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Directory of DSSU Articles and Resources

Last updated: 2023 July


Cosmic Structure (& distance determination)
Galaxies (evolution, morphology, ...)
Gravity (aether theory of gravity)
Physics (principles, premises, ...)
Redshift (in an aether-permeated World)
Relativity (in an aether-permeated World)
MISCELLANEOUS (glossary, author info)

It's time to face the one universal truth: Truth is a matter of knowledge —knowledge that corresponds to reality —knowledge that is discoverable only through observation and reason. –Robert Metz (2016)

An idea, an intuition, an insight, a hypothesis, a theory, whatever it may be (providing it is testable); it becomes truth by virtue of the convergence of the evidence. –C.R.

NOTE: Within each category, the most recent articles appear first (and oldest appear last).


The History of the Aether Theory (rev2019/12). PDF
The historic development of the aether as a scientific theory of the universal space medium. What started as the "fifth element" of Antiquity becomes molded by theoretical constraints and experimental evidence into the dual-dynamic sub-quantum medium —the Essence of the Universe.

The Aether Experiments and the Impact on Cosmology. (rev2011/1).
Aether was detected first in 1887 and then several more times during the 20th century. Its 21st–century "rediscovery" (in 2001) led to the long-sought causal mechanism of gravity —a discovery which has revolutionizing cosmology.

Contradiction Divides Two Aether Theories –An exploration into the three parts of the speed-of-light postulate.
Physics Essays Vol.24, No.3, p419 (2011). PDF Reprint

Aether Flow Equations and Expansion-Contraction Rates (rev2010).
● Explores the mathematical aspects of the two space-medium postulates of DSSU theory —and uncovers some profound consequences.

Michelson-Morley and the Story of the Aether Theory (2008).
Richard Milton's analysis of the historical details involving the misrepresentation, bias, and cover-up that hampered the Aether theory.


Mainspring of the Universe –The Mechanism Sustaining the Universe’s Steady State, Int J Cosmol Astron Astrophys Vol.3, No.1: pp130-142 (2021).
Abstract & HTM Article. PDF Reprint.

Olbers’ Paradox Resolved for the Nonexpanding Infinite Universe (PDF reprint). American Journal of Astronomy & Astrophysics, Vol.4, No.1 (2016 Jan).  Abstract and links; HTML version.
● “The man accredited with discovering universe expansion did not believe that the universe was expanding. Hubble was convinced that the key evidence, the cosmic redshift, was caused by some other factor, something more fundamental than mere expansion.”
● “With the recent discovery of a new cosmic-redshift mechanism, and its theoretical validation, it turns out that Hubble was right.”
● Explains how “an infinite, non-expanding, perpetually regenerating universe" is able to predict a dark night sky.

A historical tour of universes culminating with the Natural Universe (rev2015/8).
● Follow a thematic tour of historical and modern universes. ... While the Universe is endlessly speaking, forever sending signals; philosophers and scientists listen and interpret.

Models of the Universe Historic, Expanding, and Cellular Models (rev2015/1). PDF
● Includes useful tables for comparing theories.

The Universe Is Infinite (Part 1) –overcoming a "central" problem of cosmology theories. (2015/7).

The Universe Is Infinite (Part 2) –an explanation of how the Universe can always have existed and will always exist. (2015/7).

The Case for a Cellular Universe –The Story of a Baffling Omission in Modern Cosmology (2008 rev2014/10).
How 20th-century cosmology devolved into a deception.

Cosmic Background Radiation in the DSSU (2014/9.rev) PDF
The natural explanation of the microwave background radiation applicable to the natural Cellular Universe.

The Dynamic Steady State Universe. Physics Essays Vol.27, No.2, p286-315 (2014/6). Abstract; PDF Reprint
● This work brings together the main pieces of the cosmic puzzle in a step-by-step construction of the Natural Universe.
● "... the arguments are well-made. The article is competent, enjoyable and readable." –Reviewer for Physics Essays Journal.

DSSU Validated by Redshift Theory and Structural Evidence. See Cosmic Structure section.

Conventional Cosmology Critique (–Four essays relating to the 'preposterous' expanding-universe paradigm. 2008-2012). PDF
1. On Model Tinkering in the Ptolemaic Tradition
2. Baffled by the Preposterous
3. The Cosmology Debate That Never Happened
4. Has the Higgs Boson Been Discovery?

Cosmic Structure (& distance)

Large-Scale Structure of the Dynamic Steady State Universe (PDF reprint) –How a dual-dynamic space medium sustains the cellular structure. American Journal of Astronomy & Astrophysics Vol.4, No.6, pp65-77 (2016). Abstract and links
Presents the first 2 of the 4 main postulates that define the DSSU.
Space-medium expansion and contraction are perpetually held in balance, thus ensuring a nonexpanding universe.
Explains how the two dynamic processes of the DSSU’s space medium sustain the cellular structure responsible for the pattern of matter distribution in our Universe.

DSSU Validated by Redshift Theory and Structural Evidence (PDF reprint). Physics Essays Vol.28, No.4, pp455-473 (2015 Dec). Abstract and Extras
● Delivers the coup de grâce to the Big Bang.
● Both Reviewers enthusiastically endorsed this "well-written and incisive article."

Cosmic Redshift in the Nonexpanding Cellular Universe (2014). See Redshift section.

DSSU Cosmic Redshift-Distance Relation (pdf) (rev2014/8). Abstract & Review
Converting the cosmic redshift into distance for our Cellular Universe using a simple and elegant equation.

Cosmic-Redshift Distance Law, Without c Without H (pdf). Galilean Electrodynamics Vol.25, No.3, p43-55 (2014, May/June). Abstract & ExtrasPDF Reprint
● Simplifying the redshift-distance formula by removing the speed-of-light constant and the Hubble parameter —while maintaining agreement with observational evidence.

Dynamic Cosmic Cell –The Structural Component of the DSSU (2011).
● Animated image and discussion of the self-sustaining, self-balancing system.

DSSU, The Non-Expanding Universe: Structure, Redshift, DistanceA long sought-after goal of astrophysicists has been a formulation of cosmic distance that is independent of the speed of light. The goal has now been achieved. The present Paper details the surprisingly simple distance expression and its validating agreement with Supernova data. (2008). PDF version

Galaxies (evolution, morphology ...)

Natural Cause of Galaxy Rotation (PDF reprint). American Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Vol.8, No.2, pp19-29 (2020 June). Abstract & links

Ellipticity, Its Origin and Progression in Comoving Galaxies (html),
American Journal of Astronomy & Astrophysics Vol.3, No.2, pp12-25 (2015). Abstract and links; PDF Reprint
Provides the first-ever natural explanation for the cause of the elliptical shape of nonrotating galaxies;
Retains the foundation premise of all modern cosmology but rejects the absurd concept of whole-universe expansion;
Takes full advantage of the universe’s cosmic cellular structure and exploits the DSSU theory of unified gravity domains;
Amazingly, the mechanism that stretches galaxies turns out to be the very same mechanism that causes the cosmic spectral redshift!

Gravity (aether theory of gravity)

The Nature of Gravity –How one factor unifies gravity’s convergent, divergent, vortex, and wave effects (PDF reprint). International Journal of Astrophysics and Space Science Vol.6, No.5, pp73-92 (2018).  Abstract & links
● Revolutionary.

The Nature of Gravitational Collapse (PDF reprint). American Journal of Astronomy & Astrophysics, Vol.4, No.2, pp15-33 (2016). Abstract and links
(Note, there is a typo in AJA&A posted version in the Fig-10 caption. It should read: … acceleration is proportional to 1/r2.)

Gravity and Dark Energy (How They Shape the Universe) –An Introduction (2015).
● Provides a preamble and overview for a couple of earlier DSSU articles.

The Processes of Gravitation –The Cause & Mechanism of Gravitation, Journal of Modern Physics and Applications Vol.2014:3 (2014).  Abstract & Extras; PDF Reprint

Unified Gravitation Cells of the DSSU –Constructing the Universe with Gravity Cells (rev2012/6).

Why Copernicus Did Not Need a Force of Gravity (2011/9).
Explores the question of why no one, except Newton, invoked a force.

The Story of Gravity and Lambda –How the Theory of Heraclitus Solved the Dark Matter Mystery  (pdf). Physics Essays Vol 23, No.1, p75-87 (2010).
First ever, journal-published paper featuring the DSSU.
● This is the cure for the fallacious belief in cosmic-scale Dark Matter.

Gravity and Lambda –A Story of Opposites (2007 rev2010/6).
● A story of opposites in harmony. Key differences between the Conventional Cosmology and the 5th Cosmology are presented.


The History of the Aether Theory (rev2019/12). See Aether section.

A Historical Tour of Universes ... (rev2015/8). See Cosmology section.

Why Copernicus Did Not Need a Force of Gravity (2011/9). See Gravity section.

Why Einstein Did Not Receive the Nobel Prize for His Theory of Relativity (2009). See Relativity section.

Michelson-Morley and the Story of the Aether Theory (2008). See Aether section.


Physics (principles, premises, energy)

Nature’s Entropy-Lowering Processes:
How Nature circumvents the Second law of thermodynamics and maintains cosmic-scale entropy neutrality
, International Astronomy and Astrophysics Research Journal Vol.5, No.1, pp128-149 (2023 July).
Abstract & Links; PDF Reprint

SPECIAL seven-part series:

Law of Physics 20th-Century Scientists Overlooked (Part 1): The Velocity Differential Propagation of Light. Physics Essays Vol.33, No.2, pp163-174 (2020 June). Abstract & Links; PDF Reprint

... (Part 2): Energy Generation via Velocity Differential Blueshift. Physics Essays Vol.33. No.3, pp289-298 (2020). Abstract & Links; PDF Reprint

... (Part 3): Noninteraction Mass-to-Energy Conversion. International Journal of High Energy Physics Vol.7, No.1, pp19-31 (2020). Abstract & links; PDF Reprint

... (Part 4): Mass Extinction by Aether Deprivation (pdf). Journal of High Energy Physics, Gravitation and Cosmology Vol.7, No.1, pp191-209 (2021).
Abstract & HTML version

... (Part 5): Centrifugal Effect Negation, Applied Physics Research Vol.13, No.2, pp.13-34 (2021).
Abstract & links; PDF Reprint

... (Part 6): Law of Cosmic-Scale Conservation of Energy, Physics Essays Vol.34, No.3, pp.331-339 (Sept 2021). Abstract & Links; PDF Reprint

... (Part 7): Steady State Cosmic Structure, Open Access Library Journal Vol.8, No.12 (2021).
Abstract & HTML version.
                                      *  *  *

Mass-to-Energy Conversion, the Astrophysical Mechanism (PDF reprint). Journal of High Energy Physics, Gravitation and Cosmology Vol.5, No.2, pp520-551 (2019). HTML articleHTML version
● The natural transformation, of mass energy to photonic energy, associated with gravitational collapse.
●Highlights ●Reviews ●Comments (2019).

Nature’s Supreme Mechanism for Energy Extraction from Nonmaterial Aether (PDF reprint). Infinite Energy Magazine Vol.25, Issue #144 (2019 March/April).

Natural Mechanism for the Generation and Emission of Extreme Energy Particles (PDF reprint). Physics Essays Vol.31, No.3, pp358-376 (2018).  Abstract & links


Sacks-Wolfe Effect Disproof –The fundamental flaw in the spectral analysis of gravity wells (PDF reprint). International Journal of Astrophysics & Space Science, Vol.6, No.1, pp1-17 (2018).  Abstract & links

The Fundamental Process of Energy –A Qualitative Unification of Energy, Mass, & Gravity (2014).
Part I: Infinite Energy Issue #113 Jan/Feb. (PDF reprint)
Part II: Infinite Energy Issue #114 Mar/Apr. (PDF reprint)
Complete article: PDF reprint
This article reveals the secret behind photon confinement. (Contains only a bare minimum of math and mainly in one of the 14 sections.)


Physical Nature of Length Contraction (Part 1) –the DSSU Theory of Length Contraction Induced by Absolute Motion. Applied Physics Research Vol.5, No.1, p87 (2013/2).
Derivation of the phenomenon of length contraction due to motion —without resorting to conventional relativity theory.
An easy to follow examination of how the mode by which matter is “conducted” through luminiferous aether causes the matter to contract. A simple derivation of the mathematical expression for this physical phenomenon is presented. There is also a brief discussion of relevant historical aspects and of nonphysical length contraction.
Reviewer's comments: “This is amazing …”  “The paper is interesting …” –Applied Physics Research reviewer.

Physical Nature of Length Contraction (Part 2) –How the Electron Elongates While Its Orbit Contract (PDF reprint). International Journal of High Energy Physics Vol.6, No.1, pp1-12 (2019). Abstract & links


Redshift (in an aether-permeated World)

Cosmic Redshift in the Nonexpanding Cellular Universe: Velocity-Differential Theory of Cosmic Redshift (pdf),
American Journal of Astronomy & Astrophysics, Vol.2, No.5, pp47-60 (2014). Abstract & Article files; PDF reprint
● Details the actual causal mechanism, an entirely new concept for cosmic redshift;
● Retains the foundation premise of all modern cosmology;
● But does not require whole-universe expansion;
● A redshift based on the DSSU theory of unified gravity and cosmic cellular structure;
● Remarkable agreement with independently established redshift distances.

Cosmic-Redshift Distance Law, Without c Without H (2014). See Cosmic Structure section.


Relativity (in an aether-permeated World)

Einstein’s Simple Mathematical Trick –and the Illusion of a Constant Speed of Light (pdf reprint), (htm abridged version).
Applied Physics Research Vol.5, No.4, p85 (2013/8).

Restoring the Physical Meaning of Energy (PDF Reprint),
Applied Physics Research Vol.5, No.2, p84 (2013/5)
Distinguishing between the apparent energy and the real energy of moving mass.

The Three Components of the Speed-of-Light Postulate –The presence of aether introduces a harmony of into three diverse aspects of the speed of light.
Physics Essays Vol.26, No.1, p40 (2013/3). (PDF reprint)
Absolute vs relative. Variance vs invariance. Another instance of the Heraclitian "Harmony of Opposites."

Extended Relativity –Exploiting the Loopholes in Einstein's Relativity. Physics Essays Vol.25, No.3, p327-346 (2012). Abstract & Extras
● A Logical extension of special relativity.

The Key that Extends Einstein’s Relativity (Part 1): Response to a Reviewer Critical of DSSU Absolute-Space Relativity (2010/9).

The Key that Extends Einstein’s Relativity (Part 2): How to convert abstract-space equations into absolute-space equations (2010/10).

DSSU Relativity –The Lorentz Transformations Applied to Aether-Space. Physics Essays Vol.23, No.3, p520 (2010). PDF Reprint

Resolving a Paradox in Special Relativity —Absolute Motion and the Unified Doppler Equation, Physics Essays Vol.23, No.4, p594-608 (2010). PDF Reprint

How DSSU Relativity Resolves the Speed Paradox (pdf)
(2006 rev2011/8).  Abstract & Extras
Absolute motion resolves a (speed) paradox in Einstein’s Relativity.

Relativity of Time in the Aether-Space of the DSSU (pdf)
–Absolute Motion and
 Intrinsic Time (rev2010).
● How intrinsic time and relative time are related.

Why Einstein Did Not Receive the Nobel Prize for His Theory of Relativity (pdf). Physics Essays Vol.22, No.4, p564-576 (2009). Abstract & Extras
● “By 1922 Einstein had been nominated about fifty times —most were for his relativity theories.”



DIRECTORY of Resources and activity projects focusing on the current revolution in cosmology

1. Cosmology Testing Part 1: Fundamentals

2. Cosmology Testing Part 2: Observational Features

3. Redshift Quiz and Brief Historical Discussion

4. The Embarrassing Truth about “Dark Matter”

5. Dark Matter Delusion –The Nobel Succumbs



Glossary of Terms –DSSU (Cellular Cosmology)

Author Profile (html)

Author Curriculum Vitae (pdf)

Physics Essays articles are reprinted by permission of  Physics Essays Publication.

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