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(2017 October): Coming up in a matter of weeks … another powerful research paper … another devastating blow for the Big Bang. (Currently being submitted for peer review. Details to follow.)

(2017 Sept): Recently brought to my attention: DSSU material appears on The New Illuminati website accompanied by some amazing graphics.

New Illuminati –The DSSU is The New Cosmology

New Illuminati –Hidden Substrate of Reality

(2017 Sept): "Assorted Comments" added to QuestionsAnswersComments.

(2017 Sept): Special purchase offer on the book "Guide to the Construction of the Natural Universe". (Mail-in Order Form.)

(2017 July): The book The Nature of Gravitational Collapse is now available.

The Nature of Gravitational Collapse

Subtitle: How the photon, the particle of light, is responsible for mass, gravity, superneutron stars, and supermassive black holes

—Reveals the truth about stellar and supermassive black holes.

This new work contains 310+ pages, 67 illustrations, references, and index. … Additional details.

(2016 December): “So easy to understand” comment from an Australian engineer.

(2016 November): “Large-Scale Structure of the Dynamic Steady State Universe” now published in the American Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Vol.4, No.6, 2016, pp.65-77. Astract and Links to HTML and PDF.

(2016 June):
Revolutionary research paper:
The Nature of Gravitational Collapse –published in the American Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Vol.4, No.2, 2016, pp.15-33. Abstract and Links:
—Another major DSSU success, as it reveals amazing new insights! The theory has uncovered the mechanism by which mass undergoes a total conversion to energy. Yes, a mass to energy conversion with 100% efficiency!  As everything else in the DSSU, it is a perfectly natural process. Truly amazing!

Have gravity waves really been detected?

Comments updated  2016 June: Comment #19

(2016-4-26:)  A mathematical cosmologist claims the values of the Hubble-expansion parameter and the cosmic-background temperature are the most important elements for understanding the real Universe! Letter and response.

(2016 March)  What is the difference between a physical and a mechanical aether? ...
Be aware of the distinctions among the terms commonly applied to aether: Terms such as physical, mechanical, subquantum, and dynamic. Link to new Question & Answer.

The book, Guide to the Construction of the Natural Universe, is  now available at the Niagara Falls Public Library  (Victoria branch). If you live in the Province of Ontario, your local library can request the book from the Niagara Falls Public Library.

Participate in a unique exploration of the Cosmos: venture into the sub-atomic realm, even into the sub-quantum realm where the roots of reality reside, and into the domain of cosmic-scale cell-structure and beyond to infinity. Along the way, discover the cause of mass, the cause of gravitation, and rediscover Einstein’s “nonponderable” aether and Heraclitus’ harmony-of-opposites principle. … The book represents the ultimate vindication for all the skeptics who resisted the "preposterous" Big Bang mythology and who refused to join the exploding-cosmos religion.
This new work contains 317 pages, 61 illustrations, references, and index … Available from C-FAR Books.
Or use this mail-in Order Form.


My comments on the latest mass media "Official Science" news story:

Do not be misled by the recent reports of the detection of gravity waves.
What the LIGO apparatus measures is the interference from beams of self-generated electromagnetic waves. It seems highly probable that what LIGO actually detected was some vibrational “noise” or some unexplained interference; and NOT gravity waves originating from a distant binary system (in which two extremely massive black holes are supposedly in the process of merging). How the data, the wave patterns, are interpreted is subject to theory and restricted by theory. Naturally the official interpretation must conform to the Officially-sanctioned theory of gravity —Einstein’s general theory of relativity. Thus, the light patterns recorded by LIGO are interpreted via Einstein’s mathematical concept of gravity. The problem is the general-relativity-gravity interpretation, as is well known, ignores the space medium!

Have gravity waves really been detected?
Think about this: The academic experts do not have the cause and mechanism of gravity (Isaac Newton did not, Albert Einstein did not, and today’s big-bang astrophysicists do not). Their theory of gravity is embarrassingly incomplete! So, if they do not yet understand the nature of gravity itself, how then can they claim to be able to recognize the waves that gravity supposedly emits? The experts cannot even answer the simple question: Specifically, what is it that is waving? What is waving back and forth?
    Here is something else the reports fail to mention: The gravity waves that are actually detectable are those associated with the turbulence in the aether flow (the space medium streaming through our Solar System). Australian physicist Reginald T. Cahill has been examining these aether-flow waves for over 15 years. –CR (2016 May)
Updated 2016 June. See Comment #19

(2016 Jan 6) Now published:
Olbers’ Paradox Resolved for the Infinite Non-Expanding Universe
, American Journal of Astronomy & Astrophysics Vol.4, No.1, (2016 January). Abstract & download links.
● “The man accredited with discovering universe expansion did not believe that the universe was expanding. Hubble was convinced that the key evidence, the cosmic redshift, was caused by some other factor, something more fundamental than mere expansion.”
● “With the recent discovery of a new cosmic-redshift mechanism, and its theoretical validation, it turns out that Hubble was right.”
● Explains how “an infinite, non-expanding, perpetually regenerating universe" is able to predict a dark night sky.

Press Release (2015 Oct 15):
The Big Bang is no longer a viable hypothesis !

(2016 June) FREE DOWNLOAD:
"DSSU Validated by Redshift Theory and Structural Evidence", Physics Essays, Vol.28, No.4, p455-473 (2015 Dec) —Delivers the coup de grâce to the Big Bang. Abstract & Links.
Both Reviewers enthusiastically endorsed this "well-written and incisive article."

(2015-Oct 6) Webpage added for article Cosmic-Redshift Distance Law Without c Without H: Comments & Links  Describes the challenge of getting DSSU papers published.

(2015 Aug 20:) Allow me to extend a sincere "Thank You" for the many invitations to join social media and professional networks. Unfortunately I must decline. It’s simply a matter of precious time —there is just too little of it. All my available time is taken up by research, writing, and website maintenance —in fact, two more web domains have been purchased. It is all being done for the purpose of providing the educated and interested public with the ammunition to refute and replace the utterly bankrupt big-bang Worldview. (However, not to give the impression of a total recluse, seclusionist, or misanthrope, I do manage to squeeze in a few delightful hours of ballroom dancing every week or two.) –CR

(2015 Aug:) Brief update on the status of the neutrino and its adaptation into the DSSU particle theory. See Section 5 of the Discussion webpage for the article: The Fundamental Process of Energy

(2015 Aug:) The article The Universe Is Infinite (Part 1) has been revised.

(2015 July:) Comments and questions from a 14-year old student.


"The Nature of Gravitational Collapse"
–Published in American Journal of Astronomy & Astrophysics. ( Abstract and Links.)
(Note, there is a typo in AJA&A posted version in the Fig-10 caption. It should read: … acceleration is proportional to 1/r2.)
"Olbers’ Paradox Resolved for the Infinite Non-Expanding Universe" –Published in American Journal of Astronomy & Astrophysics. ( Abstract & download links.)
"DSSU Validated by Redshift Theory and Structural Evidence" published in Physics Essays, Vol.28, No.4, p455-473 (2015 Dec). Abstract.
Both Reviewers enthusiastically endorsed this "well-written and incisive article."
Published in the American Journal of Astronomy & Astrophysics, AJAA, Vol.3, No.2, 2015:
Ellipticity, Its Origin & Progression in Comoving Galaxies  
Local  high-resolution PDF.

• Provides the first-ever natural explanation for the cause of the elliptical shape of nonrotating galaxies
• Retains the foundation premise of all modern cosmology but rejects the absurd concept of whole-universe expansion
• Takes full advantage of the universe’s cosmic cellular structure and exploits the DSSU theory of unified gravity domains
• Amazingly, the mechanism that stretches galaxies turns out to be the very same mechanism that causes the cosmic spectral redshift!

Published Dec 2014 in the American Journal of Astronomy & Astrophysics:

"Cosmic Redshift in the Nonexpanding Cellular Universe” —details the actual causal mechanism. Abstract.
Preprint with larger images.
• Entirely new concept for cosmic redshift mechanism;
• Retains the foundation premise of all modern cosmology;
• But does not require whole-universe expansion;
• A redshift based on the DSSU theory of unified gravity & cosmic cellular structure;
• Remarkable agreement with independently established redshift distances.

Higgs Boson Discovered?
After 50 long years of searching, Physicists claim to have detected the Higgs boson, the "particle" that ostensibly bestows the property of mass on all other such particles. Is it now time to celebrate? … Definitely not.
   The question now is this: If the Higgs ‘particle’ is the giver of mass to all other particles, what then gives the Higgs itself its mass?! (Yes, the newly discovered particle has mass, lots of it!) A difficult and embarrassing question indeed. It is like asking:
If God created everything, then who, or what, created God?
   While physicists think they have solved the mass problem, the reality is that they have unwittingly exposed an even bigger problem —the riddle of “First Cause”.

Glossary of Terms used in Cosmology and Astrophysics with particular emphasis on DSSU theory.
(Opens in separate Window or Tab)


Mysteries & Paradoxes that Plague Standard Cosmology  (Updated 2015-7)

Cosmology Crisis of 1998 (Revised 2015-5)

Critique of Conventional Cosmology ... comments relating to the 'preposterous' expanding-universe paradigm.
Bafflement —the remarkable admission of a physicist.
The Cosmology Debate That Never Happened   —During the 20th century there was a decades-long debate: The cataclysmic expanding universe VS the stable expanding universe. But there has never been a debate of the dynamic expanding universe VS the dynamic non-expanding universe. (Posted 2011 Oct)

Models of the Universe —Historical, Expanding, and Cellular universes. INCLUDES A USEFUL TABLE FOR COMPARING THEORIES.

The Universe Is Infinite (Part 1) —overcoming a "central" problem of cosmology theories.

The Universe Is Infinite (Part 2) —an explanation of how the universe can always have existed and will always exist.

DSSU, The Non-Expanding Universe: Structure, Redshift, Distance —A long sought-after goal of astrophysicists has been a formulation of cosmic distance that is independent of the speed of light. The goal has now been achieved. The present Paper details the surprisingly simple distance expression and its validating agreement with Supernova data.

Why Copernicus Did Not Need a Force of Gravity —Explores the question of why no one, except Newton, invoked a force. (Posted April, 2011)

Gravity and Lambda —A Story of Opposites (.htm) —A story of opposites in harmony. Key differences between the Conventional Cosmology and the New Cosmology are presented.

Dynamic Cosmic Cell —The Structural Component of the DSSU —Animated image and discussion of the self-sustaining, self-balancing system.

Why Einstein Did Not Receive the Nobel Prize for His Theory of Relativity —“By 1922 Einstein had been nominated about fifty times —most were for his relativity theories.”

Questions & Answers & Comments


(2016 June) FREE DOWNLOAD details:
DSSU Validated by Redshift Theory and Structural Evidence, Physics Essays, Vol.28, No.4, p455-473 (2015 Dec) —Delivers the coup de grâce to the Big Bang. Abstract & Links.
Both Reviewers enthusiastically endorsed this "well-written and incisive article."

The Dynamic Steady State Universe.
This work brings together the main pieces of the cosmic puzzle in a step-by-step construction of the Natural Universe. Published in Physics Essays Vol.27 No.2 (2014 June issue) (PDF download)  "... the arguments are well-made. The article is competent, enjoyable and readable." —Reviewer for Physics Essays Journal

Olbers’ Paradox Resolved for the Infinite Non-Expanding Universe
, American Journal of Astronomy & Astrophysics Vol.4, No.1, (2016 January). Abstract & download links.
● “The man accredited with discovering universe expansion did not believe that the universe was expanding. Hubble was convinced that the key evidence, the cosmic redshift, was caused by some other factor, something more fundamental than mere expansion.”
● “With the recent discovery of a new cosmic-redshift mechanism, and its theoretical validation, it turns out that Hubble was right.”

"Cosmic Redshift in the Nonexpanding Cellular Universe" (Journal pdf) —details the actual causal mechanism. Published in the American Journal of Astronomy & Astrophysics, Vol.2, No.5 (2014) Abstract.
Local copy with quality images: (Preprint pdf).
• Entirely new concept for cosmic redshift mechanism;
• Retains the foundation premise of all modern cosmology;
• But does not require whole-universe expansion;
• A redshift based on the DSSU theory of unified gravity & cosmic cellular structure;
• Remarkable agreement with independently established redshift distances.

The Cosmology Debate That Never Happened
What historians call "the greatest cosmological debate in history” was between TWO  expanding universes —two hypothetical models that share the same, I repeat, the same foundational property! If one is to claim some great clash of ideas (let alone the "greatest") then surely there must exist some deep dividing difference! (Posted 2011 Oct)

The Case for a Cellular Universe
—the Story of a Baffling Omission in Modern Cosmology    (Revised 2015)

Large-Scale Structure of the Dynamic Steady State Universe published in the American Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Vol.4, No.6, 2016, pp.65-77. Astract and Links.
■ Presents the first 2 of the 4 main postulates that define the DSSU.
■ Space-medium expansion and contraction are perpetually held in balance, thus ensuring a non-expanding universe.
■ Explains how the two dynamic processes of the DSSU’s space medium sustain the cellular structure responsible for the pattern of matter distribution in our Universe.

Cosmic-Redshift Distance Law Without c Without H Comments & Links Simplifying the redshift-distance formula by removing the speed-of-light constant and the Hubble parameter —while maintaining agreement with observational evidence.

DSSU Theory:

DSSU Validated by Redshift Theory and Structural Evidence, Physics Essays, Vol.28, No.4, p455-473 (2015 Dec) —Delivers the coup de grâce to the Big Bang. Abstract & Links.
Both Reviewers enthusiastically endorsed this "well-written and incisive article."

Theoretical Foundation and Pillars of the DSSU (Introduction) —This introductory essay gives a thematic tour of historical and modern universes culminating with the Natural Universe.

Currently undergoing revision and updating: Theoretical Foundation and Pillars of the Dynamic Steady State Universe (pdf) —The first complete presentation of all four postulates of DSSU theory. A powerful paper that resolves the cause-of-causes paradox, explains the non-independent nature of time, and reveals the 'supreme advantage'. It includes a concise comparison with standard cosmology focusing on real-world viability.
Supplementary Discussion: The Primary Process


The Fundamental Process of Energy —A Qualitative Unification of Energy, Mass, and Gravity. (Abstract & Reviews & Links) … This article reveals the secret behind photon confinement. (Contains only a bare minimum of mathematics and mainly in one of the 14 sections.)
PART 1 published in Infinite Energy Magazine Issue #113 (Jan/Feb 2014)
PART 2 published in Infinite Energy Magazine    Issue #114 (Mar/Apr 2014)

Headlined as:
A "Conceptual Unification of Energy, Mass and Gravity"

Dynamic Cosmic Cell —The Structural Component of the DSSU —Animated image and discussion of the self-sustaining, self-balancing system.

Unified Gravitation Cells of the DSSU —Constructing the Universe with Cosmic Gravity Cells

Space Flow Equations and Expansion-Contraction Rates (pdf) —This paper explores the mathematical aspects of the two space postulates of DSSU theory —and uncovers some profound consequences.


Documentary movie footage in which Einstein states, "There exists an aether"
High resolution .mpg video.
Low resolution .wmv video.

The Aether Experiments and the Impact on Cosmology —The aether has been detected at least 6 times in recent history. Its most recent "re-discovery", in 2001, led to the long-sought causal mechanism of gravity —a discovery which, in turn, is revolutionizing cosmology.

Michelson-Morley and the Story of the Aether Theory —Richard Milton's analysis of the historical details involving the misrepresentation, bias, and cover-up that hampered the Aether theory.

The History of the Aether Theory —The historic development of the aether as a scientific theory of space itself. What started as the "fifth element" of Antiquity becomes molded by theoretical constraints and experimental evidence into the dual-dynamic sub-quantum medium —the Essence of the Universe. (Updated 2016-2)

Relativity of Time in the Aether-Space of the DSSU —How intrinsic time and relative time are related.

DSSU Relativity –The Lorentz Transformations Applied to Aether-Space —Ranzan
Reprinted by permission of Physics Essays Publication, Physics  Essays Vol.23, No.3, p520. (2010). ABSTRACT

The Physical Nature of Length Contraction —the DSSU Theory of Length Contraction Induced by Absolute Motion.
An easy to follow examination of how the mode by which matter is “conducted” through luminiferous aether causes the matter to contract. A simple derivation of the mathematical expression for this physical phenomenon is presented. There is also a brief discussion of relevant historical aspects and of nonphysical length contraction.
Reviewer's comments: “This is amazing …”  “The paper is interesting …” –Applied Physics Research reviewer. Published in Applied Physics Research journal Vol.5, No.1 (2013 Feb).

Contradiction Divides Two Aether Theories —An exploration into the three parts of the speed-of-light postulate.
Reprinted by permission of PEP, from  Physics Essays Journal (Vol 24, No.3, Sept, 2011) ... ABSTRACT

Basic - level mathematical and graphical exploration of dynamic aether flow: PDF

Here is an external webpage with an extensive list of research papers on the aether-drift experiments, and the larger question of energy in space.


DSSU Cosmic Redshift-Distance Relation (htm) —Converting the cosmic redshift into distance for our Cellular Universe using a simple and elegant equation.

Large Scale Structure of the Dynamic Steady State Universe (pdf)  How a dual-dynamic space medium sustains the cellular structure (published in AJAA in 2016).
  —Presents the postulates and implications of regional space-medium expansion and contraction.

Cosmic-Scale Structural Features Explained (pdf) (Chapter 2 of original DSSU Manuscript)
—The Spacing of Clusters
—Sheets of Galaxies
—Right-angled Walls of Galaxies.

The Cosmic Background Radiation in the DSSU —The natural explanation of the microwave background radiation applicable to the natural Cellular Universe.

Ellipticity, Its Origin & Progression in Comoving GalaxiesAmerican Journal of Astronomy & Astrophysics, AJAA, Vol.3, No.2, 2015.
Local  high-resolution PDF.
HTML version available from AJAA here.


"The Nature of Gravitational Collapse"
–Published in American Journal of Astronomy & Astrophysics Vol.4, No.2, 2016, pp.15-33. (Abstract and Links.)
(Note, there is a typo in AJA&A posted version in the Fig-10 caption. It should read: … acceleration is proportional to 1/r2.)

The Processes of Gravitation –The Cause and Mechanism of Gravitation by C. Ranzan –A revolutionary paper on gravity published in the Journal of Modern Physics and Applications Vol.2014:3  (2014).
( Abstract & Reviews & Links. Includes link to hi-resolution PDF) "Revolutionary".

Why Copernicus Did Not Need a Force of Gravity —Explores the question of why no one, except Newton, invoked a force. (Rev 2011-9)

First ever, journal-published paper featuring the DSSU:
The Story of Gravity and Lambda –How the Theory of Heraclitus Solved the Dark Matter Mystery –Ranzan

Reprinted by permission of PEP, from Physics Essays, Vol 23, No1, p75-87 (2010 Mar). ABSTRACT
This is the cure for the fallacious belief in cosmic-scale Dark Matter.

The Story of Gravity and Lambda –How the Theory of Heraclitus Solved the Dark Matter Mystery (Color version) Ranzan Considered "an excellent contribution to the [PE journal]" --professional reviewer.

Unified Gravitation Cells of the DSSU —Constructing the Universe with Cosmic Gravity Cells



Why Einstein Did Not Receive the Nobel Prize for His Theory of Relativity (●Abstract ●Links ●Excerpts ●Extras) —“By 1922 Einstein had been nominated about fifty times —most were for his relativity theories.”

Einstein’s Simple Mathematical Trick –and the Illusion of a Constant Speed of Light  (Abridged version with links to Journal-published version. Posted July 2013)

Extended Relativity –Exploiting the Loopholes in Einstein's Relativity. A Logical extension of special relativity. Reprinted by permission of PEP, from Physics Essays Vol.25, No.3 (2012 Sept).
Abstract & Links & Reviews

The Three Components of the Speed-of-Light Postulate.  Published in Physics Essays journal Vol.26,No.1 (2013 March)
Local copy: The Three Components of the Speed-of-Light Postulate (pdf) Absolute vs relative. Variance vs invariance. Another instance of the Heraclitian "Harmony of Opposites." (Reprinted by permission of PEP, from Physics Essays, Vol.26, No.1, 2013).

Relativity of Time in the Aether Medium of the DSSU —Absolute Motion and Intrinsic Time

Resolving a Paradox in Special Relativity –Absolute Motion and the Unified Doppler Equation.
(Posted 2011, July). Reprinted by permission of PEP, from Physics  Essays Vol.23, No.4, p594 (2010). ABSTRACT

How DSSU Relativity Resolves the Speed Paradox (Introductory Discussion)   —Absolute Motion Resolves a (speed) Paradox in Einstein’s Special Relativity. (Supplementary Discussion)

DSSU Relativity –The Lorentz Transformations Applied to Aether-Space (Posted 2011, July). Reprinted by permission of Physics Essays Publication, Physics  Essays Vol.23, No.3, p520. (2010). ABSTRACT

The Key that Extends Einstein’s Relativity (Part 1) —Response to a reviewer critical of DSSU aether-space relativity
The Key that Extends Einstein’s Relativity (Part 2) —How to convert abstract-space equations into aether-space equations

Restoring the Physical Meaning of Energy
Published in Applied Physics Research journal Vol.5, No.2 (2013 May).
LOCAL COPY: Restoring the Physical Meaning of Energy —distinguishing between the apparent energy and the real energy of moving mass.

An Open Letter to the Scientific Community
(Published in New Scientist, May 22, 2004)

"The big bang today relies on a growing number of hypothetical entities, things that we have never observed-- inflation, dark matter and dark energy are the most prominent examples. Without them, there would be a fatal contradiction between the observations made by astronomers and the predictions of the big bang theory. In no other field of physics would this continual recourse to new hypothetical objects be accepted as a way of bridging the gap between theory and observation. It would, at the least, raise serious questions about the validity of the underlying theory. ..."  continues ...

A devastating Declaration of opposition to Big Bang cosmology signed by more than 400 Researchers.

For the full text click on: or alternate site.

This website is mainly concerned with revisionism in cosmology. Those of us involved in replacing the unnatural expanding-universe paradigm are aware of the difficulties involved.
   However, other revisionists have unimaginable difficulties. Consider the ongoing persecution of revisionists in other fields of intellectual pursuit: 
"It makes you wonder —about the immense effort being made by State and State-sponsored organizations with budgets of tens of millions of dollars and thousands of employees and associates to smother and punish these few men and women. Every punishing instrument imaginable is used, every vicious slander conceivable, every flagrant and pervasive form of censorship that law allows, including the imprisonment of simple writers for thought crimes against the State. ... Makes you wonder."Bradley R. Smith (2011)

"Discussing truth is so controversial, so dangerous … In most of the world it is simply illegal.” Gordon Duff, Senior Editor, Veterans Today (2011)

DEDICATION: This website is solemnly dedicated to those individuals who have conducted research in their chosen field and have informed others of their inquiries and suffered the consequences when subpoenaed by the Inquisition or some variant thereof. The dedication extends to those individuals currently imprisoned, and those facing trial and persecution simply for exercising their basic human right of freedom of expression supposedly granted to them under the UN Charter of Human Rights.
"Every year, hundreds of writers and other literary professionals around the world are imprisoned, prosecuted, persecuted, attacked, threatened, forced into exile or even murdered as a result of their work."

ALSO: Be aware of the continuing threat to our precious freedom of expression on the Internet. The threat is serious and relentless. It is described as “… the formal effort to mimic Communist China’s system of Internet censorship.” See The Secret Behind SOPA  (2012-Jan). Update.
More information on threats to internet freedom:

Reporter-journalist Arthur Topham, Canadian victim of the Inquisition, arrested (2012) for posting his research.
“Arthur Topham faces prison time for daring to speak his mind on his own website, as he faces criminal charges under Canada’s hate crimes legislation contained in Section 318 - 320 of the criminal code.” –Rights and Freedoms Bulletin Issue No. 204 Feb 7, 2015.
VERDICT: Arthur Topham found “guilty” AND “not guilty” of hate speech by a brain-dead jury!
 –Dr. James Sears, reporting in “The world’s Largest Anti-Marxist Publication” (Issue 2015 December,
2016 Update: Panel Discussion on The Trial of Arthur Topham

Free-speech crusader Bill Whatcott defies British Colombia Human Rights Tribunal efforts to impose gender language tyranny

“I have no intention on wasting money on a lawyer for the Morgane Oger vs Bill Whatcott case, as human rights tribunals are kangaroo courts and the odds of … getting justice in these biased tribunals is next to zero.” –2017 June ( …)

The struggle for freedom and justice in Canada lost its greatest champion, its most dedicated defender. On March 11, 2013, Douglas Christie passed away.

British Maverick Psychologist jailed for publishing his research. … “The ambivalence of librarians getting writers imprisoned quite defies comprehension.” –Simon Sheppard (2013)

The repression of free speech in Canada has degenerated to the point where …

■ Freedom advocates, such as Marc Lemire, are censured for merely expressing their reasoned opinions. Freedomsite, whose motto is “Fighting for freedom against the censorship enforcers”, documents the official persecution.
■ A tenured professor has lost his position for revealing his research and views on history. This is unprecedented. Professor Anthony J. Hall at the University of Lethbridge, Alberta, has been suspended (2016 October 5) without pay.
“… Any thinking person should recognize that there is something deeply wrong when a history professor is persecuted for saying we should be able to examine our history.” –Monika Schaefer 2017
■ A publisher/editor, for expressing his reality-based views, has been denied postal services. Dr. James Sears, publisher and editor of Your Ward News was stripped of Canada Post Mail Service by government order (2016 June).
■ A violin teacher and truth revealer, Monika Schaefer, for posting a video (an apology to her dead mother), has been attacked by various so-called community leaders.

The treatment of violinist Monika Schaefer signals the end of our free and democratic society.” –The American Herald Tribune, 2016 Sept

American Speaker Arrested in Canada for the textual material on his iPad
—2017 June 24
While the invasion continues, the “guardians” of the nation are busy suppressing the freedom of expression: going after deemed violations in what people think and write and say.

The Continuing Struggle for Freedom

A ray of hope in the ongoing struggle for freedom. Populist and nationalist movements around the world are gaining ascendancy over the New World Order’s effort to establish global governance and impose tyrannical control over every last square meter of the Earth’s surface. –The Barnes Review Vol.23 No.1 (2017 Jan p70)

For more on Freedom (and Objectivism),
visit: Just Right Media

... about the author ...

© Copyright 2005-2017 by
Conrad RanzanDSSU Research
All Rights Reserved
  For information regarding permission to reproduce selected material herein, please contact:

D S S U  Research
Niagara Falls, Canada
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Theoretical Foundation and Pillars of the
Dynamic Steady State Universe

Conrad Ranzan
DSSU Research, Niagara Falls, Canada

Introduction —A historical tour of universes culminating with the Natural Universe


"The universe is endlessly speaking. People ask the universe the questions they are capable of conceiving and hear the answers they are capable of hearing." [1]


The Universe is endlessly speaking, forever sending signals.

Among the earliest people to listen and to ask questions of the universe were the Ancient Greeks. In some of the Greek states and Greek societies, the ones in which men were relatively free, knowledge expanded and philosophical schools flourished. The Pythagoreans, most eminently, developed expertise in mathematics, geometry and the numerical aspects of musical harmony. They advanced these studies into complex theories of numbers, geometry and music. When the Pythagoreans asked questions of the universe they were looking for geometric perfection, orderly motion, and harmony of the heavens. Notably, they believed there was a musical aspect to the universe. Based partly on their knowledge of the mathematics of sounds and partly on their studies of the orbital times of the planets, the Pythagoreans 'heard' the so-called 'music of the spheres' constituting the universe. The periodic motion of each planet was equated with a musical note on a musical scale extended by many octaves. The Pythagorean universe consisted of transparent spheres, each carrying a planet, and each rotating with mechanical perfection around the spherical Earth at the center. There were also spheres for the Moon, the Sun and an outermost sphere for the fixed stars; these likewise rotated about the Earth. The Pythagoreans sought harmony, symmetry, and numerical meaning in their astronomy and to their mystical delight heard the 'music of the spheres' of the heavens.

Divine Harmony.  During the early Christian era there was an emphasis on divinely ordained order. Men were looking for an unchanging and timeless world of perfect order. The perfect shape of the circle represented that order. Motion in the heavenly world must therefore run smoothly and uniformly in circles; such perfect motion was surely the handiwork of an omnipotent god. These religious Men, like the earlier Greeks, heard the music and the harmony of spheres. The music conveyed not only geometric perfection but also a new theme. Since many of the concentric spheres were equated with various degrees of divinity, the music, to these listeners, was heavenly and angelic. The Christians recognized the Divine harmony of the Ptolemaic system of the world, built up, as it was, of circles. And so, the Ptolemaic Harmony became the Official Tune. For well over a millennium (for about fourteen centuries) no one dared change a note. Harmony heresy became punishable, and deafness to the deeper sounds of the Universe descended.

More "music of the spheres."  Many centuries later, and many years after Nicolaus Copernicus rediscovered the ancient Helicentric theory of Aristarchos of Samos, the famous astronomer Johannes Kepler (1571-1630), who was also searching for harmony, symmetry, and numerical meaning, heard the same music. Kepler was looking for some underlying regularity ---some evidence of divine design behind his newly discovered system of elliptical planetary motion. Science historian Colin Ronan relates how "His perseverance was rewarded, and in 1618 ... he published his Harmony of the World. This, to him, was his crowning achievement. He had discovered a relationship between the velocities of the planets in their elliptical orbits and musical harmony; he was able to relate the greatest and least velocities of each planet to the musical scale. This was Kepler's culminating vision, the apotheosis of the 'music of the spheres' of Pythagoras and Plato."[2]  Fortunately, to the benefit of natural cosmology, Kepler's Mysticism eventually led him to formulate his famous three laws of planetary motion.

The first sounds of expansion. In the early twentieth century astronomers were tuning in to a previously unrecognized sound. They found, to their wonderment, that the universe was speaking through the transformation (called redshifting) of light from distant galaxies. The greater the distance to the galaxy the larger was the transformation (redshift) of its light. Scientists heard the message loud and clear ---even elevated it to the status of a law, called the Hubble law. The redshift message had three interpretations. The universe allows for three options for the cause of the proportional variation of galaxy redshift, the proportional variation with increasing cosmic distance: (1) a Doppler-like recession motion, (2) a space-expansion comoving motion, and (3) an unknown gravity effect that somehow weakens light during its cosmic journey. Under all three options the universe appears to be expanding ---like moving a magnifying glass slowly away from a specimen makes the specimen appear to be expanding. But Scientists 'heard' more than what the actual redshift message contained! They thought they 'heard' that the universe ---the whole universe--- was actually expanding. And as every fully conscious person on our planet knows, they came up with the Expanding universe.

The Expanding-universe paradigm turned out to be a Pandora's Box of misinterpretations. Surely the most outrageous was the primordial explosion of the universe. To some listeners, the universe was not merely speaking, it was convulsing and thundering.

As the twentieth century progressed new questions were being posed. Georges Lemaitre of Belgium was a trained expert of the heavens, both astrophysical and theological. Lemaitre was a theologian. When a religious man contemplates the Universe, his contemplation instinctively includes the Creator. When a religious man asks questions of the universe his main concern is: How was it created? And so when a religious man listens to the universe he expects to hear the sound of the Creation, or at least its theoretical replay. Lemaitre 'heard' the sound of the beginning of the universe and, what is more, he constructed a supporting argument. He used Einstein's then recently constructed theory of general relativity, and contemporary astronomical data, to show that the universe in the past was extremely dense and correspondingly much smaller; he was able to 'prove' that the universe had a hot big-bang Genesis. Lemaitre devoutly believed in his Creator. But let me be clear on this, Lemaitre's religious belief is not subject to criticism; it is his scientific belief that definitely is. His belief in the applicability of Einstein's theory was unfortunate and misguided. The theory of general relativity is a local theory of spacetime; it is a theory of local gravity; it cannot be a theory of the whole universe. The dynamic activity of the universe as a whole cannot be encompassed by one pair of equations. Lemaitre's Big Bang universe (1927-1929) is based on an unscientific extrapolation.[3]

The fact that the exploding universe was an unscientific extrapolation was ignored, as the chronicles of cosmology testify by the conspicuous absence of any challenge to the legitimacy of a conclusion drawn from an overextended theory. Therein lies a gold mine for historians. ... Anyway, Albert Einstein had became the undisputed authority on gravity. His theory of general relativity had established the new rules for astrophysics and cosmology. Theorists learned those rules, adopted a new way of perceiving space and the universe, and explored the various implications. Lemaitre, by running the expanding-universe backward, had 'discovered' the birth of the universe. The question now was, would the universe continue expanding forever or would it collapse in on itself?! Although the question should have focused on validity (general relativity, after all, is an incomplete theory) and applicability (local, not universal).  It didn't.  Quite understandable. In the magic and excitement of exploring a dynamic model that does mysterious things like distort spacetime and blow itself apart and conceal its cosmic boundary, reality becomes a secondary consideration. As it happened, most astronomers assumed that the expansion of the universe would not continue forever but would gradually slow down because of the inward pull of gravity of everything in it.[4]  The cosmological constant (an energy term in Einstein's equation), which could act as an anti-gravity effect, was believed to be either non-existent or much weaker than gravity. Which means that with no meaningful opposition, gravity becomes the dominant force of the universe. Lo and behold, the world had become a collapsing universe. They called it the Oscillating universe (also known as the Friedmann-Einstein model). From our perspective the scenario represents the audible convulsions of a universe speaking through a flawed theory.

Some years ago Isaac Asimov assembled the contemporary thinking in cosmology and came up with a popular work called “The Collapsing Universe” in which he describes the entire universe becoming a black hole as it collapses in on itself. Problem was, the real universe refused to play along and corroborate the theory; the evidence for a collapsing world has never been found.

Meanwhile, astronomers thought they detected the remnant ripples of a universe exploding. In the 1960s, with a more detailed theory (although still based on an unscientific extrapolation) and more sophisticated listening devices, astronomers 'discovered' what they believe is the echo of the Big Bang. Astronomers measured a steady flux of microwaves coming from all directions of the heavens. They called it the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) and interpreted it as the immensely weakened noise of the Big Bang event of roughly 15 billion years ago. If I recall correctly, didn't Bishop James Ussher in the 17th century use the authoritative writings of the Old Testament to calculate that the universe began 4004 years before the Christian Era? ...  Three centuries after Bishop Ussher the time-scale was radically revised. The new high priests of cosmology carefully interpreted the CMR sounds, the echo of Lemaitre’s big bang, and calculated that the universe began 15 billion years before the Christian Era! ... And so we see, we understand, what is happening. "The universe is endlessly speaking" while priests and scholars struggle with the translation.

The tempo quickens. During the first decade of the 21st century, most astrophysicists were claiming that the universe was telling them that cosmic expansion is accelerating! What sound does an accelerating universe make? We may get some idea from Harvard Universe astrophysicist Robert P. Kirshner and Dr. Saul Perlmutter (at the Lawrence Berkley National Laboratory in California) who have headed respective teams of experts that have listened to, and have decoded, the message. The message comes from extremely distant type 1a supernovas. Decoded, it simply means the supernova events are about 25% dimmer than expected. It means that the supernova stars are farther away than their redshift would indicate; it means the message did not agree with theory. These experts, never having been exposed to any meaningful alternate models, had little choice but to turn to the officially approved Expansion cosmology for answers. They instinctively interpreted the data as the 'sounds' of an expanding universe in acceleration mode —the sounds of a universe that is not only expanding but also speeding up its expansion.  If only they had stopped for a moment and consider that maybe the redshift-distance equation being used is wrong. Maybe the acceleration interpretation is discordant with reality. But there was no escape from the long-established conceptual tunnel of cosmic expansion. To put a sensory twist on a familiar old saying: One hears only what one is trained to hear, what one is trained to expect to hear.

Rather than concede that there is a serious flaw in the theory, team members of the supernova investigations expressed reactions of disbelief, "amazement and horror," surprise that the universe would bother to accelerate itself, and surprise that the universe would be so extravagant!  Team leader Robert Kirshner tells the whole story —his lavish view of reality— in his book, appropriately titled, The Extravagant Universe.[5] The "Extravagant" modifier refers to the expanding-and-accelerating Big-Bang universe. As a modifier it is ironically well chosen. I can think of no better way to epitomize a universe, one that is based on an unscientific extrapolation, than to boldly name it Extravagant —a word that means not only lavish, excessive, and wasteful, but also "beyond the bounds of reason."

Think about this for a moment. The cosmology experts are using a model of the universe that notably failed to predict cosmic acceleration, failed to predict what is now claimed to be the biggest phenomenon of the Big Bang universe second only to the genesis-explosion itself. Such failure is a sure sign of a bad theory. Such is the legacy of the Pandorean Box of expansion extrapolation.

One can't help but wonder if the professionals really believe what their paradox-riddled universe is telling them. Do they really believe that our universe is undergoing runaway expansion (as Donald Goldsmith calls it in his book The Runaway Universe). Never mind the "abundant evidence", the multi-decimal place precision, and the colorful computer-simulations —all presented in support of an evolving universe. Forget the multi-media hype promoting the new-and-improved Big Bang (yet another version of the Expanding universe) and forget the naïve excitement over re-inflation. One wonders. What do the experts really think? The famous nonagenarian scholar, Freeman J. Dyson (Professor Emeritus of Physics, Institute of Advanced Study at Princeton University) had this to say:


"I like to keep an open mind about the accelerating model of the universe because there is a long history of astronomers believing confidently in some particular cosmological model and then changing their minds later. When I was a student fifty years ago, everyone believed in a closed model that had the universe collapsing into a big crunch after a finite time. then, twenty years ago, on the basis of slender evidence, everyone believed in a decelerating model that had distant galaxies moving away from us more and more slowly as time went on. Then, ten years ago, on the basis of stronger evidence, everyone believed in the linear model. And now, on the basis of evidence collected during the last five years, everyone believes in the accelerating model. Astronomers have a tendency to follow the latest fashion. ... I still look at it with a skeptical eye." [6]


What about the big-bang creation hypothesis and the subsequent whole-universe evolution idea? ... German astrophysicist Henning Genz found them to be unpersuasive.


"Let me stress that all these models of the development of the universe from nothing at all ... have to be seen for what they are: models, devoid of compelling experimental verification. The scenarios we develop from them are possible, and they illustrate various features we can follow up on, but none is ultimately persuasive."[7]


To say that the standard Big Bang model is not persuasive is to put it mildly. It is, in no uncertain terms, a preposterous universe! So says the American astrophysicist Sean Carroll.[8]


"This [accelerating big bang] scenario staggers under the burden of its unnaturalness,"[9]


These are strong words and deserve emphasis: The Big Bang staggers under the burden of its unnaturalness.

According to the definition of “preposterous” as given in my Webster Dictionary, Sean Carroll is telling us that the standard Big Bang model is "Contrary to nature, reason, or common sense; utterly foolish; absurd." Here is another quote from his research paper, Is Our Universe Natural?:


"If any system should be natural, it’s the universe. Nevertheless, according to the criteria [of reasonable expectation] just described, the universe we observe seems dramatically unnatural." [10]


Incidentally, Carroll is is permitted to make such highly critical statements and publish his exposé simply because his faith is undeterred —he remains a strong supporter of the Big Bang.

It never stops.  The Universe —the mysterious manifestation of existence— continues to speak. Forever displaying the same phenomena, transmitting the same radiations, orchestrating the same processes. Men continue to listen, continue to filter the Universe's messages through the latest theory or hypothesis. It seems that as the process of matching messages with mathematical models becomes increasingly complex, the picture of the universe becomes ever more preposterous.

At the end of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st there were many theoretical physicists tuned into the sound of strings. Physicist Brian Greene is one; he has "heard" the vibrations of strings. In his universe, which he publicizes as the Elegant Universe,[11] he promotes the reality of vibrating strings of mathematical string theory (and superstring theory). The fundamental constituents of his universe are not the point-like particles that are normally idealized as having no size but are ultramicroscopic strings and loops that vibrate like acoustic sources. Depending on the resonant patterns of vibrations, the strings are supposed to represent elementary particles and fundamental forces —even mass and charge. The Elegant Universe, with its unnaturally large number of dimensions (ten dimensions in the "simple" version!) and without observational results, is a Platonic universe. It is purely mathematical and without experimental evidence, wholly in tune with Plato's teaching. Brian Greene's string universe is a mathematical universe; the cacophony of its strings has yet to be orchestrated into elegant music, or into anything meaningful.

Greene's Elegant Universe may or may not be mathematically elegant. Not being a mathematician, I don't know. But I do know that when you invoke more than three spatial dimensions and a time dimension then you are speculating in a fantasy world —you've crossed the boundary of reality. For those who have failed to decipher the messages of the real world, there is always the temptation to turn to some higher dimensional universe as an intoxicating escape from reality. For a model or /theory to be called elegant it must, above all, embody inevitability. The Greene universe is not inevitable, not natural, not elegant.

There are others —other escapees of Pandora's Box of cosmic misconceptions. They include the historic Steady State expanding universe, the Milne universe (in which, strange as it may seem, the universe expands but space itself does not!), the Cold Inflation universe, and the Hot Inflation universe. The list continues with the Chaotic Inflation universe and the cancerous Self-Reproducing universe. The name "Inflation" refers to the speculative notion that the early Big Bang universe may have undergone a period of extremely rapid expansion lasting only a fraction of a second. Instead of just a big bang, the inflation event turned it into a supersonic bang; or more accurately a hyper-lightspeed big-bang. There are obvious problems. It relies on a mysterious inflationary field and a weird antigravity particle called an inflaton, neither of which has ever been detected.[12]  Nevertheless, there were cosmologists convinced the universe is speaking the language of inflation. Inflation was eventually adopted as part of the standard hot big bang cosmology.

The Double Dark universe. During the last few decades another strange construction crawled out of the Box. It's called the Double Dark theory of the universe. (I credit Professor Primack for coming up with this name.[13]) For many years, astronomers have been tuning in, reluctantly at first but ever more spiritedly as the years passed, to the "sound" of dark stuff —dark energy and dark material. What makes this model so exciting (or rather preposterous) is that not only does it have an unknown source of energy but it also requires an invisible (that is why it's called dark) mysterious kind of matter. Exciting indeed. The Double Dark theory brings together two unexplained mysteries in a bold (or desperate) attempt to resolve an even bigger mystery —that famous phenomenon "discovered" in the aftermath of the famous cosmology Crisis of 1998.

Let me explain.

Most physicists believe that the biggest unresolved problem facing Cosmology is the acceleration of Big Bang (BB) expansion as discussed earlier. The Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics in June 2008 stated: "The fact that our universe seems to be accelerating at present has been one of the most remarkable and baffling findings of recent cosmological observations." The usual way of explaining it is with some variation of the Double Dark theory, that is, by postulating the presence of a Dark Energy and by invoking Dark Matter in an effort to modify gravity. The Double Dark theory is just another version of the BB; technically it is called the Lambda Cold Dark Matter (ΛCDM) model. I quote from the same Journal, "The ΛCDM model has become the most popular choice, being the most economical model that is consistent with most cosmological observations, but it is safe to say that no completely satisfactory or compelling explanation has yet emerged."[14]

And no compelling explanation will ever emerge from BB cosmology regardless of the specific version. What makes the Double Dark universe unconvincing, even preposterous, is that a real phenomenon is being lumped together with a chimeral substance. The so called Dark Energy is simply the space-expansion effect, which is a long established fact (it is, in fact, the essential a priori process of the universe). But Dark Matter is pure speculation. It is not predicted by any meaningful theory, does not interact with ordinary matter, and, as we are repeatedly told, has never been detected. No place, no time, not ever. I would put it this way: If space-expansion, or vacuum-expansion, is the cornerstone of modern cosmology, then the mysterious Dark Matter is its Philosopher's Stone. In the real world Dark Matter does not exist.

Acceleration is an aspect of the pen-and-paper mathematical universe, in which it is the derivative of the rate of BB coordinate expansion. In the real world, acceleration is but an illusion.

Unfortunately the acceleration issue is a major detraction from the really big problems in cosmology.

(1) Standard Cosmology is utterly unable to explain the existing large-scale non-homogeneity. Textbook writer David Layzer poses the problem: “Why is the distribution of matter in the Universe so clumpy? In the beginning, the cosmic medium was certainly gaseous and very nearly —if not perfectly— uniform. Why hasn’t it remained uniform?”[15]  While only minor clumping is predicted, major clumping is observed!

(2) Standard Cosmology has no cause-independent process. It means there is an unresolved  cause-of-causes paradox.

(3) Standard Cosmology has no causal mechanism for gravity. (The fatal omission in all cosmology practiced prior to the year 2002.)

The most serious and blatantly obvious of these is the missing causal mechanism for gravitation. Why is this so serious? Because NO theory of the universe will work properly without one. Furthermore, a workable cosmos theory requires a quantum theory of gravity. However, as Professor Primack points out, a "comprehensive theory of 'quantum gravity', which would encompass and thus supersede both quantum mechanics and general relativity, is still a dream of physics. Superstring theory is our current best hope of such a theory."[16]

All I can say is that we have been hoping and waiting for a very long time. ... Indeed. ... While the world waits, and waits, for the "dream of physics" to become reality (and the hope of string theory to be fulfilled), let us do what the experts have long failed to do; let us take a close look at the Natural Universe.

What do I mean by a 'Natural Universe' ?

Given the fact that the keystone[17] of practically all modern cosmology is the process of the expansion of space, the Natural Universe necessarily consists of expanding space; and since it is also a stable universe it consists of a corresponding degree of contracting space. Keep in mind that "space" refers to the vacuum, or the space medium properly called the aether. The terms are all synonymous.

A natural universe has only three spatial dimensions (and a dimension of non-existence).

A natural universe is not a universe of things but of processes. Even the attribute called mass is the manifestation of a process. A natural universe is a universe in which gravity has a clearly defined causal mechanism —being, naturally, a process.

The Natural Universe is the one for which the necessity of logical simplicity leaves no freedom to be otherwise. It is the universe with only one pattern of self-organization, making it categorically a Cellular Universe..

The Natural Universe has four process (or metaphorically four causes). They are represented in the figure below by the Four Pillars of the DSSU edifice.


   The Natural Universe has four key Processes —its four Postulates.  

The Natural Universe has four key Processes —its four Postulates. They form the four great Pillars of the DSSU edifice and represent, respectively, aether-space contraction, aether-space expansion, mass-energy particle formation, and mass-energy suppression-annihilation (also known as Terminal Annihilation). They rest firmly on a foundation of a discretized space medium and a causeless process permeating infinite 3-dimensional space.


The four Postulates (and the related axioms) and how they perpetually interact to manifest the natural Dynamic Steady State Universe, and how they sustain its cosmic cellular structure, are detailed in the following articles:

  • Theoretical Foundation and Pillars of the Dynamic Steady State Universe  (Temporarily unavailable. Currently being updated; images being upgraded.)
  • The Dynamic Steady State Universe.
    This is a 30 page PDF document with 37 figures and 1 table and list of references. The table and various flowcharts and graphs provide an excellent summary and comparison of the Natural Universe Cosmology and the Expanding Universe Cosmology. [Reprinted by permission of Physics Essays Publication: The Dynamic Steady State Universe. Physics Essays Vol.27, No.2, pp.286-315]
  • Supplementary Discussion: The Primary Process (htm)
    This is a brief discussion involving one of the four Pillars. It focuses on what must surely be the most amazing aspect of the Postulate One process of the universe.

Let me give this assurance: What you are about to read in the linked research paper is unlike anything that has ever been published. The reason I can make this assurance is that, with one exception, all universe models that have ever been constructed have left out three essential components. Countless philosophers and scientists have attempted to make sense of our Universe. But none of the scenarios they have constructed, as the foregoing historical review has argued, has been convincing. None has been free of paradoxes and logical gaps. The Men of today listening to the Universe have, for the most part, resigned themselves to the belief that we live in a Preposterous Universe. They find it embarrassingly difficult to understand why the universe seems so strange and "dramatically unnatural." The deeper the search for fundamental understanding, the more unnatural the universe seems to be. Nevertheless, propelled by a relentless determination, Men continue to listen and interpret. Sadly, the error of omission also continues. For instance, Professor Joel Primack, in his search for a deeper meaning to the universe and our extraordinary place in it, has written (coauthored) a book whose main purpose is to present what he calls the Meaningful Universe.[18] And sure enough Primack's Meaningful Universe misses the three essential components: The causal mechanism of gravity is missing (instead it accepts Einstein's incomplete theory); the Primary process is missing (Primack fails to recognize the necessity of a causeless process); intrinsic cosmic cell structure is missing (cell structure is considered to be merely coincidental to primordial inhomogeneity).  Primack's Meaningful Universe is a repackaging of the Preposterous Universe. The Preposterous Big-Bang Universe, in effect, is made meaningful, according to Primack, through the active participation of us, Mankind, by our emotional, intellectual and cultural involvement. The result may be a cosmos with meaning, but it is still unnatural! The 2014 research paper on the Natural Universe is unlike any other model or scenario of our Universe because it incorporates the noted essentials into its four Conceptual Pillars.

In the long history of cosmology, during ages of listening to the Universe, there has never been anything comparable to the Natural Universe ---the Dynamic Steady State Universe.



"... regardless of what authority might affirm or fashion dictate, there it is, out there, objectively distinct, indifferent to human intervention, the universe, the world itself, the commanding thing that we are meant to know."
–David Berlinski, philosopher and mathematician[19]


2008 rev2014-8               Copyright © by Conrad Ranzan

Notes and References

  1. ^ Joel R. Primack & Nancy E. Abrams. 2006. The View from the Center of the Universe (Riverhead Books, New York) p36
  2. ^ Colin Ronan. 1982. Science: its History and Development Among the World Cultures (The Hamlyn Publishing Group Ltd, New York) p339
  3. ^ C. Ranzan. 2008. The Case for a Cellular Universe —The Story of How Modern Cosmology Devolved into a Deception (Published on Cellular Universe Website Section 2.
    C. Ranzan. 2009. The Story of Gravity and Lambda —How the Theory of Heraclitus Solved the Dark Matter Mystery, Physics Essays Vol.23, No.1, P75-87 (2010 Mar); doi:10.4006/1.3293983 (Article download)
  4. ^ Joel R. Primack & Nancy E. Abrams. 2006. The View from the Center of the Universe  p108
  5. ^ Robert P. Kirshner. The Extravagant Universe (Princeton University Press, 2003) []
  6. ^ Freeman J. Dyson. 2007. A Many-Colored Glass (University of Virginia Press. ISBN 978-0-8139-2663-6) p93
  7. ^ Henning Genz.  1994. Nothingness, The Science of Empty Space (English translation edition, 1999; Perseus Books Publishing) p296
  8. ^
  9. ^ Sean M. Carroll, from his 2001 paper The Cosmological Constant (astro-ph/0004075 EFI-2000-13)
  10. ^ Sean M. Carroll, from his paper Is Our Universe Natural? (arXiv:hep-th/0512148v1 13 Dec 2005) p2
  11. ^ Brian Greene, The Elegant Universe: Superstrings, Hidden Dimensions, and the Quest for the Ultimate Theory (W.W. Norton & Co., N.Y., 1999)
  12. ^ T. Ferris. 1997. The Whole Shebang, A State-of-the-Universe(s) Report (Simon & Schuster, New York) p17-18
  13. ^ Joel R. Primack & Nancy E. Abrams. 2006. The View from the Center of the Universe (Riverhead Books, New York)
  14. ^ Tirthabir Biswas & Alessio Notari.  ‘Swiss-Cheese’ Inhomogeneous Cosmology and the Dark Energy Problem --Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics 06 (2008) 021 ( p2
  15. ^ David Layzer. 1991. Cosmogenesis, the Growth of Order in the Universe (Oxford University Press, New York) p145
  16. ^ Joel R. Primack & Nancy E. Abrams. 2006. The View from the Center of the Universe  p348
  17. ^ It should be noted that the cosmological principle is often cited as the keystone of cosmology. The cosmological principle is important, of course, but it is more of an axiomatic element, rather than an active ingredient, to the main theory.
  18. ^ Joel R. Primack & Nancy E. Abrams. 2006. The View from the Center of the Universe
  19. ^ David Berlinski. 1995.  A Tour of the Calculus (Pantheon Books, N.Y.) p105

2014 08

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