefer 2017
■ A publisher/editor, for expressing his reality-based views, has been denied postal services. Dr. James Sears, publisher and editor of Your Ward News was stripped of Canada Post Mail Service by government order (2016 June).
■ A violin teacher and truth revealer, Monika Schaefer, for posting a video (an apology to her dead mother), has been attacked by various so-called community leaders.

The treatment of violinist Monika Schaefer signals the end of our free and democratic society.” –The American Herald Tribune, 2016 Sept

American Speaker Arrested in Canada for the textual material on his iPad
—2017 June 24
While the invasion continues, the “guardians” of the nation are busy suppressing the freedom of expression: going after deemed violations in what people think and write and say.
 


The Continuing Struggle for Freedom

A ray of hope in the ongoing struggle for freedom. Populist and nationalist movements around the world are gaining ascendancy over the New World Order’s effort to establish global governance and impose tyrannical control over every last square meter of the Earth’s surface. –The Barnes Review Vol.23 No.1 (2017 Jan p70)


For more on Freedom (and Objectivism),
visit: Just Right Media
(Website: http://www.justrightmedia.org)



... about the author ...



© Copyright 2005-2017 by
Conrad RanzanDSSU Research
All Rights Reserved
  For information regarding permission to reproduce selected material herein, please contact:

D S S U  Research
Niagara Falls, Canada
16th year on the Internet.
Most recent update:
2017 Sept 2

Visits since mid-2010 : Hit Counter

2017-9-2

 The Universe is Infinite (Part 1)

–overcoming a "central" problem of cosmology theories

Conrad Ranzan
rev2015-7

 

Key Principle of Cosmology

 When philosophers and physicists try to understand the Universe —that is, when they construct a conceptual model of the Universe— they almost always include a fundamentally important dictum called the cosmological principle.

The cosmological principle simply holds that the physical universe is homogeneous on a large scale. It means that the Universe is pretty much the same everywhere. It means that wherever you are in the Universe you will see galaxy clusters and super clusters; you will see them in all directions; and you will see them distributed with similar spacing density.

The isotropy portion of the principle is a fact of astronomy; the homogeneity portion of the principle is an assumption of cosmology. Observationally, there is no good reason to doubt its validity.[1]

“The cosmological principle is an important philosophical concept that underpins our understanding of the universe. Spectroscopy is one type of observation that could, in theory, invalidate this concept, although in practice it never has.”
—Cosmological principle (Encyclopedia of Cosmology) [2]

On a historical note, the cosmological principle was so named by astrophysicist Edward Milne in 1933, and was expressed by him in the words: "Not only the laws of nature, but also the events occurring in nature, the world [universe] itself, must appear the same to all observers, wherever they may be." [3]

The cosmological principle

A Long History of Non-Compliance

Greek Cosmology: Aristotle gave the universe a special location when he placed the Earth at the center of the cosmos. ... The Ptolemaic system kept it there for many long centuries.
Copernican Cosmology: Copernicus did the same when he placed the Sun at the center of the universe. Kepler made his concurring contribution.
Early 20th Century Cosmology: Harlow Shapley (1918) placed the Milky Way at the center of the universe. [5]

General Relativity Cosmology: Einstein, Friedmann, and others constructed a mathematical boundary which ensured that the center-of-the-universe could be anywhere and everywhere (see textbox below).

Einstein asserted, in 1931, that “all places in the universe are alike.” [4] Evidently, discussions in modern cosmology place considerable weight on this principle of universe uniformity.

In practical terms, it means that the universe can have no special location —no central point and no detectable boundary. Unfortunately there has been a long history of non-compliance (see textbox). ... Common sense tells us,  a universe that is limited in its 3-dimensional size must have some sort of a diameter. The diameter has a midpoint, joins opposite boundaries and, therefore, locates the center of its finite universe. The simple conclusion is that a finite universe represents a violation of the cosmological principle.

However, a common-sense-defying finite universe was constructed, one that arguably conformed to the principle. Devised by Einstein and elaborated by Friedmann and others it was finite in the sense that it was "bounded" —it had a most clever mathematical boundary. Einstein and his followers relativized a universe of 3 spatial dimensions (plus a time dimension); they hypothesized a general relativity universe filled with a finite volume of spacetime lawfully enclosed by a mathematical boundary.

Extirpating the Center

It may be argued that a universe based on general relativity (GR), such as the Big Bang, does not eliminate the objectionable "center." We are often told that the center of the Big Bang universe is anywhere and everywhere. In a GR universe every observer can legitimately claim to be at the center of it all. Every observer, wherever he may be in the "bounded" GR universe, can argue correctly  that a light pulse sent out from his location will, given enough time, circumnavigate the universe and return to the observer's location (provided it is the spherical version, the "closed" version, the version for which the Big Bang will eventually re-collapse).[6]

What about the "infinite" version of the GR universe? Does it extirpate the "boundary and center"? But before addressing this, there is the prior question of whether or not it is really infinite. Let's take a closer look. Here we are dealing with the hyperbolic version, the "open" version, the version for which the Big Bang does not collapse-in-on-itself but instead expands forever, ever faster and faster. In this accelerating universe, when a light pulse is sent out, the light can't bounce back in its circumnavigation of the universe because the mathematical boundary is receding too fast. The important point is that one cannot argue that such a BB universe somehow attains infinite size.

Concept of a Universe Center

The concept of a center applied to a true infinite universe is completely meaningless.

In contrast, the concept of a center applied to a Big Bang universe does have meaning, since the center can be anywhere you choose. This is most obvious for the "closed" version; there, a radial light beam returns to the "center" after crossing or circumnavigating the bound universe.[7]  And it does not matter in which direction you aim the lightbeam. Since they are all predicted to return to the point of origin (your location), it becomes difficult to deny your location is special. All those lightbeams obviously "consider" their point-of-origin special; despite following different paths, they all, with mathematical certainty, manage to return to it.

Whatever is finite can never become something infinite. Whatever entity or collection of entities is finite can never grow or expand to attain infinite size. To claim otherwise is to misapprehend the uncompromising meaning of infinity. If the Big Bang started out as a finite ("bounded") system as is claimed, and then at some evolutionary stage transitioned to become an accelerating ("unbounded") system, it may then expand and grow without limit; but it can never be infinite. It simply gets bigger and bigger in its finite size. In the course of its expansion, it can never be claimed: "Now, finally, the model has attained infinite size."

Back to the question of the elimination of the "boundary and center". All the while that the Big Bang universe is into its accelerating phase, we may continue to say that the "center" is anywhere and everywhere. All points, after all, shared a common origin. This feature is inherent in the nature of expanding models and allows such a claim.

It turns out there is really only one way to avoid having a center, any center whatsoever; only when the universe is truly infinite (not merely tending toward it). Only an infinite universe will conform to the full meaning of the cosmological principle —not some watered-down version based solely on appearances.

Our Universe Is Not Expanding

It has been proven, in various other articles, that the universe is not expanding. We do not live in a GR universe; not an Einstein (cosmological constant) universe; not a Friedman (space curvature) universe. General relativity is only applicable as a local (regional) theory. There was no big bang. We live in a universe that is stably cellularly structured. Moreover, the structure on a large scale has a Euclidean geometry.

We apply the cosmological-principle argument to our 3-dimensional Euclidean universe as follows.

What We See

The Hubble space telescope is able to compile images of galaxies that are now, for example, ten billion lightyears away from our Milky Way galaxy. We “see” these galaxies in all celestial directions, as would be expected in a universe that is isotropic. The Milky Way galaxy, then, is surrounded by a hypothetical cosmic shell of embedded galaxies. The radius of the shell (a representative shell) is ten billion lightyears.  See Fig. 1.

 

 
 

Fig. 1.   According to the cosmology principle, no matter where you are in the physical universe you will be surrounded by cosmic shells of galaxies. One such shell contains the galaxies that are 10 Giga lightyears from where the observer happens to be. (Not to scale)

 

 

Now, these galaxies are at their proper distance, which means they are at the ten-billion-lightyear distance right now —at this very instant in time. The light we actually see through telescopes, was, of course, emitted by those galaxies ten billion Earth-years ago. And since our universe is not expanding, they were then (at the long-ago time of emission) also at the ten-billion-lightyear distance. Of course, during the time in which the light traveled from the galaxies to the Hubble telescope lens the galaxies would have been involved in some localized motion, but practically insignificant when compared to the total distance.

Let us select one of these galaxies and call it Distant Galaxy #1. The line of sight from the Milky Way to Distant Galaxy #1 determines a convenient reference axis. See Fig. 2(a) below.

Next, consider the universe from the viewpoint of Distant Galaxy #1. But first, realize that Distant Galaxy #1 is now actually ten billion years older than the Hubble telescope image of it. It may have undergone radical change. It may have been swallowed by another galaxy. It may no longer exist! With this in mind, the new viewpoint need not necessarily be the observed distant galaxy itself but may simply be its remnant or some other galaxy in its neighborhood. The Milky Way galaxy is part of our Local Group of galaxies; no doubt, Distant Galaxy #1 belongs to something equivalent.

What They See

At, or from, the location of Distant Galaxy #1 the universe will appear the same —not in detail, of course, but in general. Distant Galaxy #1, like the Milky Way, is surrounded by a cosmic shell of ten-billion-lightyear-distant galaxies. Some of those galaxies will be near our reference axis. A viewer, say, some alien intelligent being at Distant Galaxy #1, can select one. We will label that selection Distant Galaxy #2 as in Fig. 2(b). This is a scenario of the present (not in the future, not in the past). Invoking the cosmological principle, the alien viewer applies the same analysis of emission distance and reception distance. And concludes that the "now" distance of Distant Galaxy #2 is ten billion lightyears.

And so, for the viewer located ten billion lightyears from us there is another galaxy ten billion lightyears still farther away —right now.

Similarly, at Distant Galaxy #2 (20,000,000,000 lightyears from us) there is another hypothetical viewer; another viewer who observes another galaxy, Distant Galaxy #3, along the reference axis, as shown in Fig. 2(c).
 

   
 

Fig. 2.  Democracy of cosmic location in a Euclidean universe.

(a) By means of the cosmic redshift, observers in the Milky Way determine Distant Galaxy (DG) #1 to be 10 billion lightyears (10 Gly) away.
(b)
At the same time, a viewer located at DG#1 observes a distant galaxy, DG#2 and determines its proper distance to be 10 Gly. By the cosmological principle his claim to the correctness of his view is as valid as ours from the Milky Way —which means that DG#2 is 20 Gly from us.
(c)
At the same "now" time, a viewer at DG#2 can apply the same reasoning to an analysis of DG#3. Which in turn means that DG#3 is 30 Gly away from us (and we are still in now time).
(d)
The same reasoning can be applied to any spatial sequence of galaxies or locations. Since the cosmological principle tolerates no cosmic edge, the argument can be repeated without end. Galaxy number n goes to infinity.

 

 

This argument may be repeated without end. At Distant Galaxy #n (Fig. 2(d)) it is always possible to have a viewer who observes another galaxy, Distant Galaxy #(n+1), along the reference axis. And as explained above, there is no time difference involved; all the viewers may capture their similar universe images right now.

The Universe Has no Spatial Limits

If the cosmological principle holds, and all practicing astrophysicists believe that it does, then n has no limit. It follows that the universe is infinite. See Fig. 3.

 


Fig. 3.   The premise is that the view of the universe from every regional location and from every galaxy is approximately the same (not in detail, but in character). It is a fact that astronomers at the location of the Via Lactea observe galaxies 10 billion lightyears (Gly) away —in all directions. The locations of those galaxies are not special; so, the view from those galaxies also includes galaxies 10 Gly out in all directions. There is nothing preventing one from applying the argument repeatedly in some common direction, say, along the axis shown. The inescapable conclusion is that the universe is spatially infinite.

 

 Implications of an Infinite Universe

 We know that Mainstream Cosmology is obsessed with the phenomenon of universe expansion —proponents are more certain of this than they are of any other of their articles of faith. However, with an infinite universe the question of a Hubble-type whole-universe expansion becomes redundant. Think about it, why would an infinite universe expand itself?

 Why would an infinite universe strive to become MORE infinite?! ... Does it even make sense to have an infinite something become MORE infinite? (Maybe it does to mathematicians.)

It seems rather pointless. And sounds somewhat odd —something like saying “that which is unique becoming more unique.”

How, then, do they justify having a universe that is infinite (or at least nominally infinite) and still able to expand?  Their universe is a Platonic/Pythagorean cosmos in which numbers and their relationships are more real than the processes and entities.  In a sense, their mathematical universe expands into itself —provided the parameters are properly chosen— according to the general relativity equations that code the Big Bang universe.

For the most part, the implications for academic cosmology are practically nil.  Before the Crisis of 1998, the academics embraced the idea of bounded ("closed") universe; thereafter, after the supposed discovery of acceleration, they adopted the idea of an unbounded ("open") version. The latter is nominally an infinite universe, but its infinitude is somehow limited by purportedly having grown/expanded from an extremely small volume. Recognition of the true infinite Universe is not on the agenda.

The implications for popular cosmology, however, is profound. It means a complete break from the GR universe, bounded or unbounded, finite or infinite. It means a rejection of the expanding-universe paradigm. It means our Universe has no center whatsoever.

A True Infinite Universe: The Dynamic Steady State Universe

A true infinite universe is one that conforms to a much stronger version of the cosmological principle, a stricter version that imposes the additional requirement that the universe must be uniform in time —no cosmic event, no cosmic process, has special status.  Called the perfect cosmological principle, it states that the way the universe is structured, on the large scale, is uniform everywhere (all distances, all directions) and at all times (past, present, and future). Sometimes it is stated as, “All the events in the Universe are equivalent.” [8]  Furthermore, if all the events IN the Universe are equivalent then so too must all the events OF the Universe. The Universe cannot expand in one epoch and then contract in another. The strong version is quite clear —no special events: No beginning event, no future death event, and certainly no special events in between.

It is of historical interest that Einstein had attempted to incorporate the ideals of the perfect cosmological principle in his 1917 model. The model was designed to be a cosmos everlasting in time and totally homogenous in the spatial directions. Einstein was so strongly confident of the validity of the "perfect" principle that he actually modified his field equations of general relativity by introducing a cosmological constant (Lambda).[9]  (He was motivated by the fact that no solution could be found for the original equations that would fulfill the requirements of the perfect principle.) Ironically, the introduction of Lambda did not produce the desired result. Einstein’s 1917 universe was unstable. It teetered on a knife-edge between the opposite tendencies of expanding and collapsing.
    Much later, in 1932, Einstein abandoned his 1917 model along with the perfect principle. But he did so, only after he misinterpreted, along with his contemporaries, the observational redshift evidence of distant galaxies.

The Dynamic Steady State Universe (DSSU) conforms to the perfect cosmological principle. It agrees with all relevant observations and violates no physical laws. It solves the stability problem —the problem that had plagued Einstein and now plagues all those trying to model a single cell universe. It fulfills Einstein’s quest. No beginning event, no future death event, and no special events in between. That means no whole-universe evolutionary events. The DSSU is a non-evolving universe. The DSSU, as a whole, had no creation event and can have no end-time event.

 The DSSU is necessarily infinite. With its stable (dynamically balanced) cell structure it is spatially Euclidean and spatially infinite. Furthermore, this cellular cosmos, because it does not evolve (only its subsystems [10] evolve), is time-wise infinite.   

 

 

2010-05  rev2015-7                      Copyright by Conrad Ranzan          E-mail:   Ranzan@CellularUniverse.org

www.CellularUniverse.org


References and Notes

[1] E. R. Harrison, Masks of the Universe, Changing Ideas on the Nature of the Cosmos (2nd ed. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 2003) p196

[2] Encyclopedia of Cosmology, Norriss S. Hetherington, Editor (Garland Publishing, Inc. NY & London, 1993)

[3] As in Harrison, Masks of the Universe, p195

[4] Ibid., p196

[5] David Layzer, Cosmogenesis, the Growth of Order in the Universe (Oxford University Press, New York, 1991) p43

[6] Encyclopedia Britannica 15th Edition, Vol.16, p789-790

[7] Ibid.

[8] On the possible role of massive neutrinos in cosmological structure formation by Massimiliano Lattanzi, Remo Ruffini, and Gregory Vereshchagin. (arXiv:astro-ph/0305035 v1 2 May 2003 )

[9] Ibid.

[10] Life is one of the subsystems.

 

2015-07


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