Glossary of Terms
A B
C D E
F G H
I L M
N P Q
R S T
U V W
Definitions are the guardians of
rationality, the first line of defense against the chaos
of mental disintegration. –Ayn Rand, famous objectivist philosopher
Absorption line:
a more or less narrow range, of wavelengths in a spectrum, that is darker
than neighboring wavelengths. Absorption lines are seen in the analysis of
light from stars.
Aether: (1) The original ether: In Aristotelian physics,
the fifth element, the quintessence, of which the ‘heavens’ are
made. In classical physics, the invisible medium that diffuses all space.
(2) The historic: The material medium that
fills the apparent emptiness of the universe. Invented by René Descartes,
Isaac Newton, and reinvented by many others, including James Clerk Maxwell
who used it for his electromagnetic theory; but was discredited and
discarded by Einstein.
(3) The DSSU aether: The subquantum medium that
permeates all space. It is the nonmaterial essence of the Universe;
it consists of essence units (or precursors) —fundamental essencefluctuators,
or essence oscillators. As a basic space medium, it serves as the
propagator of electromagnetic waves. As a dynamicspace medium, it
manifests gravitation in its two observable forms.
Aether was detected and verified in at least six separate experiments
during the 20^{th} century.
Aether deprivation: The termination process by which matter is
extinguished. Matter does not, and cannot, exist in the absence of aether.
When matter finds itself in a region of insufficient aether flow, a
situation that can only arise at the bottom of a gravity well (sink)
powerful enough to possess an event horizon, it ceases to exist.
Anisotropic: the property of being
different in certain directions. See isotropy.
Anisotropy: the observable difference
between different directions.
Antigravity: the ‘repulsive’ effect
produced by the expansion of the aether medium.
Antiparticles: are the byproducts of
collisions of particles in high energy interactions (e.g., near compact
stars and Superneutron Stars) and often detected in cosmic rays.
Assimilation of aether: by this process, mass & energy are able to
‘contract’ the space medium, thereby pullingin the surrounding
space medium. In the context of the DSSU gravity theory, this is called
primary gravity (and leads to secondary effects).
Background space: It is the Universe’s
3dimensional emptinessspace; it has no properties whatsoever and serves
merely as a “container” —a repository permeated by a universal essence (a
nonmaterial medium) commonly called aether.
Baryon: a massive 'elementary' particle made up
of three quarks. Neutrons and protons are baryons.
Big Bang (BB): an expansionary model in which an explosionlike
event initiated the universe.
BBI: expansionary and inflationary model of
the universe; a universe that has at least one episode of abnormally high
rate of space expansion. (Generically, a universe which becomes diluted
with too much space.)
Blackbody: an object with a constant
temperature that absorbs all radiation that hits it.
Black hole: According to the conventional view, it is any
gravitating object, or region, possessing an event horizon (a
“surface” from which the escape velocity exceeds the speed of
light). In terms of general relativity, the space around a black hole
reaches infinite curvature, and the interior tends to infinite
density.
Black hole (mathematical): A black hole is a mathematical
construction associated with a point mass of some specified magnitude, a
point mass called a singularity. Differs from the usual treatment of
mass in the following way: In conventional gravitation calculations, the
mass body is assumed to merely act as if it were concentrated at a point
(its center of mass); but for a black hole, the mass supposedly
exists, in its entirety, at the center point!
Black hole (singularity): A black hole for which all of its mass is
concentrated at a single central point. It does not exist except as a
mathematical object.
Black star: another term for Superneutron Star.
Bubble Universe: used interchangeably with
unituniverse, cosmic cell, and dodecahedral universe. They
each refer to one of the cells of the Cellular Universe.
CMB: Cosmic Microwave Background radiation,
also CMBR, CBR and the “3 K blackbody radiation.”
(1) In BB cosmology:
Radiation left over from the hot Big Bang which has cooled by expansion to
a temperature slightly less than 3 degrees above absolute zero.
(2) In natural cosmology: ultra distant
starlight redshifted from a nominal 5800 K down to about 3 K.
Containment Principle: (1)
In standard
cosmology: the physical universe contains everything that is physical, and
nothing else.
(2) In the new cosmology: the universe contains
everything that is physical, as well as a nonmaterial, nonenergy, essence
medium, and nothing else.
Contraction 'field': the region,
surrounding a mass body, in which aether is contracted, in a process
of selfdissipation.
Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMBR or CBR):
A nearly uniform flux of microwave emission coming from all directions of
the cosmos; with an intensity corresponding approximately to a blackbody
curve.
(1) The 2.7 K temperature and anisotropic properties approximate
those ‘predicted’ by the BB model as having been generated by photons
released from the big bang when the universe was less than one million
years old.
(2) In the new cosmology:
the 2.7 K CBR is the radiation received from distant galaxies (emitting
light at a peak intensity temperature of about 5800 K) after being
redshifted by a zfactor of 2000 during a journey of 123,000MLY.
Cosmic gravity: In the context of the DSSU
cosmology, cosmic gravity is the acceleration of the aether flow in the
cosmic voids where the dynamic flow has a radially diverging pattern.
Cosmic gravity acts in that portion of the unified gravitational
'field' where comoving trajectories (of objects) are diverging. It
is the Lambda force/effect. See also normal gravity.
Cosmic cell: the dodecahedralshaped structural unit of the DSSU.
Cosmic theory: The attempt to explain our existence and experiences
as caused by observed and unobserved entities and processes.
Cosmism: a philosophy of the cosmos.
Cosmogony: the study of cosmic evolution; any theory of the origin of the
universe or one of its component systems, such as star clusters, galaxies,
and superclusters.
Cosmological Constant (denoted by the Greek
letter Λ):
(1)
Traditionally, it is the multiplicative constant for a
term proportional to the metric in Einstein’s general relativity
equation relating the curvature of space to energymomentum. When positive
it represents space expansion and potentially leads to an acceleration of
the expansion of the universe.
(2) In the new cosmology it
represents the expansion of aether, but has nothing to do with
Universe expansion. In other words, the space medium expands, but
the Universe does not.
Cosmological Principle: states that the
universe, on the large scale, is homogeneous and isotropic; that is,
uniform in all places and in all directions. Spatial homogeneity. See also
perfect cosmological principle.
Cosmologist: one who studies cosmology, the science
of the universe.
Cosmology: (1) the general science of the
cosmos or material universe, its structures, its composition, and its laws.
Combines astronomy, astrophysics, particle physics, and mathematics to
assemble the knowledge into a world picture. (2) A particular cosmological
theory. The DSSU theory is the 5th cosmology.
Cosmology revolutions: The 1st revolution in cosmology occurred when
chaos was transformed into the conceptual Universes ruled by Gods. The 2nd
revolution occurred when the universe ruled by gods was replaced by the
Universe ruled by Natural Laws. The 3rd revolution, known as the Copernican
revolution, saw the overthrow of the Geocentric by the Heliocentric Universe.
The 4th revolution involved the overthrow of the STATIC unchanging universe
by the EXPANDING universe. Finally, the 5th cosmology revolution is the
overthrow of the ExpandingUniverse paradigm by the NonExpanding Cellular
Universe.
Cosmos (from the Greek word kosmos for
order and beauty): The Universe as an embodiment of a system of order and
harmony.
Critical Density: (1) In the BB model it is
the matter/energy density of the universe at which the universe balances
between continued expansion and recollapse.
(2) In the DSSU it is the
matter/energy density at which a defined region of space (the interface
region) experiences a balance between aether inflow (from the
Voids) and aether contraction.
Criticalstate neutron star: see Superneutron star.
Criticalstate star: Any star which, during the course of
gravitational contraction, has acquired an event horizon.
Curvature of Space: refers to the
mathematical representation of the real distortion of space or
aetherspace. The 3 types of curvature: spherical, flat (Euclidean), and
hyperbolic.
Dark Matter: the exotic ingredient required
by the BB model; a form of matter that does not emit, absorb, or scatter
any light. Its only interactions are gravitational. Has never been detected
and remains elusive.
Declination (Dec.): angular distance north
or south of the celestial equator.
Deduction: process of reasoning in which a
conclusion is derived from a given premise or premises, without the need
for additional information.
Dodecahedron: a twelvesided ‘solid’
polyhedron. In a regular dodecahedron each side consists of a pentagon. The
rhombic dodecahedron is irregular, but symmetrical, and has
identical rhombus faces.
Doppler effect: the change in the observed frequency (and
wavelength) of an acoustic or electromagnetic wave due to relative motion
of source and observer. Named after the 19th century physicist credited
with its discovery.
DSSU: Dynamic Steady State Universe.
DSSU Theory: the natural cosmology theory that holds that the space
medium (a nonmaterial aether) is
dynamic and that it expands and contracts regionally and equally
resulting in a cosmicscale cellularlystructured universe. It is defined
by four fundamental processes which provide a rationally coherent account
of the major phenomena of our Universe.
Electromagnetic field: a region, surrounding a
positive or negative charge, in which a process of aether annihilation by
absorptionconduction sustains a radial pattern of excitation.
Electromagnetic force: one of the four forces
of nature. Electromagnetic interactions hold electrons in atoms, hold atoms
in molecules, and are important in all electronic devices.
Electroweak: a unified force that combines
the electromagnetic and weak nuclear interactions. Predicted by Weinberg
and Salam, experimentally verified by Rubbia and van der Meer.
Emission line: a more or less narrow range of
wavelengths in a spectrum that is brighter than neighboring wavelengths.
Emission lines are seen in the light from certain astronomical objects such
as quasars.
Energy: (1) the capacity to do work. (2) Manifestation of a
particular kind of force.
Energy process: Any localized quantitative change in aether
units. Energy, both massenergy and radiationenergy, at the most
fundamental level is manifest in the absorptionannihilation of units of the space medium (defined as a nonmaterial aether).
Without this active process, neither mass nor radiation can exist.
Entropy: is an increase in disorder, a trend
towards thermal equilibrium. It represents a decrease in the useable forms
of energy. For a closed or an isolated system, entropy is not
conserved; it is increasing all the time.
(1)
In standard cosmology the source of low entropy is the expansion of
the entire universe. The entropy is said to be forever increasing for the universe
as a whole, however, this increase is incompatible
with the BB accelerating universe and actually leads to a paradox.
(2)
In the new cosmology the Universe is NOT a closed system: the source
of low entropy is the perpetual expansion of the space medium. Entropy increases
in the usual manner, while entropy simultaneously decreases in the
TerminalAnnihilation process occurring within Superneutron Stars. Each
cosmic cell of the DSSU behaves as an autonomous thermodynamic system.
Essence fluctuators: are the discrete units of
the essence medium, the medium that we equate with a nonponderable aether.
They are the quanta, more specifically, of a nonmaterial, nonenergy,
aether. (A vitally important concept in DSSU theory.)
Essence medium: A synonymous term for aether. It is the nonmaterial,
nonenergy, medium that permeates all space; consists of subquantum
essencefluctuators.
Essence medium (supplementary): the substrate of the universe.
Consists of fundamental fluctuators. Historically rooted in the “nonponderable”,
nonmaterial, nonenergy aether which Einstein expounded in his 1920 Leyden
lecture.
Euclidean space: space which is not curved
(not distorted). Aetherspace that is neither expanding nor
contracting.
Escape velocity: the minimum velocity, with
respect to the gravitating body, that will allow an object to escape from a
gravitational ‘pull’ (or field).
Event horizon: the boundary at which the speed of aether flow, with
respect to the center of the gravitating region, is equal to the speed of light. Outside the
boundary (that is, on the external side of the “horizon” surrounding the
gravitating mass) the inflow of aether is less than lightspeed; while
immediately inside the horizon, the inflow is greater than
lightspeed. Event horizons are associated with criticalstate regions, also
known as supermassive black holes.
Fifth cosmology: The DSSU is the 5th
cosmology. It is called the 5th cosmology because of its emergence as the
5th revolution in cosmology —a revolution of the overthrow of the
ExpandingUniverse paradigm by the NonExpanding Cellular universe. See
Cosmology revolutions.
Flat space: space which is not curved.
Aetherspace is neither expanding nor contracting.
Fundamental energy: see energy process.
Fundamental fluctuators: see essence fluctuators.
Galactic cluster: an open cluster of stars.
Not the same thing as a cluster of galaxies.
Gly: Gigalightyears. Or billion light
years. But the term ‘billion’ is often avoided because of a potential
confusion: In Canada and the United States it means a thousand million
(1,000,000,000); while in Britain and Germany it refers to a million
million (1,000,000,000,000).
Grand Unification Theory (GUT): a theory
that unifies the electromagnetic force with the nuclear forces (weak,
strong) into a single interaction. Several have been proposed, but none
experimentally verified.
Gravitational lensing: the creation of a
distorted image of a distant galaxy or object when its light is focused by
the gravity effect of a galaxy located between it (the distant
sourcegalaxy) and the observer. In the DSSU,
gravitational lensing is caused by the aether contracting 'field'
surrounding the particular intervening galaxy.
Gravitation processes: (1) the direct absorption or
assimilation of aether by all mass and all radiation; this process is
the primary cause of gravitation. (2) a process of the
selfextinction of the space medium; the indirect contraction of aether
by means of space contraction regions (commonly called gravitation
“fields”); this process is the secondary
cause of gravity. (These processes also produce the property of mass
and inertial mass.)
Gravitation, DSSU theory of: (1)
Gravitation is the effect produced by the acceleration of aetherspace
itself towards the center of mass. (2) Gravity is caused primarily
by the direct assimilation of the space medium by matter. By this
process of assimilation, matter acts upon the medium —pullingin the
surrounding aether. (3) Gravity is caused secondarily by the
contraction of aether within a surrounding contraction field
—a region where the medium selfdissipates and literally disappears. The
intensity of contraction has an inverse relationship to radial
distance. (4) A unique feature of DSSU gravity is the presence of a
distinct zerogravity point —at each cosmic void center. (5) The
expansion of aether in each cosmic void also produces a radial
acceleration of the medium and is, therefore, a
cosmicgravity effect. This is simply the outwardlydirected effect
generically called the Lambda force or effect (comparable to the DeSitter
effect). (6) Now, combine the normal contractilegravity (described
by (1), (2) & (3)) with the cosmicgravity (described by (4) & (5))
and remarkably the DSSU theory of gravity becomes
a unified theory of gravity.
Gravity: the effect that causes the acceleration of all entities
towards the center of mass, and is proportional to 1/r^{2} (i.e.,
the inverse square of the distance to the mass center).
(1) In general relativity it is
the effect of the curvature distortion of spacetime.
(2) In DSSU cosmology it is the
effect of the dynamics of the space medium —specifically the
accelerated flow, or inhomogeneous inflow, of aether
towards, and into, matter. In the context of processes, gravity is the side
effect of, primarily, the massmanifesting process.
Higgs Boson, Higgs Field: in
conventional physics, a hypothetical subatomic forceparticle is believed
to bestow the property of mass to other particles; in aggregate, these
‘particles’ constitute a related force field. The Higgs boson (and Higgs
field) does not exist in the real world.
Homogeneity: components of the universe are
evenly distributed within the universe on the large scale.
Hubble constant: (1) In expandinguniverse
cosmology it is symbolized by H_{o} and represents the rate at which the recession
velocity of galaxies increases with distance. The present value is roughly
22 km/s per million lightyears of distance; but since the expansion
rate varies with the
age of the BB universe the Hubble expression is often written as ‘H’
and is then called the Hubble parameter.
(2) In the DSSU, H is the
parameter that measures the rate of space expansion (i.e., aether
expansion) and is expressed as the
speed with which two comoving points, 1 million lightyears apart, are being
separated by the manifestation of new space (aether). The value is about 10 km/s per MLY,
but varies with the location within the cellular structure of the universe.
Hubble's law (only in BB cosmology):
(recession velocity) = (Hubble constant) x distance.
By this law, widely separated galaxies are said
to be moving apart from each other at an average rate of about 22 km/s per
million lightyears of distance between them (or 71km/s per megaparsec).
Hubble length, L: (only for
expandinguniverse models) is defined as the distance at which the
recession velocity equals light speed. The distance has the quantitative
expression c/H, in which c = 3.00x10^{5} km/s and
H » 22.0 km/s
per MLY,
and equals 13,600 million lightyears.
The new cosmology does
not recognize recession velocities and, therefore, does not have a Hubble
length, or a Hubble sphere. Implicitly and explicitly nothing whatsoever
is receding on the large scale.
Hubble sphere: in expandinguniverse
models, an imaginary sphere centered on the observer and having a radius
equal to the Hubble length, L.
Hyperbolic space: is the geometric term
(related to the negative curvature of space) used to describe a region of
dynamically expanding space.
Hot Big Bang: a mythical creation model
of the universe which begins at ‘infinitely’ high density and temperature,
expands explosively, and cools to become like the Universe we observe now.
Inflationary scenario: one of the
savetheappearance modifications of the BB model in which a large
cosmological constant is said to have existed, temporarily, early in the history of the BB,
and caused a rapid accelerating expansion of the universe; the inflation
phase was then
followed by a gradually decelerating expansion as described by the 'normal'
BB model. In 1998 the
inflationary scenario was again invoked in a further ‘modification’ made
necessary by the unexpected reappearance of universewide acceleration. To
minimize the confusion, the patch that was applied following the Crisis
of 1998 is called reinflation.
Interface: the common region between the cosmic structural
cells; the region of aetherstreaming confluence; the region where comoving material collides.
Interfaces surround each cosmic Void.
Inflationary universe model: a modification
of the big bang model; postulates that the early universe
experienced a brief period of extremely fast (exponential) expansion.
Isotropy: the property of being the same in
all directions.
Lambda force, +Λ: it is considered in
conventional astrophysics as the 5^{th} force of nature. It is
often described as being a kind of antigravity, but its cause is
unknown. This 5^{th} force is the property of the vacuum or
ether which, in an amazing coincidence, the Greek philosopher
Aristotle called the 5^{th} element.
In the new cosmology:
(1) it
is the force/effect that appears in the cosmic voids; and is
caused (in part) by the fact that the spacemedium across each
great Void is under tension. The
positive Λ force is responsible for all large scale motion
and subsequent angular momentum.
(2) it is the negative pressure
present within each great Void. Note, the
positive Lambda force/effect and negative pressure and
tension are all equivalent.
Lightyear: a measure of astronomical
distance. 1 lightyear = 9.46x10^{12} kilometers.
Linear galaxy cluster: is the filamentous
aggregation of galaxies that exists at any triple boundary region
where three cosmic cells meet each other. Along the ‘meeting line’ galaxy
structures, from three neighboring cells, aggregate to form a
concentration that extends from one node to another. Most often a linear
cluster is observed as a branching arm of a nodal galaxy cluster.
Luminosity: the intrinsic brightness of a
star.
Mach’s Principle: states that inertial mass
and all inertial forces are due to the existence and distribution of all
the matter in the universe. However, cosmic gravitation cells,
because they limit the range of gravitation, make this an obsolete concept.
Magnitude: a scale used by astronomers to
measure flux; the apparent brightness of a celestial body, expressed on a
scale in which lower numbers mean greater brightness.
Materialism: belief that material objects and
their interactions constitute the complete reality of all phenomena.
Materialism does not permit a FirstCause process which, of necessity,
cannot itself be material; therefore, materialism cannot serve as
the foundation of a theory of the Universe.
Matter extinction law: When matter (mass and energy) is subjected to
aether deprivation it ceases to exist.
Milky Way accretion disk: in the new cosmology the Milky Way can be
referred to as the greater accretion disk formed by the millions of
superneutron stars which, in aggregation, constitute the rotating
galactic core.
Milky Way density:
average density is one hydrogen atom per cubic cm. The Milky Way’s total
mass is 10^{12}¤
(i.e., 10^{12} times the mass of our Sun) according to most
textbooks.
Mly: Mega lightyears or million lightyears;
a measure of cosmic distance.
NGP: North Galactic Pole. The Milky Way’s
North Galactic Polar axis points toward the Coma
nodal galaxy cluster.
Nodal galaxy cluster: the multibranched
galaxy aggregation that occurs at each vertex of the rhombic or
trapezoidal dodecahedron (cosmic cell). Each nodal galaxy cluster is the dense central region of a
cosmic gravitation cell.
Nodal structure:
the immense matter concentrations at the cosmiccell vertices. There are
basically two types: the tripodal and the quadrapodal
structures. There are also hypothetical supernode structures. The
types are characterized by the number of ‘arms’ (filamentlike clusters)
that meet at a vertex.
Normal gravity: in the context of DSSU
cosmology, normal gravity is the acceleration of aether flow towards
mass bodies (where local spaceflow converges). On the larger
scale, normal gravity acts in that portion of each cosmicscale
gravitation cell where comoving trajectories (of objects) are
converging. It is the normal gravity of our everyday experience. See
also cosmic gravity, and unified gravitational cell.
Parsec: astronomical unit of distance,
corresponding to a parallax of one arcsecond, equal to 3.26 lightyears or
3.085678x10^{13} kilometers.
Perfect Cosmological Principle: states that
the universe, on the large scale, is uniform both in time and in space; an
extension of the cosmological principle. The DSSU conforms to the
perfect cosmological principle.
Photon: The photon is a wavelike particle of radiation energy; it is
the carrier of the electromagnetic force. (It is an energy particle that
may be thought of as a laterally oscillating excitation of the aether while
traveling in the longitudinal direction.)
Photon conduction process: is a wavelike conductiondisturbance of
aether. This "conduction" is unlike any other. The photon is conducted
by aether in a manner that is destructive of aether.
Platonic Solids: the five regular polyhedra
—the tetrahedron, hexahedron, octahedron, dodecahedron, and icosahedron
—esteemed by Plato and the Pythagoreans as embodying aesthetic and rational
ideals.
Primary gravitation: is associated with the process —conduction by
aetherabsorption— that sustains mass particles and radiation particles and
EMfields.
Proper motion: motion of a body through the
space medium and referenced as such; same as intrinsic motion.
Quantum space: the quantization of
the space medium. In the DSSU, aetherspace consists of discrete
fundamental fluctuators of the essence medium. (In conventional
physics the term is often used to describe the ‘vacuum’ with its
potential to produce real particles.)
Redshift (z): is defined as the displacement
towards the longer wavelengths of all the spectral lines in light coming
from the stars of distant galaxies; expressed as a fraction of the original
wavelength itself. The ratio
Dlù(l_{source}), where l
is the wavelength.
The redshift is used as a prized measure for determining cosmic
distance. In BB cosmology (unlike DSSU cosmology), the redshift is
interpreted as the evidence of actual receding velocity and even as
evidence of the expansion of the whole universe. The cause of the
cosmic redshift, in expandinguniverse models, is primarily the
expansion of space (or space medium). But in the DSSU, the cause is
primarily the influence of gravitation —the consequence of transit through
cosmic gravitation cells.
Redshiftdistance relation: the correlation
between redshift in the spectra of galaxies and their distances. The
equation used depends on the particular cosmological model. The BB
model and the DSSU use distinctly different formulae.
Relativity, general theory of: Einstein’s
mathematical theory, incorporating the gravitational effect, in which space
and time are geometrized.
Relativity, special theory of: Einstein’s
theory of the electrodynamics of moving frames of reference.
Rhombus: a parallelogram with all sides of
equal length.
Right Ascension (R. A.): the astronomer’s
equivalent of longitude —longitudinal position lines projected onto the
celestial sphere— which divides the celestial sphere in 24 slices, each 15
degrees wide.
Schwarzschild radius: (1) In conventional
cosmology: it is that theoretical distance from the center of a nonrotating mass object
for which the escape speed (with respect to the surface) equals the speed
of light. It can be calculated for any amount of mass, without reference to
relativity, using the expression R_{S}=2GM/c^{2}.
The Schwarzschild radius depends only on the quantity of mass (assuming no
rotation). If different bodies could be compressed to within their
Schwarzschild radius they would not necessarily have the same density.
Schwarzschild radius: (2) is a flawed theoretically predicted
dimension for the event horizon of a mass body. When applied to a
precollapsed mass/body, it fails as a prediction of the actual radius of
the event horizon; it fails because it neglects to factor in
relativistic length contraction and mass loss via aether
deprivation.
Singularity: a concept in standard cosmology
used to describe a point region of infinite density —a pointregion where
standard theories break down. Singularities do not exist in the real world.
SnS: acronym for Superneutron Star. See Superneutron Star.
Space: a general term for the vacuum; also for the
background medium of the universe.
Space (3dimensional): According to DSSU theory, 3dimensional space
(in the sense of an empty container) is a nothingness volume permeated by
(filled with) a space medium —a ubiquitous, nonmass, nonenergy,
discretized aether.
Space contraction postulate: All matter contracts the space
medium, (1) directly through a process of assimilation or direct
absorption and, (2) indirectly through a process of selfdissipation
within what is called a space contraction ‘field’ that surrounds
each and every object or ‘particle’.
Space dynamics: This term refers to the expansion and
contraction aspects of the aether spacemedium, as well as its flow.
These aspects constitute a complete conceptual description of what sustains
the cellular structure of the infinite Universe.
Space expansion parameter: an empirically
derived value, symbolized by H, which measures the rate of space
(i.e., aether)
expansion within the cosmic voids. (In BB cosmology, it is called the Hubble constant). The
research into the DSSU has used a value of 18.6 km/sec per million lightyears of distance.
(But the most recent research suggests a value of 10.1 km/sec per million
lightyears.)
Special relativity (Einstein): (1) Principle
of relativity: the impossibility of detecting uniform (inertial) motion by
laboratory experiments. No preferred frameofreference. (2) Constancy of
the speed of light: light is always propagated in empty space with a
velocity independent of the motion of the source.
Special relativity (DSSU):
(1) Aetherspace serves as the preferred frameofreference. It
is possible to measure motion relative to absolute space. (2) Constancy
of the speed of light: the speed of light is constant and absolute with
respect to aether. However, with respect to the observer (any inertial
observer), the speed of light is constant only as an illusion facilitated
by physical length contraction of the measuring device.
Special relativity speed rule: the rule that nothing can travel
faster than 300,000 km/s through space, or through aether.
Spectrometer: spreads starlight, or any other
light source, into its different wavelengths.
Speed of Light: c ≈ 3.00 x 10^{8}
meters/second through aetherspace.
Spherical Space: a geometric term associated, in the
mathematical world, with the positive curvature
of space; and associated, in the real world, with the contraction of the space
medium by a mass body.
Star clusters: gravitationally bound
aggregation of stars, smaller and less massive than galaxies. The largest
star clusters are known as ‘globular’ clusters and harbour hundreds of
thousands to millions of stars; while the smaller ones are called ‘open’
clusters.
Static surface:
the static surface of infinite redshift (for a distant observer) is a
boundary, surrounding a spinning SNS (black hole), where space flow
actually reaches the speed of light. It is like a larger second ‘surface’
enclosing a rotating SNS and should not be confused with a true event
horizon nor a quasi eventhorizon.
Steady State Expanding Universe: a model of
the expanding universe with constant density and physical properties.
Matter must be continually created to maintain the constant density.
Steady State NonExpanding Universe: an
infinite universe with constant density on the largest scale and constant
physical processes and properties. Matter is continually being formed
and annihilated. The space medium itself is continually being formed
and annihilated.
String Theory: holds that subatomic
particles, instead of being mere points, actually have extension along one
axis, and that their properties are determined by the arrangement and
vibration of so called strings.
Strong nuclear force: one of the conventional four forces
of nature. The strong nuclear force holds the particles in the nucleus of
atoms together.
Supermassive black region (or conventionally
supermassive black hole): A structure delineated by an event
horizon that surrounds an interior region of noncontiguous mass. Can
exist and persist only if there is significant rotation.
Superneutron Star: A Superneutron Star may be thought of as a
naturaltype black hole; it has a noescape boundary (horizon) but no empty region
within. “Superneutron” refers to the density of the star’s matter, which is
greater than neutron/nuclear density because of length contraction of the
constituent particles. The orientation of the length contraction coincides
with the radial direction from the star’s center.
Superneutron Star (in active state): This is a Superneutron Star
in which an insufficient quantity of aether reaches the core —making it an
active aether deprivation core. Essentially, the SnS is absorbing
more matter than it can sustain with a strictlylimited supply of aether
inflow. With an insufficient quantity of aether reaching the core, the
matter within is subjected to a terminal process of matter
annihilation.
Suppressionannihilation process (more properly called aetherdeprivation annihilation): a process that takes place deep
inside extreme mass concentrations (matter concentrations that are large or
dense or both). It occurs when mass aggregation approaches a state at which
an insufficient quantity of aether reaches the core; and since matter
cannot exist in the absence of aether, the aether deficiency results in the
suppressionannihilation of the affected matter.
Supernova type 1A: is the explosion of a
white dwarf star in a binary system. Accretion from a companion raises the
mass above the maximum mass permissible for gravitationally stable white dwarfs. The
quantity of matter reaches the Chandrasekhar limit and the white dwarf
starts to collapse. However, the ensuing compression ignites explosive
carbonburning leading to a total disruption of the star. The light output
comes primarily from the energy produced by the decay of radioactive nickel
and cobalt produced in the explosion. The peak luminosity is correlated
with the rate of decay in the measured lightcurve: less luminous
supernovae decay more quickly than do more luminous supernovae. When the
necessary correction is applied, the relative luminosity of a Type 1A SN
can be determined to within 20% accuracy. [Wright,
Edward The ABC’s of Distance
www.astro.ucla.edu/~wright/distance.htm] Type 1A
supernovae are bright enough to be seen to such great distances that they
can be, and are, used to calibrate the cosmic redshiftdistance law.
Terminalstate star: is a Superneutron Star
actively absorbing/consuming additional matter. Terminalstate stars are
the matter disposers of the universe —the ultimate massandenergy
destroyers.
Theory: a rational selfconsistent account of
a wider range of phenomena than is ordinarily accounted for by a
hypothesis.
Trapezoid: a quadrilateral with one pair of
parallel sides.
Unified gravitation region (unified gravitation
cell):
a typical cosmic region having a nodal galaxy cluster as its central
mass, surrounded by normal gravity (a subregion of contractile
spacemedium), which is in turn surrounded by cosmic gravity
(subregions of expansionary spacemedium). It is called ‘unified’ because each
cell consists of
both normal gravity with its inward converging trajectories,
as well as cosmic gravity with its inward diverging
trajectories. As dictated by the dodecahedral geometry, the unified
cells are bounded and exist in mainly two shapes: tetrahedral and
octahedral.
Unified theory: in general, a theory that
gathers a wide range of fundamentally different phenomena under a single
precept. The DSSU fundamental process of energy is such a
theory.
Unit dodecahedral universe: one of the names
given to the largest structure of the dynamic steady state universe
(DSSU). Also known as unituniverse, bubble universe, and
cosmic cell.
Universality: the property that the same
physical laws apply throughout the infinite universe.
Vacuum energy density: Quantum theory
requires empty space to be filled with particles and antiparticles being
continually created and annihilated. This leads to a net mass density,
hence energy density, of the
‘vacuum’ and behaves like a cosmological constant. As attractive as this
concept sounds, it does not seem to be necessary for the DSSU. In the DSSU
framework, the vacuum (i.e., the aether medium) when subjected to negative
pressure —as happens in the void regions of the cosmic cells— tends to
expand resulting in the formation of new aether. This negative pressure, in
the act of expanding space, behaves like a positive cosmological constant.
Velocity, intrinsic: In DSSU cosmology the
intrinsic velocity of a galaxy or object is the velocity relative to the
local space medium.
Virtual quantum foam: (also virtual foam) a
submicroscopic description of space, consisting of virtualreal quantum
particles and energy oscillators. An ambiguous term;
depends on one's theory of the vacuum or space.
Weak nuclear force:
one of the conventional four forces of nature. The weak nuclear force is responsible for
radioactive decay as well as the fusion reactions in the Sun that provide
heat and light for the Earth.
Weight: is the measurable force (mass x acceleration) that manifests
when matter is prevented from accelerating with the aether medium.
