Glossary of Terms
C D E
F G H
I L M
N O P Q
R S T
U V W
Definitions are the guardians of
rationality, the first line of defense against the chaos
of mental disintegration. –Ayn Rand, famous objectivist philosopher
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Absolute motion: Motion of a body through the universal space
medium and referenced as such; it is the same as intrinsic motion.
This is the motion that is strictly limited to about 300,000 kilometers per
Absorption line: A more or less narrow range, of wavelengths in a spectrum, that is darker
than neighboring wavelengths. Absorption lines are seen in the analysis of
light from stars.
Accretion disk (gaseous): A disk of gas rotating about a central
object. As the gas slowly spirals inward, it releases gravitational energy.
If the central object is compact (e.g., a neutron or Superneutron star),
the accretion disk becomes very hot and luminous.
Active galaxy: A galaxy with a rotating supermassive black region
that is actively accreting gas, hence releasing energy as radiation, and
generating outflowing jets (astrophysical jets).
Aether: (1) The original ether: In Aristotelian physics,
the fifth element, the quintessence, of which the ‘heavens’ are
made. In classical physics, the invisible medium that diffuses all space.
(2) The historic: The material medium that
fills the apparent emptiness of the universe. Invented by René Descartes,
and by Isaac Newton; reinvented by many others, including James Clerk Maxwell
who used it for his electromagnetic theory; but was discredited and
discarded by Einstein.
(3) The DSSU aether: The subquantum medium that
permeates all space. It is the nonmaterial essence of the Universe;
it consists of discrete units —fundamental essence fluctuators, or essence
oscillators. As a basic space medium, it serves as the propagator of
electromagnetic waves. As a space-permeating dynamic medium, it
manifests gravitation; its nature is responsible for the several guises of
Aether was detected and verified in at least six separate experiments
during the 20th century.
Aether deprivation: The termination process by which matter is
extinguished. The process takes place deep inside extreme mass
concentrations (matter concentrations that are large or dense or both).
Matter does not, and cannot, exist in the absence of aether. When matter
finds itself in a region of insufficient aether flow, it ceases to exist.
Such a situation arises (1) at the bottom of the gravity well (sink) of a
Terminal star (aka end-state neutron star); (2) during the final
stage of stellar gravitational collapse and ending with the critical
terminal state; (3) during the collision or merger of sufficiently massive
Anisotropic: The property of being
different in certain directions. See isotropy.
Anisotropy: The observable difference
between different directions.
Annihilation: A misleading term used to describe a particle and
antiparticle collision. In fact, they are not “annihilated”; they are
simply converted into energy, usually photons.
Antigravity: The ‘repulsive’ effect
produced by the emergence/expansion of the aether medium.
Antiparticles: are the by-products of collisions of particles in
high energy interactions (occurring, for example, in terrestrial particle
accelerators, and near compact neutron and Superneutron stars) and often
detected in cosmic rays.
Assimilation of aether: by this process, mass and energy are able to
‘contract’ the space medium, thereby pulling-in the surrounding
space medium. In the context of DSSU gravity theory, this is called
primary gravity (and leads to secondary effects).
Background space: It is the Universe’s
3-dimensional emptiness-space; it has no properties whatsoever and serves
merely as a “container” —a repository permeated by a universal essence (a
nonmaterial medium) commonly called aether.
Baryon: Any massive 'elementary' particle made up
of three quarks. Neutrons and protons are baryons.
Big Bang (BB): The popular name for any expansionary model in which an explosion-like
event initiated the entire universe.
Big Crunch: Speculative collapse of the universe, similar but
opposite to the Big Bang. It is based on the belief that the universe’s
expansion might stop and reverse.
BBI: Expansionary and inflationary model of the universe; a
universe that has at least one episode of abnormally high rate of vacuum
Blackbody: An object with a constant
temperature that absorbs all radiation that hits it.
Black hole: According to the conventional (non-DSSU) view, it is any
gravitating object, or region, possessing an event horizon (a
“surface” from which the escape velocity exceeds the speed of
light). In terms of general relativity, the space around a black hole
reaches infinite curvature, and the interior tends to infinite
Black hole (mathematical): A black hole is a mathematical
construction associated with a point mass of some specified magnitude, a
point mass called a singularity. Differs from the usual treatment of
mass in the following way: In conventional gravitation calculations, the
mass body is assumed to merely act as if it were concentrated at a point
(its center of mass); but for a black hole, the mass supposedly
exists, in its entirety, at the center point!
Black hole (singularity): A black hole for which all of its mass is
concentrated at a single central point. It does not exist except as a
Black star: Another term for Terminal star, or Superneutron Star.
Boson: A particle with integer spin. Hypothetical
carriers/intermediaries of the 4 forces of nature within the standard model
of particle physics. (Fermions, in contrast, are fundamental particles with
cD galaxy: A supergiant elliptical/spherical
galaxy found at the center of a galaxy cluster.
Celestial sphere: Apparent sphere of the sky; a sphere centered on
the Earth observer and having celestial poles aligned with Earth’s polar
axis. Directions of objects are denoted by right ascension (the
angle measured eastward along the 24-hour celestial equator from the vernal
equinox) and by angular declination (above or below the equatorial
CMB, CMBR: See Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation.
Conservation principle (or conserved quantity): Take any of the
basic measurable physical quantities (like mass, charge, spin, position,
and velocity) and combine them mathematically according to some fixed
formula. If the resulting combination does not change when the measured
particles interact, then the lack of change represents a conservation
law/principle. Examples are the total energy and total momentum of a
Containment Principle: (1)
cosmology: the physical universe contains everything that is physical, and
(2) In DSSU cosmology: The universe contains
everything that is physical, as well as a non-material, non-energy, essence
medium, and nothing else.
Contractile gravity: Contractile gravity is the acceleration
of aether flow towards mass bodies (where the local flow converges). It
manifests as an apparent force of attraction. On the larger scale,
contractile gravity acts in that portion of each cosmic-scale
gravitation cell where comoving trajectories (of objects) are
converging. It is the ordinary gravity of our everyday experience. See also
cosmic gravity, and unified gravitational cell.
Contraction 'field': The region,
surrounding a mass body, in which aether is contracted, in a process
of self-dissipation. It is a key component in contractile gravity.
Cosmic cell (cosmic structural cell): The dodecahedral-shaped structural unit of the DSSU.
It represents the universe's largest structure.
Cosmic evolution: Systematic change of the universe over time (not
a Darwinian process). The term applies to the various hypothetical Big
Bangs. It does NOT apply to DSSU cosmology.
Cosmic gravity: is the acceleration of the aether flow in the
cosmic Voids where the dynamic flow has a radially diverging pattern.
acts in that portion of the unified gravitational
'field' where comoving trajectories (of objects) are diverging. It
is the Lambda force/effect. See also normal gravity.
Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMBR or CBR, aka “3 K blackbody
A nearly uniform flux of microwave emission coming from all directions of
the cosmos; with an intensity corresponding approximately to a black-body
(1) In 20th-century cosmology: Radiation left over from the
hot Big Bang which has cooled due to whole-universe expansion to a
temperature slightly less than 3 degrees above absolute zero.
(2) In DSSU cosmology:
The 2.7 K CBR is the radiation received from distant galaxies (emitting
light at a peak intensity temperature of about 5800 K) after being
redshifted by a z-factor of 2000 during a journey of about 123,000 MLY.
Cosmic redshift: The most important measure for determining cosmic
distance of far off galaxies. Twentieth-century cosmology (unlike DSSU
cosmology) interpreted the cosmic redshift as the evidence of actual
receding velocities (of the source galaxies) and then extrapolated this
evidence to support the speculation of the expansion of the whole universe.
The cause of the cosmic redshift: In
expanding-universe models, the cause is primarily the expansion of space
(i.e., expansion of the vacuum or quantum foam). In the DSSU, the
cause is primarily the velocity-differential spectral shift that
radiation acquires as it transits across gravity wells and particularly as
it traverses the great cosmic gravitation cells.
Cosmic theory: The attempt to explain our existence and experiences
as caused by observed and unobserved entities and processes.
Cosmism: A philosophy of the cosmos.
Cosmic Void: The mostly-empty region of the interior of the
dodecahedral-shaped cosmic structural cells. It is here that aether
Cosmogony: The study of cosmic evolution; any theory of the origin of the
universe or one of its component systems, such as star clusters, galaxies,
Cosmological constant (denoted by the Greek
letter Lambda Λ): (1)
Traditionally, it is the multiplicative constant for a
term proportional to the metric in Einstein’s general relativity
equation relating the curvature of space to energy-momentum. When positive
it represents space expansion and potentially leads to an acceleration of
the expansion of the universe. (2) In modern usage it is identified with
vacuum energy. (3) In DSSU cosmology it
represents the emergence/expansion of aether, but has nothing to do with
Universe expansion. In other words, the space medium expands, but
the Universe does not.
Cosmological Principle: states that the
universe, on the large scale, is homogeneous and isotropic; that is,
uniform in all places and in all directions. Spatial homogeneity. See also
perfect cosmological principle.
Cosmologist: One who studies cosmology, the science
of the universe.
Cosmology: (1) The general science of the cosmos or material
universe, its structures, its composition, and its laws. Combines
astronomy, astrophysics, particle physics, and mathematics to assemble the
knowledge into a world picture. (2) A particular cosmological theory. The
DSSU is a steady-state cellular cosmology; in the chronology of worldviews,
it is the 5th cosmology.
Cosmology revolutions: The 1st revolution in cosmology occurred when
chaos was transformed into the conceptual Universes ruled by Gods. The 2nd
revolution occurred when the universe ruled by gods was replaced by the
Universe ruled by Natural Laws. The 3rd revolution, known as the Copernican
revolution, saw the overthrow of the Geocentric by the Heliocentric Universe.
The 4th revolution involved the overthrow of the STATIC unchanging universe
by the EXPANDING universe. Finally, the 5th-cosmology revolution is the
overthrow of the Expanding-Universe paradigm by the Non-Expanding Cellular
Cosmos (from the Greek word kosmos for
order and beauty): The Universe as an embodiment of a system of order and
Critical Density: A concept pertaining to the Big Bang model.
the matter/energy density of the universe at which the universe balances
between continued expansion and re-collapse. Its value depends on the
universe’s expansion rate.
Critical-state neutron star: See Terminal star or Superneutron
Critical-state star: Any star which, during the course of
gravitational contraction, has acquired a pure energy surface (aka a
Curvature of Space: In conventional astrophysics, it refers to
the mathematical representation of the distortion of abstract space (spacetime); the 3
types of curvature are spherical (space contracts), flat (Euclidean), and
hyperbolic (space expands). In Natural astrophysics, because space is
considered to be merely a 3-dimensional volume of nothingness, the term is
Dark energy: See vacuum energy.
Dark Matter: is the exotic ingredient
required by the Big Bang model to explain the rotation curves of galaxies
and the structural cohesion of galaxy clusters. Supposedly, a form of
matter that does not emit, absorb, or scatter any light. Its only
interactions are said to be gravitational. Has never been detected and
remains elusive. It is the Achilles heel of the expanding-universe
hypothesis. (Also see Rotation curve/graph.)
Declination (Dec.): Angular distance north
or south of the celestial equator.
Deduction: A process of reasoning in which a conclusion is derived
from a given premise or premises, without the need for additional
information. The conclusion of a deductive argument must be true if the
premises are true.
Reasoning from the general, a law of nature for
example, to the particular.
Distance ladder: Because no single method can measure distances to
both near and far objects in the Universe, the set of overlapping methods,
in which nearby ones calibrate more distant ones, is called the distance
Dodecahedron: A twelve-sided ‘solid’
polyhedron. A regular dodecahedron has identical pentagonal faces. The
rhombic dodecahedron is irregular, but symmetrical, and has
identical rhombus faces.
Doppler effect (Doppler shift): The change in the observed frequency (and
wavelength) of an acoustic or electromagnetic wave due to relative motion
of source and observer. With sound
the change is in the pitch; with light the change is in color. Named after the 19th-century physicist credited
with its discovery.
DSSU: Dynamic Steady State Universe.
DSSU Theory: The natural cosmology theory that holds that the space
medium (a nonmaterial aether) is
dynamic and that it expands and contracts regionally and equally
resulting in a cosmic-scale cellularly-structured universe. It is defined
by four fundamental processes which provide a rationally coherent account
of the major phenomena of our Universe.
Electromagnetic field: A region, surrounding a
positive or negative charge, in which a radial pattern of aether excitation
is accompanied by a process of aether absorption and vanishment.
Electromagnetic force: One of the four forces
of nature. It is intermediated by the photon. Electromagnetic interactions hold electrons in atoms, hold atoms
in molecules, and are important in all electronic devices.
Electron: A negatively charged subatomic particle with rest
mass 9.1×10−31 kg (rest energy 0.511 Mev).
Structurally, it is a double loop of a single-wavelength self-orbiting
photon —a self-looping quantum of electromagnetic radiation.
Electroweak force: A unified force that mathematically combines
the electromagnetic and weak nuclear interactions. Predicted by Weinberg
and Salam, experimentally verified by Rubbia and van der Meer.
Elliptical galaxy: One of the primary kinds of galaxies. It is a
smooth distribution of stars, spheroidal in shape (usually prolate along
the axis of motion), and has practically no rotation.
Emission line: A more or less narrow range of
wavelengths in a spectrum that is brighter than neighboring wavelengths.
Emission lines are made by atoms or ions in a hot gas; often seen in the
light from certain astronomical objects such as quasars.
Energy: (1) The capacity to do work. (2) Manifestation of a
particular kind of force.
Energy process: Any localized quantitative change in aether
units. Energy, both mass-energy and radiation-energy, at the most
fundamental level is manifest in the absorption-annihilation of units of the space medium (defined as a nonmaterial aether).
Without this active process, neither mass nor radiation can exist.
Entropy: is an increase in disorder, a trend
towards thermal equilibrium. It represents a decrease in the useable forms
of energy. For a closed or an isolated system, entropy is not
conserved; it is increasing all the time.
In standard cosmology the source of low entropy is the expansion of
the entire universe. The entropy is said to be forever increasing for the universe
as a whole, however, this increase is incompatible
with the Big Bang accelerating universe and actually leads to a paradox.
In DSSU cosmology the Universe is NOT a closed system: the source
of low entropy is the perpetual emergence/expansion of the space medium.
Entropy increases in the usual manner, while entropy simultaneously
decreases via the process of aether deprivation mass extinction and
the process of blueshifting, both occurring within Terminal stars.
Each cosmic cell of the DSSU behaves as an autonomous thermodynamic system.
Escape velocity: The minimum velocity, with
respect to the gravitating body, that will allow an object to escape from a
gravitational ‘pull’ (or field). For a primary body of mass M and
radius R, and ignoring any frictional resisting force, the escape
velocity is √(2GM/R).
Essence fluctuators: The discrete units of
the essence medium, the medium that we equate with a non-ponderable aether.
They are, more specifically, the units of a non-corporeal,
non-energy, aether. (A vitally important concept in DSSU theory.)
Essence medium: A synonymous term for aether. It is the non-corporeal,
non-energy, medium that permeates all space; consists of subquantum
Essence medium (historical): the substrate of the universe. Historically rooted in the “nonponderable,”
nonmaterial, non-energy aether which Einstein expounded in his 1920 Leyden
Euclidean space: Space which is not curved
(not distorted). Analogous to aether that is neither expanding nor
Event horizon: The boundary at which the speed of aether flow, with
respect to the center of the gravitating region, is equal to the speed of light. Outside the
boundary (that is, on the external side of the “horizon” surrounding the
region of gravitating masses) the inflow of aether is less than lightspeed; while
immediately inside the horizon, the inflow is greater than
lightspeed. Event horizons are associated with Supermassive black
regions, often misleadingly called supermassive black holes.
Fermion: A particle with half-integer spin. The fundamental fermions
are the matter particles such as electrons and quarks.
Fifth cosmology: The DSSU is the 5th
cosmology. It is called the 5th cosmology because of its emergence as the
5th revolution in cosmology —a revolution of the overthrow of the
Expanding-Universe paradigm by the Non-Expanding Cellular universe. See
Flat space: Abstract / mathematical space which is not curved. Analogous to aether
that is neither expanding nor contracting.
Fundamental energy: See energy process.
Fundamental fluctuators: See essence fluctuators.
Fusion: The combination of atomic nuclei to make heavier nuclei. If
the collisions result from high-temperature interactions/collisions, it is
called thermonuclear fusion.
Galactic cannibalism: The process whereby a
smaller galaxy falls into a larger galaxy, undergoes tidal ‘shredding’, and
ultimately sinks into its core.
Galactic cluster: An open cluster of stars.
Not the same thing as a cluster of galaxies.
Galaxy: A basic cosmic unit containing roughly between 107 and 1011 stars,
with gas and dust, all bound by gravity. There are five types: dwarf,
elliptical, spiral, irregular, and supergiant (found at the center of every
cosmic gravity cell).
Gly: Giga-lightyears. Or billion light
years. But the term ‘billion’ is often avoided because of a potential
confusion: In Canada and the United States it means a thousand million
(1,000,000,000); while in Britain and Germany it refers to a million
Grand Unification Theory (GUT): A theory
that unifies the electromagnetic force with the nuclear forces (weak,
strong) into a single interaction. Several have been proposed, but none
Gravitational energy: The energy in the gravitational fields acting
between masses. For two masses M and m a distance r
apart, the gravitational energy is –GMm/r. Gravitational energy is
considered to be negative; the reason is that one must put energy into
these objects to separate them to infinity where their energy would be
Gravitational redshift: Photons lose energy (increase in wavelength)
when they move ‘uphill’, away from a mass concentration. The effect is an
example of the velocity differential spectral-shift, in which the
front and back ends of the wave are propagating at slightly different
Gravitational lensing: The creation of a
distorted image of a distant galaxy or object when its light is focused by
the gravity effect of a galaxy located between it (the distant
source-galaxy) and the observer. In the DSSU,
gravitational lensing is caused by the aether contracting 'field'
surrounding the particular intervening galaxy.
Gravitation processes: (1) The direct absorption or
assimilation of aether by all mass and all radiation; this process is
the primary cause of contractile gravitation. (2) A process of the
self-extinction of the space medium; the stress-induced vanishment of
aether within contractile gravitation “fields”; this process is the
secondary cause of gravity. (These processes also produce the property of mass
and inertial mass.)
Gravitation, DSSU theory of: (1)
Gravitation is the effect produced by the acceleration of aether-space
itself towards the center of mass. (2) Gravity is caused primarily
by the direct assimilation of the space medium by matter. By this
process of assimilation, matter acts upon the medium —pulling-in the
surrounding aether. (3) A secondary gravity effect involves the
contraction of aether within a surrounding contraction field —a
region where the medium self-dissipates and literally disappears. The
intensity of contraction has an inverse relationship to radial distance. (4)
A tertiary gravity effect involves the emergence/expansion of aether
in each cosmic Void and produces a radial acceleration of the medium
(directed away from the Void center). It is a cosmic-gravity effect
often likened to antigravity; generically, it is called the positive Lambda
force/effect (comparable to the DeSitter effect). (5) Now, combine the normal contractile-gravity (described
by (1), (2) & (3)) with the cosmic-gravity (described by (4))
and remarkably the DSSU theory of gravity becomes
a unified theory of gravity.
Gravity: The effect that causes the acceleration of all entities
towards the center of mass, and is nominally proportional to 1/r2 (i.e.,
the inverse square of the distance to the mass center).
(1) In general relativity it is
the effect of the curvature distortion of spacetime produced by the
presence of mass and energy
(2) In a quantum description, gravitons —hypothetical
massless bosons— act as the force carriers.
(3) In DSSU cosmology it is the
effect of the dynamics of the space medium —specifically the
accelerated flow, or inhomogeneous inflow, of aether
towards, and into, matter. In the context of processes, gravity is the side
effect of, primarily, the mass-manifesting process.
Hadron: Particles that are made of quarks, such
as protons, neutrons, and mesons, and their antiparticles.
Hertz (Hz): Unit of frequency; measured in number (of cycles) per
Higgs Boson, Higgs Field: In
conventional physics, a hypothetical subatomic force-particle is believed
to bestow the property of mass to all other particles exhibiting this
property; in aggregate, these
‘particles’ constitute a related Higgs force field. As a mass acquisition
concept, it is fatally flawed. It fails to explain how the Higgs particle
acquires its own self-mass which is supposedly quite substantial.
Homogeneity: Components of the universe are
evenly distributed within the universe on the large scale.
Hot Big Bang: A mythical creation model
of the universe which begins at ‘infinitely’ high density and temperature,
expands explosively, and cools to become like the Universe we observe now.
Hubble constant: (1) In expanding-universe
cosmology it is symbolized by Ho and represents the rate at which the recession
velocity of galaxies increases with distance. The present value is roughly
22 km/s per million lightyears of distance; but since the expansion
rate varies with the
age of the BB universe the Hubble expression is often written as ‘H’
(without the naught)
and is then called the Hubble parameter.
(2) In the DSSU, H is the parameter that measures the
rate of emergence/expansion of aether (as defined) within cosmic Voids and
is expressed as the speed with which two comoving points, 1 million
lightyears apart, undergo separation by the manifestation of new aether.
The value is about 10 km/s per MLY, but varies with
the location within the Void environment.
Hubble's law: (Applies only in expanding-universe models.)
Big Bang’s mathematical rule of cosmic expansion:
(recession velocity) = (Hubble constant) x distance.
By this law, widely separated galaxies are said
to be moving apart from each other at an average rate of about 22 kilometers
per second per
million lightyears of distance between them (or 71 km/s per megaparsec).
Hubble length, L: (only for
expanding-universe models) is defined as the distance at which the
recession velocity equals light speed. The distance is
expressed as c/H, in which c = 3.00x105 km/s and
H » 22.0 km/s
and equals 13,600 million lightyears.
DSSU cosmology does
not recognize the recession-velocity interpretation and, therefore, does not have a Hubble
length, or a Hubble sphere. Implicitly and explicitly nothing whatsoever
is receding on the large scale.
Hubble sphere: In expanding-universe
models, it is an imaginary sphere centered on the observer and having a radius
equal to the Hubble length, L.
Hydrogen 21-cm emission: Radio emission of 21-centimeter wavelength
produced by atomic hydrogen. Emission occurs when the electron’s spin
direction reverses (180° flip of the spin axis).
Hyperbolic space: is the geometric term, related to the negative curvature of space, used to describe a region of
dynamically expanding space.
Induction: Reasoning from the particular to the
general; reasoning from a number of common facts to a general conclusion.
Inflationary scenario: One of the
save-the-appearance modifications of the Big Bang (BB) model in which a large
cosmological constant (a super-dense vacuum) is said to have operated, temporarily, early in the history of the
and caused a rapid accelerating expansion of the universe; the inflation
phase was then
followed by a gradually decelerating expansion as described by the 'normal'
BB model. In 1998 the
inflationary scenario was again invoked in a further ‘modification’ made
necessary by the unexpected reappearance of universe-wide acceleration. To
minimize the confusion, the patch that was applied following the Crisis
of 1998 is called reinflation.
Inflationary universe model: A version of the Big Bang hypothesis in
which it is further speculated that the early universe
experienced a brief period of extremely fast (exponential) expansion,
supposedly involving a super-dense vacuum
Interface: The common region between the cosmic structural
cells; the region of aether-streaming confluence; the region where comoving material collides. Interfaces surround each cosmic Void.
Interstellar medium (ISM): The gas and ‘dust’ particles that exist
in the vacuum of space between stars within galaxies. Its average density
is about 106 atom/m3,
with about 1 dust particle/km3
Invariance principle: When interactions between particles are
unaffected by a change in some aspect of the interaction, then the
interaction is said to be invariant under such change; this in turn leads
to a conservation law. Invariance principles and their conservation laws
lie at the heart of the laws of conventional physics. See
Ionized: A condition in which one or more electrons have been
removed from atoms, usually by energetic photons or collisions with other
Isotropy: The property of being the same in
all directions. Averaged over sufficiently large regions and
distances, the Universe is considered to be isotropic.
Lambda force, +Λ: It is considered in
conventional astrophysics as the 5th force of nature. It is
often described as being a kind of antigravity, but its cause is
unknown. This 5th force is the property of the vacuum or
aether which, in an amazing coincidence, the Greek philosopher
Aristotle called the 5th element.
In DSSU cosmology:
(1) It is the force/effect that manifests within the cosmic
Voids; and is
caused (in part) by the fact that the space-medium across each
great Void is under tension. The
positive Λ force is responsible for all large scale motion
and subsequent angular momentum.
(2) It is the negative pressure
present within each great Void. Note, the
positive Lambda force/effect and negative pressure and
tension are all equivalent expressions.
Length contraction factor: The intrinsic contraction factor is the
square root of (1−(υa/c)2),
where υa is the
speed with respect to the aether.
Lepton: A lightweight subatomic particle that does not feel the
strong force of the Standard model of particle physics. The known leptons
are the electron, muon, tau, and their associated neutrinos; and their
Light (quantized as photon): Light is a fundamental energy particle
with cyclic (or oscillating) behavior.
Lightyear: A measure of astronomical
distance. 1 lightyear = 9.47x1012 kilometers.
(When converting to parsecs: 1 parsec = 3.26 lightyears.
Look-back time: The length of time light was traveling from a source
object to us. This is also the period back in time that we witness the
object. It is equal to the object’s distance (its light-travel distance)
Linear galaxy cluster: The filamentous
aggregation of galaxies that exists at any triple boundary region
where three cosmic cells meet each other. Along such ‘meeting line,’ galaxy
structures from three neighboring cells aggregate to form a
concentration that extends from one node to another. Most often a linear
cluster is observed as a branching arm of a nodal galaxy cluster.
Luminosity: The intrinsic brightness of a star. The intrinsic power
radiated by an object, usually measured in watts. Since the light spreads
out as it moves away from the object, its measured brightness would be b
= L/4πd2, measured in watts per square
meter (where L is the luminosity and d is the distance).
Solar luminosity (Sun’s total photonic power output) is LSun = 3.86×1026
Mach’s Principle: states that inertial mass
and all inertial forces are due to the existence and distribution of all
the matter in the universe. However, cosmic gravitation cells,
because they limit the range of gravitation, make this an obsolete concept.
Magnitude: A scale used by astronomers to
measure flux; the apparent brightness of a celestial body, expressed on a
scale in which lower numbers mean greater brightness.
Mass-energy: The energy E = mc2
associated with a particle or object’s mass. It is also called “rest
energy,” because it is the energy of an object when it is stationary, with
no kinetic energy.
Materialism: The belief that material objects and
their interactions constitute the complete reality of all phenomena.
Materialism does not permit a First-Cause process, which, of necessity,
cannot itself be material; therefore, materialism cannot serve as
the foundation of a theory of the Universe.
Matter extinction law: When matter (mass and energy) is subjected to
aether deprivation, it ceases to exist.
Milky Way accretion disk: is the great rotating aggregation of
matter formed and sustained by the rotation of a supermassive core
consisting of many millions of Superneutron stars.
Milky Way density: The
average density is one hydrogen atom per cubic centimeter. The Milky Way’s total
mass is 1012¤
(i.e., 1012 times the mass of our Sun) according to most
Mly: Mega lightyears or million lightyears;
a measure of cosmic distance.
Neutrino: A superposition of two phase-shifted
photons (resulting in the effective cancellation of their normal
NGP: North Galactic Pole. The Milky Way’s
North Galactic Polar axis points toward the Coma
nodal galaxy cluster.
Nodal galaxy cluster: the multi-branched galaxy aggregation that
occupies each vertex of the cosmic-scale structural cells (shaped as
rhombic dodecahedra). Each nodal galaxy cluster is the dense central region
of a cosmic gravitation cell.
the immense matter concentrations at the cosmic-cell vertices. There are
basically two types: the tripodal and the quadrapodal
structures. There are also hypothetical supernode structures. The
types are characterized by the number of ‘arms’ (filament-like clusters)
that meet at a vertex.
Normal gravity: Normal gravity is the acceleration of aether
flow towards mass bodies (where the local flow converges). It manifests as
an apparent force of attraction. On the larger scale, normal gravity
acts in that portion of each cosmic-scale gravitation cell where
comoving trajectories (of objects) are converging. It is the gravity
of our everyday experience. See
also cosmic gravity, and unified gravitational cell.
Nucleosynthesis: The process by which new atomic nuclei are
created, usually by the combination of smaller nuclei via thermonuclear
Old Physics: A term used to characterize the
physics (the branch of science concerned with the nature and properties of
matter and energy) that is specifically burdened by three major omissions.
(i) It fails to recognize the existence of the mechanical space medium —a
non-energy, non-mass, particulate aether. (ii) It fails to employ the
velocity-differential redshift for cosmological distances. (iii) It fails
to recognize the unity underlying the three manifestations of gravity.
Parallax: The apparent shift of a star’s
position (with respect to background objects) when viewed from different
parts of the Earth’s orbit. The angle, together with the size of the
Earth’s orbit, permits one to calculate the distance to the star, using the
method of triangulation.
Parsec: Astronomical unit of distance,
corresponding to a parallax of one arc-second, equal to 3.26 lightyears or
Perfect Cosmological Principle: It states that
the universe, on the large scale, is uniform both in time and in space; an
extension of the cosmological principle. The DSSU conforms to the
perfect cosmological principle; it is forever uniformly cellular
throughout infinite 3-dimensional space.
Photon: The photon is a wavelike particle of radiation energy; it is
the carrier of the electromagnetic force. (It is an energy particle that
may be thought of as a laterally oscillating excitation of the aether while
traveling in the longitudinal direction.)
Photon conduction process: A wavelike conduction-excitation-disturbance of
aether. This "conduction" is unlike any other. The photon is conducted
by aether in a manner that is destructive of aether.
Platonic solids: The five regular polyhedra
—the tetrahedron, hexahedron, octahedron, dodecahedron, and icosahedron
—esteemed by Plato and the Pythagoreans as embodying aesthetic and rational
Positron: Another name for an antielectron.
Primary gravitation: is associated with the process —conduction by
aether-absorption— that sustains mass particles and radiation particles and
electromagnetic fields; and causes a weakly accelerating inflow of aether.
Proton: A subatomic particle (mass 1.67×10−27kg)
with positive charge, consisting of three quarks. The number present in an
atomic nucleus defines the chemical element.
Quantum space: Refers to the quantization of
the space medium. In the DSSU, space is permeated by discrete
fundamental fluctuators of the essence medium. In conventional
physics, the term refers to the ‘vacuum’ or the ‘quantum foam’ and this
space medium’s ability, or potential, to produce virtual and real
particles. The difference: the discrete fundamental fluctuators,
being sub-physical, carry no energy; while the units of the quantum foam
do carry energy.
Quasar: An extremely luminous active galaxy —that is, one with a
rotating accreting Supermassive black region at its center.
Radiation: Usually refers to any form of
electromagnetic energy (photons) of any wavelength; as well as neutrinos.
Radiation pressure: The force exerted mainly by photons when they
strike a surface. In the terrestrial context, it is negligible. In the
extra-terrestrial context, however, it clears the gas and dust from the
stellar environment allowing stars to be observable in the optical
Redshift (z): is defined as the displacement
towards the longer wavelengths of all the spectral lines in light coming
from the stars of distant galaxies; expressed as a fraction of the original
wavelength itself. The ratio
Dlù(lsource), where l
is the wavelength.
The redshift is used as a prized measure for determining
cosmic distance. Expanding-universe cosmology (unlike DSSU cosmology)
interprets the cosmic redshift as the evidence of the source galaxies
actually receding and then extends this interpretation to claim that the
whole universe is undergoing expansion! In DSSU cosmology, distant galaxies
are NOT receding, NOT part of any universal expansion. See Cosmic
Redshift-distance relation: The correlation
between redshift in the spectra of galaxies and their distances. The
equation used depends on the particular cosmological model. The Big Bang,
a single-cell construct, and the DSSU, a multi-cellular model, use distinctly different formulae.
Relativistic: Refers to particles or objects moving close to the
speed of light, resulting in their total energy being much greater than
their rest mass. In a relativistic gas, the particles have kinetic energy
greater than their mass-energy.
Relativity: Theories concerning the transformation of fundamental
properties (space, time, length, mass) between different observers.
Relativity, general theory of: Einstein’s
mathematical theory, incorporating the gravitational effect, in which space
and time are geometrized. Applicable to accelerating frames of reference.
Relativity, special theory of: Einstein’s
theory of the electrodynamics of uniformly moving frames of reference.
Rhombus: A parallelogram with all sides of
Right Ascension (R. A.): The astronomer’s equivalent of longitude
—longitudinal position lines projected onto the celestial sphere— which
divides the celestial sphere in 24 slices, each 15 degrees wide.
Rotation curve/graph: The graph of rotation speed (y-axis)
versus distance from the center of the system (x-axis). When
interpreted strictly within Newtonian physics, rotation curves yield
information on the mass distribution within the system. The failure of the
rotation speeds to drop at large radial distances in spiral galaxies leads
to two radically different interpretations: (1) In Old Physics, it is
evidence of the presence of additional mass, believed to be in the form of
a dark matter halo. (2) In DSSU/cellular cosmology, it is evidence
of the gravity-amplifying effect caused by aether vanishment
associated with the shear stress of rotation; based on the validated aether
theory of gravity.
Sachs-Wolfe effect: An Old Physics concept
described as a two-part effect, involving an alternating sequence of
gravitational redshifts and gravitational blueshifts, believed to arise
from light passing through a lumpy gravitational landscape (i.e., a series
of gravity wells). The concept was decisively disproved in 2018 (C. Ranzan,
Sachs-Wolfe Effect Disproof –The fundamental flaw in the spectral
analysis of gravity wells, International Journal of Astrophysics and
Space Science, Vol.6, No.1, 2018, pp.1-17).
Schwarzschild radius: (1) In conventional
cosmology, it is a measure of the theoretical size of a nonrotating mass
body/particle which, if compressed to this radius, would possess an
escape speed (from the surface) equal to the speed of light. It can be calculated for any amount of mass, without reference to
relativity, using the expression RS=2GM/c2.
The Schwarzschild radius depends only on the quantity of mass (assuming no
rotation). If different bodies could be compressed to within their
Schwarzschild radius they would not necessarily have the same density.
(2) It is a mathematical construct devoid of any
connection to reality. When the concept is applied to a pre-collapsed
mass/body, it fails as a prediction of the actual radius of the lightspeed
boundary (event horizon); it fails because it neglects relativistic length
contraction, ignores Nature’s density limit, and overlooks mass loss via
Singularity: A concept in 20th-century cosmology used to describe a
point entity of infinite density —a point location where
standard theories break down. Singularities do not exist in the real World.
SnS: Acronym for Superneutron Star. See Superneutron star.
Space: A general term for the vacuum, the
quantum foam, etc. It is an ambiguous term for the background medium of
Space (DSSU): In DSSU theory, space is the 3-dimensional background and
is completely permeated by the universe’s essence medium —a ubiquitous,
non-mass, non-energy, discretized aether. Space is a nothingness volume; it
has no properties; none whatsoever. Its only function is to serve as an
empty container of three spatial dimensions.
Space (3-dimensional): Three-dimensional space (in the sense of an
empty container) is a nothingness volume permeated by (filled with) a space
Space-medium contraction (DSSU): All matter contracts the
universal medium (aether), (1) directly through a process of
excitation-assimilation-annihilation and, (2) indirectly through a
process of self-dissipation within a contraction field that
surrounds each and every object or particle, individually and collectively.
Space-medium dynamics: This term refers to the
emergence/expansion and vanishment/contraction aspects of the aether space-medium, as well as its flow.
These aspects constitute a complete conceptual description of what sustains
the cellular structure of the infinite Universe.
Space-medium expansion parameter: An empirically derived
value, symbolized by H, which measures the rate of aether
emergence/expansion within the cosmic voids. (Somewhat similar to the
Hubble constant). Early research into the DSSU has used a value of 18.6
km/second per million lightyears of distance. (But more recent research
suggests a value of 10.1 km/second per million lightyears.)
Special relativity (Einstein): (1) Principle
of relativity: the impossibility of detecting uniform (inertial) motion by
laboratory experiments. No preferred frame-of-reference. (2) Constancy of
the speed of light: light is always propagated in empty space with a
velocity independent of the motion of the source.
Special relativity (DSSU):
(1) Aether serves as the preferred frame-of-reference. It
is possible to measure motion relative to the aether medium. (2) Constancy
of the speed of light: the speed of light is constant and absolute with
respect to aether. However, with respect to the observer (any inertial
observer), the speed of light is constant only as an illusion facilitated
by physical length contraction of the measuring devices.
Special relativity speed rule: The rule that nothing can travel
faster than about 300,000 kilometers per second through the vacuum, or through
Spectrometer: An instrument that spreads the light from stars, or
from any other source, into its different wavelengths.
Spectrum: A graph of the intensity of light (or other
electromagnetic radiation) against wavelength (or frequency).
Speed of Light: c ≈ 3.00 x 108
meters/second through vacuum or DSSU aether.
Speed of light constancy: The speed of light is absolutely
constant with respect to the space medium (aether) AND is relatively
constant with respect to inertial (stationary of uniformly moving)
observers. The inertial observer’s measurement of the speed of light is
always the same because his clocks slow down and distances appear
compensatingly smaller. The measure of speed is simply distance over
clocktime; and this ratio always remains the same under uniform motion.
Spherical space: A geometric term associated, in the
mathematical world, with the positive curvature
of space; and may be associated, in the real world, with the vanishment/contraction
of the space medium by a gravitating body.
Star clusters: are gravitationally bound
aggregations of stars, smaller and less massive than galaxies. The largest
star clusters are known as ‘globular’ clusters and harbour hundreds of
thousands to millions of stars; while the smaller ones are called ‘open’
The static surface of infinite redshift is an oblate-shaped boundary,
surrounding a spinning SnS (end-state neutron star), where vacuum/aether
flow actually reaches the speed of light (with respect to the background
universe). Note the difference between the two kinds of lightspeed
surfaces. At the oblate static surface the aether-flow speed is with
respect to the background; while at the critical-state surface, the
lightspeed flow refers only to the component perpendicular to the SnS’s
actual surface (ambiguously called an event horizon).
Steady State Expanding Universe: A speculative universe (originally
advocated by Hoyle, Bondi, and Gold in the 1940s) that
undergoes perpetual uniform expansion while maintaining constant density
and physical properties. Matter must be continually created to offset the
expansion-caused dilution and maintain the
Steady State Nonexpanding Universe: An
infinite universe with constant density on the largest scale and constant
physical processes and properties. Matter is continually being formed
and annihilated. The space medium itself is continually being formed
String theory: A mathematical model; it holds that subatomic
particles, instead of being mere points, actually have extension along one
axis, and that their properties are determined by the arrangement and
vibration of so called strings.
Strong nuclear force: One of the conventional four forces
of nature. The strong nuclear force holds the particles in the nucleus of
Supermassive black region (replaces the misleading term supermassive black hole): A structure delineated by an event
horizon that surrounds an interior region of noncontiguous mass. Can
exist and persist only if there is significant rotation.
Superneutron star: A neutron star with a superdense energy
layer where the density is greater than neutron/nuclear density.
Essentially, it has a surface layer of pure energy consisting of
“stationary” photons (electromagnetic radiation) and neutrinos. The
Superneutron star is a perfectly natural object; it has a no-escape
boundary (horizon) but no empty region within. It replaces the
paradox-plagued concept of stellar black holes. See Terminal star.
Superneutron star (in active state): This is a Superneutron star
in which an insufficient quantity of aether reaches the core —making it an
active aether deprivation core. Essentially, the SnS is absorbing
more matter than it can sustain with a strictly-limited supply of aether
inflow. With an insufficient quantity of aether reaching the core, the
matter within is subjected to a terminal process of matter
Supernova: A cataclysmic stellar explosion. The two most common
types are the thermonuclear detonation of a white dwarf star (used to
determine distances to remote galaxies) and the core collapse of a
Supernova type 1A: is the explosion of a
white dwarf star in a binary system. Accretion from a companion raises the
mass above the maximum mass permissible for gravitationally stable white dwarfs. The
quantity of matter reaches the Chandrasekhar limit and the white dwarf
starts to collapse. However, the ensuing compression ignites explosive
carbon-burning leading to a total disruption of the star. The light output
comes primarily from the energy produced by the decay of radioactive nickel
and cobalt produced in the explosion. The peak luminosity is correlated
with the rate of decay in the measured light-curve: less luminous
supernovae decay more quickly than do more luminous supernovae. When the
necessary correction is applied, the relative luminosity of a Type 1A SN
can be determined to within 20% accuracy. [Wright,
Edward The ABC’s of Distance
www.astro.ucla.edu/~wright/distance.htm] Type 1A
supernovae are bright enough to be seen to such great distances that they
can be, and are, used to calibrate the cosmic redshift-distance law.
Suppression-annihilation process: See aether deprivation
Symmetry principle: See invariance principle.
Terminal star: A star that is in the "Terminal"
state —an ontological state that cannot be altered in any way other than
changes of rotation. Such an object is truly in an end state of existence.
It is both a destroyer of energy (specifically, mass energy) and a
generator of energy (specifically, it amplifies the energy of photons and
neutrinos). The defining feature: It is enveloped by an energy
surface/layer onto which the space medium (aether) flows at the speed of
light. Moreover, this energy layer encloses a fixed quantity of mass
existing as nature’s ultimate density state. Rotation feature: When
rotating, it is unique. It manifests no centrifugal effect. If the rotation
axis is aligned with the emission beams, it has virtually no theoretical
Synonymous terms: Terminal-state star, Superneutron star, end-state
Theory: A rational self-consistent account of
a wider range of phenomena than is ordinarily accounted for by a
Thermonuclear fusion: The type of reaction in which atomic nuclei
collide and combine, their collision energy (kinetic energy) arising from
high temperature (thermal motion).
Trapezoid: A quadrilateral with one pair of
Unified gravitation region (unified gravitation
A typical cosmic region having a nodal galaxy cluster as its central
mass, surrounded by a normal gravity region (a space-medium
contraction field), which is in turn surrounded by a cosmic gravity
region (a space-medium expansion field). It is called ‘unified’ because
each cell consists of both normal gravity (aka contractile gravity)
with its inward converging trajectories, as well as cosmic gravity
with its inbound diverging trajectories. Unified gravitation cells
exist in mainly two shapes: tetrahedral and octahedral; their orientations
are dictated by the geometry of the dodecahedral cosmic cell structure.
Unified theory: In general, a theory that
gathers a wide range of fundamentally different phenomena under a single
precept. The DSSU fundamental process of energy is such a
Universality: The property that the same
physical laws apply throughout the infinite universe.
Vacuum: In modern physics, it is a generic term
for the medium that permeates all space. (1) In conventional physics, it is
sort of a quantum foam with quantum fields that continuously spawn virtual
particle-antiparticle pairs. (2) In the DSSU, it is a sub-physical
aether, a subquantum essence.
Vacuum energy (vacuum energy density):
Quantum theory requires empty space to be filled with particles and
antiparticles being continually created and annihilated. This leads to a
net mass density of the vacuum, hence an energy density. This
hypothetical energy is believed to behave like a cosmological constant
in the way it affects vacuum expansion. As attractive as this concept
sounds, it does not seem to be necessary for the DSSU. In the DSSU
framework, the vacuum (i.e., the aether medium) when subjected to negative
pressure —as happens in the cosmic Voids— tends to expand resulting in the
formation of new aether. This negative pressure, in the act of expanding
the vacuum, behaves like a positive cosmological constant.
Velocity, intrinsic: In DSSU cosmology the
intrinsic velocity of an object or a galaxy is the velocity relative to the
local space medium (aether).
Virtual particles: See virtual quantum foam.
Virtual quantum foam (also virtual foam): This is, according to
conventional physics, the sub-microscopic description of space, which
consists of virtual-real quantum particles and energy oscillators. Since
space is said to be saturated with these mass and energy entities, the
concept leads to the embarrassing prediction of unimaginably enormous
energy density for the vacuum. The prediction is demonstrably wrong. In
contrast, with the sub-microscopic description of the space medium of the
DSSU, the discrete units of aether possess neither mass nor energy.
Weak nuclear force: One of the conventional four forces of nature. The weak nuclear force is responsible for
radioactive decay as well as the fusion reactions in the Sun that provide
heat and light for the Earth.
Weight: is the measurable force (mass x acceleration) that manifests
when matter is prevented from accelerating with the aether medium.
White dwarf: The burned-out core (about Earth-sized) of a star; its
mass is equivalent to that of the Sun but consists of extremely compressed
carbon and oxygen. If a white dwarf is in a binary system and the other
star dumps matter onto it, the white dwarf can be triggered to undergo
thermonuclear detonation as a supernova explosion (Type 1a).