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(2019 December 20): After considerable delay, the History of the Aether Theory —with its extensive chronicle (Table) of the development of aether theory— has now been UPDATED (with new table entries for 1900, 2015, 2017, and 2018).

(2019 December): New webpage-article For Educators has been posted:
The Nobel Foundation Endorses the Unsubstantiated Dark Matter Hypothesis

(2019 November): Some brief comments on Fantasyland Physics

(2019 October 24): Canadians have voted to allow the invasion of the country to continue —and worse— to allow it to expand!! Inevitably, ever more precious farmland will be urbanized. … With the 2019 October National election, Canadians have turned their backs on freedom of speech, freedom in general, and acquiesced to the Country’s continuing descent along the path of socialism and fascism. Very, very sad.
Link to the JustRightMedia Oct-31st commentary and the Nov-7th analysis.

(2019 October 10): Several new webpages have been added and serve as “Resources for Educators, Instructors, & New-Cosmology Enthusiasts.” DIRECTORY

(2019 September 20): Canadian broadcaster Robert Metz focuses on cosmology and gives a masterful presentation —a superb show in which he exposes the absurdity of the Big Bang hypothesis, delves into some key aspects of the DSSU, and praises the veracity of the modern steady-state perspective. Listen to the Just Right program #623 originally broadcast around the world over the internet and on shortwave radio on 2019 September 19.

(2019 August): German philosopher praises Cellular Universe website and endorses DSSU theory. [Link to his comments]
    This month of August marks the 19th anniversary of DSSU theory.

(2019 August): Corruption of justice in Canada continues. White Man sentenced to one year in jail for the “offence” of exercising his constitutional right of free speech! While for the same “offence” (and in the very same trial) Native Man sentenced to optional reconciliation session and NO jail time! Editors, publishers, writers, and researchers take note. LINK to several postings on the persecution of Dr James Sears and LeRoy St. Germaine.

(2019 August 10): Corruption of justice in Germany continues. Alfred Schaefer Receives 18 Months Additional Prison Time for Defending Himself!  Punished for simply presenting evidence for his own defense in court! Alfred’s sister has posted this 8-minute video.

(2019 July 1): New webpage posted: Highlights ●Reviews ●Comments relating to the recently published article "Mass-to-Energy Conversion, the Astrophysical Mechanism".

(2019 June 1 & June 7): New research paper dealing with the physical nature of length contraction has been published. Physical Nature of Length Contraction (Part 2) How the Electron Elongates While Its Orbit Contracts, ... See the Press Release (2019 June) for details.

(2019 May 1): New DSSU article reveals how a simple extension of Einstein’s relativity  radically changes black-hole physics.  Published in the Journal of High Energy Physics, ...  See the Press Release (2019 May) for details.

(2019 April 12): Response to a reader’s Question on the root (the origin) of “information” in the universe.
Response to a reader’s Question on the extraction of energy from aether.

(2019 March 30): Currently two articles are undergoing peer-review and another one is being prepared.
    Meanwhile the suicide of Western Nations continues. Check this out: Popular philosopher Stefan Molyneux discovered that in British Colombia it would have cost him and the event organizers $40,000 to stop violent attacks and to peacefully exercise their constitutional right of freedom-of-speech! (Link to the Molyneux video of 2019-3-20)
    It gets worse. Socialism as a death sentence! Just Right program #603, (2019-4-11)

(2019 March 20): Article revealing how energy is extracted from nonmaterial aether has just been published in the current issue of INFINITE ENERGY Magazine. See the Press Release (2019 March) for details.

(2019 March 14): Oppression of freedom: Powerful discussion on the evil of the political center: “Left, Right, and the Extreme Center” (Just Right #599 Audio program, Mar.14, 2019)

(2019 February 13, 14, & 15): Three days of remembrance and mourning: the horror and tragedy of the Dresden Holocaust (1945, Feb 13-15), the most devastating single terrorist event in the history of mankind. [ HELLSTORM ]

(2019 January): Regarding the latest DSSU research article: The theoretical and evidential proof of total mass-to-energy conversion was rejected by the Canadian Journal of Physics. Unable to find errors in the physics or flaws in the logic, the editor Dr. Michael Steinitz and his anonymous Associate Editor dismissed the Paper as being too technical in nature and not being a “topic of high interest for the widest audience of physicists.” … Who would have guessed? The editors of Canadian Journal of Physics find basic first-year university physics too technical!! … Regarding the other excuse, I politely asked the editors: “Do you seriously believe that your target audience, mostly physicists and others with an earnest interest in the physical sciences, would not value this new insight!? Should they not be made aware of this new knowledge?” No response! … So ends another FAKE REVIEW. –CR

(2018 December 28): See Press Release: Unprecedented Unification of Gravity Theory.

(2018 December 1): Unification-of-gravity paper has been accepted for publication.

(2018 November 22): Here we go again! Latest paper rejected.
   Reason? “The paper contains too many acronyms …” How many? Hey! It contains only one well-known acronym (DSSU)!
   Although clearly written and logically presented with an easy to follow style (text, examples, mathematics, graphics), the Reviewer/Editor found the article “impenetratable [sic] and therefore impossible to referee in any detail.” … No examples, no particulars, it was just hopelessly “impossible to referee.”
   The seeking and exposing of errors is the essence of a legitimate review process. Evidently the Reviewer/Editor failed to find anything that could be considered demonstrably false, and so, found it necessary to concoct BS objections (well-known acronym for bovine excrement). What happened here was simply a fake review. –CR

(2018 September 27): New research paper on GRAVITY is currently under review. … Details the unification of all five aspects of gravity … Presents a remarkable new development in the theoretical nature of gravity waves. …

(2018 September):
Fan of DSSU comments on the “train wreck” of modern physics and on big bang mythology.

(2018 September 1): PUBLISHED: Natural Mechanism for the Generation and Emission of Extreme Energy Particles, Physics Essays Vol.31, No.3, pp.358-376 (2018).

(2018 August): Press Release (2018 August): "The mechanism driving astrophysical jets has been discovered"

(2018 July 31): What’s the delay? Yes, the usual publication frustrations:
■ Journal 1: peer reviewed, no errors in the logic, no flaws in the science, tentative ACCEPTANCE, then REJECTED !
■ Journal 2: peer reviewed, no errors in the logic, no flaws in the science, REJECTED !
   Could it be that the editors promoting fake astro-science feel threatening by the DSSU revolution? …
■ Journal 3: peer reviewed, “This is a scholarly and erudite article that deserves to be published in recognition of its tutorial nature and … the validity of the author’s proposals.” ACCEPTED for publication.
The article —Natural Mechanism for the Generation and Emission of Extreme Energy Particles— is toxic and revolutionary! Details to follow. –CR

(2018 May 24): Two papers are currently under review. Meanwhile, work has begun on a new research paper ---delving deeper into the amazing properties of aether.

(2018 April 28):
Question: What drives astrophysical jets?
What process or mechanism generates the stupendous power of those spectacular emission jets associated with certain stars? (I’m talking about gamma photons and neutrinos with energy equivalent to a million hydrogen atoms!! Imagine that much energy contained in a single gamma photon or neutrino!)
    This has been one of the biggest mysteries of the universe —one that has baffled the academic cognoscenti for decades.
    The answer will be revealed in the next research article, which is currently under review. And as the followers of DSSU theory have come to expect, the answer is perfectly natural; the concepts are straightforward, the arguments logical, the conclusions compelling, the implications profound.

(2018 February 1): Research paper Sachs-Wolfe Effect Disproof has been published in in the International Journal of Astrophysics and Space Science. Abstract & links.
Reprint (download PDF).

(2017 December 30): Press release: The Sacks-Wolfe Effect has now been disproved. … Expansion Cosmology has lost its last supporting pillar. …

(2017 December 29): Another powerful research paper … another devastating blow for the Big Bang … the "Sacks-Wolfe Effect Disproof " has been accepted for publication in an international journal for astrophysics. (Details to follow within a few days.)

(2017 December): Comment posted: Galaxy age misinterpretation. Does cosmic distant have any relationship to a galaxy’s age?

(2017 December): 2nd printing of "The Nature of Gravitational Collapse": (Details)

(2017 November): Special purchase offer on the book "Guide to the Construction of the Natural Universe": (Mail-in Order Form.)

(2017 Sept): Recently brought to my attention: DSSU material appears on The New Illuminati website accompanied by some amazing graphics.

New Illuminati –The DSSU is The New Cosmology

New Illuminati –Hidden Substrate of Reality
–History of the Aether Theory

(2017 Sept): "Assorted Comments" added to QuestionsAnswersComments.

(2017 July): The book The Nature of Gravitational Collapse is now available.

The Nature of Gravitational Collapse

Subtitle: How the photon, the particle of light, is responsible for mass, gravity, superneutron stars, and supermassive black holes

—Reveals the truth about stellar and supermassive black holes.

This work contains 311+ pages, 67 illustrations, references, and index. …
Second printing details (2017 November)
First printing details (Lambert Academic Publishing).

(2016 December): “So easy to understand” comment from an Australian engineer.

(2016 November): “Large-Scale Structure of the Dynamic Steady State Universe” now published in the American Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Vol.4, No.6, 2016, pp.65-77. Astract and Links to HTML and PDF.

(2016 June): Revolutionary research paper:
The Nature of Gravitational Collapse –published in the American Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Vol.4, No.2, 2016, pp.15-33. Abstract and Links:
—Another major DSSU success, as it reveals amazing new insights! The theory has uncovered the mechanism by which mass undergoes a total conversion to energy. Yes, a mass to energy conversion with 100% efficiency!  As everything else in the DSSU, it is a perfectly natural process. Truly amazing!

(2016 April 26):  A mathematical cosmologist claims the values of the Hubble-expansion parameter and the cosmic-background temperature are the most important elements for understanding the real Universe! Letter and response.

(2016 March):  What is the difference between a physical and a mechanical aether? ...
Be aware of the distinctions among the terms commonly applied to aether: Terms such as physical, mechanical, subquantum, and dynamic. Link to new Question & Answer.

The book, Guide to the Construction of the Natural Universe, is now available at the Niagara Falls Public Library  (Victoria branch). If you live in the Province of Ontario, your local library can request the book from the Niagara Falls Public Library.

Participate in a unique exploration of the Cosmos: venture into the sub-atomic realm, even into the sub-quantum realm where the roots of reality reside, and into the domain of cosmic-scale cell-structure and beyond to infinity. Along the way, discover the cause of mass, the cause of gravitation, and rediscover Einstein’s “nonponderable” aether and Heraclitus’ harmony-of-opposites principle. … The book represents the ultimate vindication for all the skeptics who resisted the "preposterous" Big Bang mythology and who refused to join the exploding-cosmos religion.
The book contains 317 pages, 61 illustrations, references, and index …
Available from C-FAR Books.
Or use this mail-in Order Form.


My comments on the 2016 "Official Science" news story:

Do not be misled by the recent reports of the detection of gravity waves. What the LIGO apparatus measures is the interference from beams of self-generated electromagnetic waves. It seems highly probable that what LIGO actually detected was some vibrational “noise” or some unexplained interference; and NOT gravity waves originating from a distant binary system (in which two extremely massive black holes are supposedly in the process of merging). How the data, the wave patterns, are interpreted is subject to theory and restricted by theory. Naturally the official interpretation must conform to the Officially-sanctioned theory of gravity —Einstein’s general theory of relativity. Thus, the light patterns recorded by LIGO are interpreted via Einstein’s mathematical concept of gravity. The problem is the general-relativity-gravity interpretation, as is well known, ignores the space medium!

Have gravity waves really been detected?
Think about this: The academic experts do not have the cause and mechanism of gravity (Isaac Newton did not, Albert Einstein did not, and today’s big-bang astrophysicists do not). Their theory of gravity is embarrassingly incomplete! So, if they do not yet understand the nature of gravity itself, how then can they claim to be able to recognize the waves that gravity supposedly emits? The experts cannot even answer the simple question: Specifically, what is it that is waving? What is waving back and forth?
    Here is something else the reports fail to mention: The gravity waves that are actually detectable are those associated with the turbulence in the aether flow (the space medium streaming through our Solar System). Australian physicist Reginald T. Cahill has been examining these aether-flow waves for over 15 years. –CR (2016 May)
Updated 2016 June: See Comment #19
Updated 2018 Dec: See Press Release 2018-12

(2016 Jan 6): Published:
Olbers’ Paradox Resolved for the Infinite Non-Expanding Universe
, American Journal of Astronomy & Astrophysics Vol.4, No.1, (2016 January). Abstract & download links.
● “The man accredited with discovering universe expansion did not believe that the universe was expanding. Hubble was convinced that the key evidence, the cosmic redshift, was caused by some other factor, something more fundamental than mere expansion.”
● “With the recent discovery of a new cosmic-redshift mechanism, and its theoretical validation, it turns out that Hubble was right.”
● Explains how “an infinite, non-expanding, perpetually regenerating universe" is able to predict a dark night sky.

Press Release (2015 Oct 15):
The Big Bang is no longer a viable hypothesis !

(2016 June): FREE DOWNLOAD:
"DSSU Validated by Redshift Theory and Structural Evidence", Physics Essays, Vol.28, No.4, pp.455-473 (2015 Dec) —Delivers the coup de grâce to the Big Bang. Abstract & Links.
Both Reviewers enthusiastically endorsed this "well-written and incisive article."

(2015-Oct 6): Webpage added for article Cosmic-Redshift Distance Law Without c Without H: Comments & Links  Describes the challenge of getting DSSU papers published.

(2015 Aug 20): Allow me to extend a sincere "Thank You" for the many invitations to join social media and professional networks. Unfortunately I must decline. It’s simply a matter of precious time —there is just too little of it. All my available time is taken up by research, writing, and website maintenance —in fact, two more web domains have been purchased. It is all being done for the purpose of providing the educated and interested public with the ammunition to refute and replace the utterly bankrupt big-bang Worldview. (However, not to give the impression of a total recluse, seclusionist, or misanthrope, I do manage to squeeze in a few delightful hours of ballroom dancing every week or two.) –CR

(2015 Aug): Brief update on the status of the neutrino and its adaptation into the DSSU particle theory. See Section 5 of the Discussion webpage for the article: The Fundamental Process of Energy

(2015 Aug): The article The Universe Is Infinite (Part 1) has been revised.

(2015 July): Comments and questions from a 14-year old student.

(2013): Higgs Boson Discovered?
After 50 long years of searching, Physicists claim to have detected the Higgs boson, the "particle" that ostensibly bestows the property of mass on all other such particles. Is it now time to celebrate? … Definitely not.
   The question now is this: If the Higgs ‘particle’ is the giver of mass to all other particles, what then gives the Higgs itself its mass?! (Yes, the newly discovered particle has mass, lots of it!) A difficult and embarrassing question indeed. It is like asking:
If God created everything, then who, or what, created God?
   While physicists think they have solved the mass problem, the reality is that they have unwittingly exposed an even bigger problem —the riddle of “First Cause”.


Mass-to-Energy Conversion, the Astrophysical Mechanism –Published in Journal of High Energy Physics, Gravitation and Cosmology, Vol.5, No.2 (2019). HTML version.

Nature’s Supreme Mechanism for Energy Extraction from Nonmaterial Aether –Published in Infinite Energy Magazine Vol.24, Issue#144 (2019 March/April)

The Nature of Gravity –How One Factor Unifies Gravity’s Convergent, Divergent, Vortex, and Wave Effects –Published in the International Journal of Astrophysics and Space ScienceVol.6, No.5, 2018.
Natural Mechanism for the Generation and Emission of Extreme Energy Particles –Published in Physics Essays Vol.31, No.3, p358 (2018). (Reprint)
Sachs-Wolfe Effect Disproof –Published in the International Journal of Astrophysics and Space Science, Vol.6, No.1, 2018. ( Abstract & Links.)

"The Nature of Gravitational Collapse"
–Published in American Journal of Astronomy & Astrophysics. ( Abstract and Links.)
(Note, there is a typo in AJA&A posted version in the Fig-10 caption. It should read: … acceleration is proportional to 1/r2.)
"Olbers’ Paradox Resolved for the Infinite Non-Expanding Universe" –Published in American Journal of Astronomy & Astrophysics. ( Abstract & download links.)
"DSSU Validated by Redshift Theory and Structural Evidence" published in Physics Essays, Vol.28, No.4, p455-473 (2015 Dec). Abstract.
Both Reviewers enthusiastically endorsed this "well-written and incisive article."
Published in the American Journal of Astronomy & Astrophysics, AJAA, Vol.3, No.2, 2015:
Ellipticity, Its Origin & Progression in Comoving Galaxies  
Local  high-resolution PDF.

• Provides the first-ever natural explanation for the cause of the elliptical shape of nonrotating galaxies
• Retains the foundation premise of all modern cosmology but rejects the absurd concept of whole-universe expansion
• Takes full advantage of the universe’s cosmic cellular structure and exploits the DSSU theory of unified gravity domains
• Amazingly, the mechanism that stretches galaxies turns out to be the very same mechanism that causes the cosmic spectral redshift!

Glossary of Terms used in Cosmology and Astrophysics with particular emphasis on DSSU theory.
(Opens in separate Window or Tab)


Mysteries & Paradoxes that Plague Standard Cosmology  (Updated 2015-7)

Cosmology Crisis of 1998 (Revised 2015-5)

Critique of Conventional Cosmology ... comments relating to the 'preposterous' expanding-universe paradigm.
Bafflement —the remarkable admission of a physicist.
The Cosmology Debate That Never Happened   —During the 20th century there was a decades-long debate: The cataclysmic expanding universe VS the stable expanding universe. But there has never been a debate of the dynamic expanding universe VS the dynamic non-expanding universe. (Posted 2011 Oct)

Models of the Universe —Historical, Expanding, and Cellular universes. INCLUDES A USEFUL TABLE FOR COMPARING THEORIES.

The Universe Is Infinite (Part 1) —overcoming a "central" problem of cosmology theories.

The Universe Is Infinite (Part 2) —an explanation of how the universe can always have existed and will always exist.

DSSU, The Non-Expanding Universe: Structure, Redshift, Distance —A long sought-after goal of astrophysicists has been a formulation of cosmic distance that is independent of the speed of light. The goal has now been achieved. The present Paper details the surprisingly simple distance expression and its validating agreement with Supernova data.

Why Copernicus Did Not Need a Force of Gravity —Explores the question of why no one, except Newton, invoked a force. (Re-Posted February, 2014)

Gravity and Lambda —A Story of Opposites (.htm) —A story of opposites in harmony. Key differences between the Conventional Cosmology and the New Cosmology are presented.

Dynamic Cosmic Cell —The Structural Component of the DSSU —Animated image and discussion of the self-sustaining, self-balancing system.

Why Einstein Did Not Receive the Nobel Prize for His Theory of Relativity —“By 1922 Einstein had been nominated about fifty times —most were for his relativity theories.”

Questions & Answers & Comments


(2016 June) FREE DOWNLOAD details:
DSSU Validated by Redshift Theory and Structural Evidence, Physics Essays, Vol.28, No.4, p455-473 (2015 Dec) —Delivers the coup de grâce to the Big Bang. Abstract & Links.
Both Reviewers enthusiastically endorsed this "well-written and incisive article."

The Dynamic Steady State Universe.
This work brings together the main pieces of the cosmic puzzle in a step-by-step construction of the Natural Universe. Published in Physics Essays Vol.27 No.2 (2014 June issue) (PDF download)  "... the arguments are well-made. The article is competent, enjoyable and readable." —Reviewer for Physics Essays Journal

Olbers’ Paradox Resolved for the Infinite Non-Expanding Universe
, American Journal of Astronomy & Astrophysics Vol.4, No.1, (2016 January). Abstract & download links.
● “The man accredited with discovering universe expansion did not believe that the universe was expanding. Hubble was convinced that the key evidence, the cosmic redshift, was caused by some other factor, something more fundamental than mere expansion.”
● “With the recent discovery of a new cosmic-redshift mechanism, and its theoretical validation, it turns out that Hubble was right.”

Cosmic Redshift in the Nonexpanding Cellular Universe  ( Journal links ) —details the actual causal mechanism. Published in the American Journal of Astronomy & Astrophysics, Vol.2, No.5 (2014) Abstract.
Local copy with quality images: (Reprint pdf).
• Entirely new concept for cosmic redshift mechanism;
• Retains the foundation premise of all modern cosmology;
• But does not require whole-universe expansion;
• A redshift based on the DSSU theory of unified gravity & cosmic cellular structure;
• Remarkable agreement with independently established redshift distances.

The Cosmology Debate That Never Happened
What historians call "the greatest cosmological debate in history” was between TWO  expanding universes —two hypothetical models that share the same, I repeat, the same foundational property! If one is to claim some great clash of ideas (let alone the "greatest") then surely there must exist some deep dividing difference! (Posted 2011-10)

The Case for a Cellular Universe
—the Story of a Baffling Omission in Modern Cosmology    (Revised 2015)

Large-Scale Structure of the Dynamic Steady State Universe published in the American Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Vol.4, No.6, 2016, pp.65-77. Astract and Links.
■ Presents the first 2 of the 4 main postulates that define the DSSU.
■ Space-medium expansion and contraction are perpetually held in balance, thus ensuring a non-expanding universe.
■ Explains how the two dynamic processes of the DSSU’s space medium sustain the cellular structure responsible for the pattern of matter distribution in our Universe.

Cosmic-Redshift Distance Law Without c Without H Comments & Links Simplifying the redshift-distance formula by removing the speed-of-light constant and the Hubble parameter —while maintaining agreement with observational evidence.


Cosmic Core website: Lavishly illustrated. Includes many articles discussing DSSU theory and cosmology.

New Illuminati
–The DSSU is The New Cosmology

New Illuminati –Hidden Substrate of Reality

Big Bang Never Happened –Home & Summary

Noteworthy video of a simulated cellular universe. The nodal galaxy structures are quite interesting.

DSSU Theory:

DSSU Validated by Redshift Theory and Structural Evidence, Physics Essays, Vol.28, No.4, p455-473 (2015 Dec) —Delivers the coup de grâce to the Big Bang. Abstract & Links.
Both Reviewers enthusiastically endorsed this "well-written and incisive article."

A historical tour of universes culminating with the Natural Universe —This essay gives a thematic tour of historical and modern universes. ... While the Universe is endlessly speaking, forever sending signals; philosophers and scientists listen and interpret.

Currently undergoing revision and updating: Theoretical Foundation and Pillars of the Dynamic Steady State Universe —The first complete presentation of all four postulates of DSSU theory. A powerful paper that resolves the cause-of-causes paradox, explains the non-independent nature of time, and reveals the 'supreme advantage'. It includes a concise comparison with standard cosmology focusing on real-world viability.
Supplementary Discussion: The Primary Process


The Fundamental Process of Energy —A Qualitative Unification of Energy, Mass, and Gravity. (Abstract & Reviews & Links) … This article reveals the secret behind photon confinement. (Contains only a bare minimum of mathematics and mainly in one of the 14 sections.)
PART 1 published in Infinite Energy Magazine Issue #113 (Jan/Feb 2014)
PART 2 published in Infinite Energy Magazine    Issue #114 (Mar/Apr 2014)

Headlined as:
A "Conceptual Unification of Energy, Mass and Gravity"

Dynamic Cosmic Cell —The Structural Component of the DSSU —Animated image and discussion of the self-sustaining, self-balancing system.

Unified Gravitation Cells of the DSSU —Constructing the Universe with Cosmic Gravity Cells

Space Flow Equations and Expansion-Contraction Rates (pdf) —This paper explores the mathematical aspects of the two space postulates of DSSU theory —and uncovers some profound consequences.


Documentary movie footage in which Einstein states, "There exists an aether"
High resolution .mpg video.
Low resolution .wmv video.

The Aether Experiments and the Impact on Cosmology —Aether was detected first in 1887 and then several more times during the 20th century. Its 21st–century "rediscovery" (in 2001) led to the long-sought causal mechanism of gravity —a discovery which, in turn, is revolutionizing cosmology.

Michelson-Morley and the Story of the Aether Theory —Richard Milton's analysis of the historical details involving the misrepresentation, bias, and cover-up that hampered the Aether theory.

The History of the Aether Theory —The historic development of the aether as a scientific theory of space itself. What started as the "fifth element" of Antiquity becomes molded by theoretical constraints and experimental evidence into the dual-dynamic sub-quantum medium —the Essence of the Universe. (Updated 2016-2)

Relativity of Time in the Aether-Space of the DSSU —How intrinsic time and relative time are related.

DSSU Relativity –The Lorentz Transformations Applied to Aether-Space —Ranzan
Reprinted by permission of Physics Essays Publication, Physics  Essays Vol.23, No.3, p520. (2010). ABSTRACT

Physical Nature of Length Contraction —the DSSU Theory of Length Contraction Induced by Absolute Motion.
An easy to follow examination of how the mode by which matter is “conducted” through luminiferous aether causes the matter to contract. A simple derivation of the mathematical expression for this physical phenomenon is presented. There is also a brief discussion of relevant historical aspects and of nonphysical length contraction.
Reviewer's comments: “This is amazing …”  “The paper is interesting …” –Applied Physics Research reviewer. Published in Applied Physics Research journal Vol.5, No.1 (2013 Feb).

Contradiction Divides Two Aether Theories —An exploration into the three parts of the speed-of-light postulate.
Reprinted by permission of PEP, from  Physics Essays Journal (Vol 24, No.3, Sept, 2011) ... ABSTRACT

Basic-level mathematical and graphical exploration of dynamic aether flow: PDF

Here is an external webpage with an extensive list of research papers on the aether-drift experiments, and the larger question of energy in space.


Sachs-Wolfe Effect Disproof (published in in the International Journal of Astrophysics and Space Science Vol.6, No.1, 2018.)
Abstract & links.

DSSU Cosmic Redshift-Distance Relation (htm) —Converting the cosmic redshift into distance for our Cellular Universe using a simple and elegant equation.

Large Scale Structure of the Dynamic Steady State Universe (pdf)   How a dual-dynamic space medium sustains the cellular structure (published in AJAA in 2016).
  —Presents the postulates and implications of regional space-medium expansion and contraction.

Cosmic-Scale Structural Features Explained (pdf) (Chapter 2 of original DSSU Manuscript)
—The Spacing of Clusters
—Sheets of Galaxies
—Right-angled Walls of Galaxies.

The Cosmic Background Radiation in the DSSU —The natural explanation of the microwave background radiation applicable to the natural Cellular Universe.

Ellipticity, Its Origin & Progression in Comoving GalaxiesAmerican Journal of Astronomy & Astrophysics, AJAA, Vol.3, No.2, 2015.
Local  high-resolution PDF.
HTML version available from AJAA here.


The Nature of Gravity –How One Factor Unifies Gravity’s Convergent, Divergent, Vortex, and Wave Effects –Published in International Journal of Astrophysics and Space Science (IJASS), Vol.6, No.5, 2018, pp.73-92. (Abstract and Links.)

The Nature of Gravitational Collapse
–Published in American Journal of Astronomy & Astrophysics Vol.4, No.2, 2016, pp.15-33. (Abstract and Links.)
(Note, there is a typo in AJA&A posted version in the Fig-10 caption. It should read: … acceleration is proportional to 1/r2.)

Gravity and Dark Energy (How they Shape the Universe) –An Introduction. Provides a preamble and overview for a couple of earlier DSSU articles.

The Processes of Gravitation –The Cause and Mechanism of Gravitation by C. Ranzan –A revolutionary paper on gravity published in J. Mod. Phys. Appl. Vol.2014:3 (2014).
(Abstract & Reviews & Links. Includes link to hi-resolution PDF) "Revolutionary".

Why Copernicus Did Not Need a Force of Gravity —Explores the question of why no one, except Newton, invoked a force. (Rev 2011-9)

First ever, journal-published paper featuring the DSSU:
The Story of Gravity and Lambda –How the Theory of Heraclitus Solved the Dark Matter Mystery –Ranzan
Reprinted by permission of PEP, from Physics Essays, Vol 23, No1, p75-87 (2010 Mar). ABSTRACT
This is the cure for the fallacious belief in cosmic-scale Dark Matter.

The Story of Gravity and Lambda –How the Theory of Heraclitus Solved the Dark Matter Mystery (Color version) –Ranzan Considered "an excellent contribution to the [PE journal]" --professional reviewer (2010).

Unified Gravitation Cells of the DSSU —Constructing the Universe with Cosmic Gravity Cells


Why Einstein Did Not Receive the Nobel Prize for His Theory of Relativity (●Abstract ●Links ●Excerpts ●Extras) —“By 1922 Einstein had been nominated about fifty times —most were for his relativity theories.”

Einstein’s Simple Mathematical Trick –and the Illusion of a Constant Speed of Light  (Abridged version with links to Journal-published version. Posted July 2013)

Extended Relativity –Exploiting the Loopholes in Einstein's Relativity. A Logical extension of special relativity. Reprinted by permission of PEP, from Physics Essays Vol.25, No.3 (2012 Sept).
Abstract & Links & Reviews

The Three Components of the Speed-of-Light Postulate.  Published in Physics Essays journal Vol.26,No.1 (2013 March)
Local copy: The Three Components of the Speed-of-Light Postulate (pdf) Absolute vs relative. Variance vs invariance. Another instance of the Heraclitian "Harmony of Opposites." (Reprinted by permission of PEP, from Physics Essays, Vol.26, No.1, 2013).

Relativity of Time in the Aether Medium of the DSSU —Absolute Motion and Intrinsic Time

Resolving a Paradox in Special Relativity –Absolute Motion and the Unified Doppler Equation.
(Posted 2011, July). Reprinted by permission of PEP, from Physics  Essays Vol.23, No.4, p594 (2010). ABSTRACT

How DSSU Relativity Resolves the Speed Paradox (Introductory Discussion)   —Absolute Motion Resolves a (speed) Paradox in Einstein’s Special Relativity. (Supplementary Discussion)

DSSU Relativity –The Lorentz Transformations Applied to Aether-Space (Posted 2011, July). Reprinted by permission of Physics Essays Publication, Physics  Essays Vol.23, No.3, p520. (2010). ABSTRACT

The Key that Extends Einstein’s Relativity (Part 1) —Response to a reviewer critical of DSSU aether-based relativity
The Key that Extends Einstein’s Relativity (Part 2) —How to convert abstract-space equations into aether-based equations

Restoring the Physical Meaning of Energy
Published in Applied Physics Research journal Vol.5, No.2 (2013 May).
LOCAL COPY: Restoring the Physical Meaning of Energy —distinguishing between the apparent energy and the real energy of moving mass.

An Open Letter to the Scientific Community
(Published in New Scientist, May 22, 2004)

"The big bang today relies on a growing number of hypothetical entities, things that we have never observed-- inflation, dark matter and dark energy are the most prominent examples. Without them, there would be a fatal contradiction between the observations made by astronomers and the predictions of the big bang theory. In no other field of physics would this continual recourse to new hypothetical objects be accepted as a way of bridging the gap between theory and observation. It would, at the least, raise serious questions about the validity of the underlying theory. ..."  continues ...
A devastating Declaration of opposition to Big Bang cosmology signed by more than 400 Researchers.

For the full text click on: or alternate site.

This website is mainly concerned with revisionism in cosmology. Those of us involved in replacing the unnatural expanding-universe paradigm are aware of the difficulties involved.
   However, other revisionists have unimaginable difficulties. Consider the ongoing persecution of revisionists in other fields of intellectual pursuit: 
"It makes you wonder —about the immense effort being made by State and State-sponsored organizations with budgets of tens of millions of dollars and thousands of employees and associates to smother and punish these few men and women. Every punishing instrument imaginable is used, every vicious slander conceivable, every flagrant and pervasive form of censorship that law allows, including the imprisonment of simple writers for thought crimes against the State. ... Makes you wonder."Bradley R. Smith (2011)

"Discussing truth is so controversial, so dangerous … In most of the world it is simply illegal.” Gordon Duff, Senior Editor, Veterans Today (2011)

"The further a society drifts from truth the more it will hate those who speak it." –George Orwell

DEDICATION: This website is solemnly dedicated to those individuals who have conducted research in their chosen field and have informed others of their inquiries and suffered the consequences when subpoenaed by the Inquisition or some variant thereof. The dedication extends to those individuals currently imprisoned, and those facing trial and persecution simply for exercising their basic human right of freedom of expression supposedly granted to them under the UN Charter of Human Rights.
"Every year, hundreds of writers and other literary professionals around the world are imprisoned, prosecuted, persecuted, attacked, threatened, forced into exile or even murdered as a result of their work."

ALSO: Be aware of the continuing threat to our precious freedom of expression on the Internet. The threat is serious and relentless. It is described as “… the formal effort to mimic Communist China’s system of Internet censorship.” See The Secret Behind SOPA  (2012-Jan). Update.
More information on threats to internet freedom:

Reporter-journalist Arthur Topham, Canadian victim of the Inquisition, arrested (2012) for posting his research.
“Arthur Topham faces prison time for daring to speak his mind on his own website, as he faces criminal charges under Canada’s hate crimes legislation contained in Section 318 - 320 of the criminal code.” –Rights and Freedoms Bulletin Issue No. 204 Feb 7, 2015.
VERDICT: Arthur Topham found “guilty” AND “not guilty” of hate speech by a brain-dead jury!
 –Dr. James Sears, reporting in “The world’s Largest Anti-Marxist Publication” (Issue 2015 December,
2016 Update: Panel Discussion on The Trial of Arthur Topham

Free-speech crusader
Bill Whatcott defies British Colombia Human Rights Tribunal efforts to impose gender language tyranny.

“I have no intention on wasting money on a lawyer for the Morgane Oger vs Bill Whatcott case, as human rights tribunals are kangaroo courts and the odds of … getting justice in these biased tribunals is next to zero.” –2017 June ( …)

End of free speech in Britain:

A hostile jury, by a hasty unanimous verdict, decided that Nationalist Leader Jez Turner deserves to be sent to jail for his critical views! Report (2018-5-15).

British Maverick Psychologist jailed for publishing his research. … “The ambivalence of librarians getting writers imprisoned quite defies comprehension.” –Simon Sheppard (2013)

The repression of free speech in Canada has degenerated to the point where …

■ Freedom advocates, such as Marc Lemire, are censured for merely expressing their reasoned opinions. Freedomsite, whose motto is “Fighting for freedom against the censorship enforcers”, documents the official persecution.
■ A tenured professor has lost his position for revealing his research and views on history. This is unprecedented. Professor Anthony J. Hall at the University of Lethbridge, Alberta, has been suspended (2016 October 5) without pay.
“… Any thinking person should recognize that there is something deeply wrong when a history professor is persecuted for saying we should be able to examine our history.” –Monika Schaefer 2017
■ A publisher/editor, for expressing his reality-based views, has been denied postal services. Dr. James Sears, publisher and editor of Your Ward News was stripped of Canada Post Mail Service by government order (2016 June).
■ A violin teacher and truth revealer, Monika Schaefer, for posting a video (an apology to her dead mother), has been attacked by various so-called community leaders.

The treatment of violinist Monika Schaefer signals the end of our free and democratic society.” –The American Herald Tribune, 2016 Sept

American Speaker Arrested in Canada for the textual material on his iPad
—2017 June 24
While the invasion continues, the “guardians” of the nation are busy suppressing the freedom of expression: going after deemed violations in what people think and write and say.

Canada Claims Authority to Censor Your Internet Searches –Reason magazine
The "justice" system is being used to suppress opinions: In a legal battle (2018) for freedom of speech in Canada ... the prosecution and silencing of Dr. James Sears expected to cost taxpayers $20 million!

“I estimate the Board of Review, police investigating and Crown prosecuting us on criminal matters, will cost the taxpayers over $20 million, assuming no appeals past 2018 (murderers & rapists will walk free as huge blocks of court time bump their cases, causing them to be thrown out).”
–Dr. James Sears, Your Ward News, Fall, 2018, p17

Updates are posted at .
Update for 2019 April 8:  Why the ruling against Your Ward News hurts free speech in Canada
Updates for 2019 Aug: LINK to Several postings.

The Continuing Struggle for Freedom

A ray of hope in the ongoing struggle for freedom. Populist and nationalist movements around the world are gaining ascendancy over the New World Order’s effort to establish global governance and impose tyrannical control over every last square meter of the Earth’s surface. –The Barnes Review Vol.23 No.1 (2017 Jan p70)

"This Is Very Serious" –S. Molyneux, 2018-7
(7-minute video on the importance of freedom of speech)

In repressive Germany:

Ursula Haverbeck, 89, Sentenced to 14 Months in Jail for Heresy! –2017 November
This amazing 89-year-old woman continues advocating under the dictum: "Only the truth will set you free”.
Mrs. Haverbeck, along with her late husband, founded the education facility Collegium Humanum in 1963, but which was banned by the Marxist thought police in 2008.

Update (2018-5-16): Ursula Haverbeck will celebrate her 90th birthday in a German prison cell. The sprightly grandmother is now serving a two-year prison term without parole merely for stating a sincerely held opinion that is supported by acclaimed academics worldwide!!
“Frau Haverbeck is now sentenced to two years in prison, merely for her peaceful historical research” –The Barnes Review Vol.24, No.5 (Sept/Oct 2018) p71

UPDATE (2019-11): On November 9th (2019), the very day of Ursula Haverbeck’s 91st. birthday, hundreds of German nationalists, patriots and friends, well-wishers and admirers rallied in her support. Report on the Rally to Celebrate Political Prisoner Ursula Haverbeck.

INFO on Monika Schaefer's case:
For expressing her opinion on historical events, Canadian citizen Monika Schaefer has been arrested and imprisoned (2018-1-3) in Germany. She had committed no crime. Author Mike Walsh warns potential visitors to Germany to stay away from this dangerous police state. –Merkel Madness Grips Germany, (2018-1-7)
... Found guilty and sentenced to 10 months of imprisonment (time served); her brother Alfred was sentenced to 38 months!! –(2018 November)
UPDATE (2019 August 10): Corruption of justice in Germany continues. Alfred Schaefer Receives 18 Months Additional Prison Time for Defending Himself!  Punished for simply presenting evidence for his own defense in court!

For more on Freedom (and Objectivism),
Freedomain Radio (
presented by Stefan Molyneux.

 Just Right Media (

... about the author ...

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Why Copernicus Did Not Need a Force of Gravity

An exploration of why no one, except Newton, invoked a "force"

Conrad Ranzan

Published on the Cellular Universe website ( ) 2011, rev 2019-8
URL: G5_GravityNotAForce.htm



1. Why Copernicus Did Not Need a Force of Gravity
2. Other World Systems
3. Summary : Who Needs a Force of Gravity?

Gravity, in fact, is not a true force.
It needs NO force carriers.


1.   Why Copernicus Did Not Need a Force of Gravity

Most people are surprised to learn that Copernicus (1473-1543), indeed, did not need a gravitational force. In his "revolutionary" view, the Earth did not need a gravitational force and neither did the Copernican Solar System. The motion of Earthly objects and of the planets (and other heavenly bodies) was governed by principles developed by the Ancients. ... Gravity was not one of them.


Credit: Synnberg Photo-gravure Co., Chicago, Philosophical Portrait Series, Open Court Publishing Co., Chicago, courtesy AIP Emilio Segre Visual Archives

If we look back to the Ancient Greeks and examine the system devised by Aristotle (384-322 BC), we find that his Geocentric cosmos did not need a force of gravity. The cosmos was ruled by the principles of natural motion. The natural motion of any terrestrial object involved "seeking its natural place." Since their natural place, it was reasoned, was at the center of the Earth, all falling objects were in "natural motion." No force was involved in such motion. As for celestial bodies, their natural motion involved moving in circles around the Earth and, so, they accorded with their natural position as an embedded body on one or another transparent-and-rotating celestial sphere.  In the celestial realm of concentric crystal spheres, Aristotle's system embodied Pythagoras's geometric ideal of perfect circular orbits. In the celestial realm, as in the terrestrial, no force was involved.

We could go even further back, before the time of Aristotle, and consider the rings-and-spheres system devised by Anaximander. Anaximander of Miletus (also known as Anaximandros) was born about 610 BC and died some time after 547 BC. Anaximander argued that the Sun was a hole in a fire-filled ring that encircled the Earth and revolved around it. The Moon was an opening in a separate fire-filled ring. The Moon-ring, however, had passages shaped like pipes through which the light from the fire escaped. Thus the phases of the Moon were explained by the Moon-pipe opening seen from various angles. The stars, he believed, were nothing more than holes in a rotating sphere, revealing otherwise hidden fires of the firmament.

And what, you might ask, kept the rings and spheres turning and kept the heavenly bodies moving along their celestial paths before the discovery of "natural motion" by the Ancients? ... It was the intervention of divine beings, the truly ancient mythical gods. It was pure magic. Helios the God of the Sun was conveyed in a chariot drawn by seven horses on daily journeys across the sky. The Egyptian version has Ra the Sun God being ferried by a heavenly boat as it cyclically sails across the daylight sky and through the dark Underworld. Each wandering star (planet) was under the control of a patron god or several gods.

Aristarchus of Samos
 ~310 to ~230 BC

The mathematician/astronomer Aristarchus of Samos (circa 280 BC) did not need a force of gravity for his Heliocentric system. Although Aristarchus is usually credited with being the first to place the Sun in a stationary state at the center of the universe the idea can be traced back to earlier philosophers. There was Philolaus of Croton, a pupil of the Pythagorean school in the 5th century BC, who suggested that the Earth orbits the Sun, not vice versa. Then, in the following century, the philosopher Heracleides of Pontus built on Philolaus’ ideas. The final touches were added by Aristarchus, who was born in 310 BC, the same year that Heracleides died.[1] Like his fellow contemporary Greeks, Aristarchus subscribed to Aristotle's principles of motion for keeping his system running effortlessly. No force was required. Earth and the planets simply followed preordained, perfectly circular, orbits. However, having the Sun stationary at the center with the Earth flying around in "natural circular motion" was, at the time, considered too radical !  The idea was shelved and lay dormant for almost eighteen centuries.

Heliocentric versus Geocentric:

The Greek State (and later the Roman State) was the center of the civilized world —the focal point of reason and order. But it is the nature of a powerful State to inflate its own importance beyond all reasonable bounds. Why be content with holding the central position of Man's world, when the State could be at the very center of the Cosmos. And so, the Geocentric system received State sponsorship, the Heliocentric system did not. And the Earth became the center of the Universe.

For a modern analogy consider the American State during the 20th century. This powerful nation vastly expanded its influence and dominance over the world. It comes as no surprise that, as the ruling imperial State, it would (and did) sponsor an expanding-universe cosmology. The idea of a stable and steady-state universe was ridiculed. And so, our Worldview became dominated by an absurdly unnatural Big Bang.
    The Big Bang cosmology is supported by the Official space agency, NASA, and big budgets courtesy of the imperial State.

It happened that Aristotle's system rose to dominancy. Sadly, what was actually valid, the Aristarchean Heliocentricity, had been rejected; and what was dubiously valid, the natural state of circular motion, had been retained. In time, this error, no doubt, would have been discovered and quickly corrected. However, the Geocentric system became the "official" system backed by State and Church (often one and the same). ... Aristotle's Worldview became the theoretical foundation of Claudius Ptolemy's detailed astronomical system, which he documented in the monograph know as the Almagest. It was also adopted by the Christian Church (to the future consternation of Galileo).


Fast-forward many long centuries. It is the 16th century and Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543) has rediscovered the old Aristarchean System. By this time, not surprisingly, things had changed very little. The Official system still reigned (almost supreme) and everything still worked without a force of gravity.


"Copernicus himself seems to have thought, in Aristotelian fashion, that the natural motion of the planets is circular, and he therefore required no special force to keep them in their orbits." --M.B. Hesse [2]


We also find that Galileo (1564-1642) was a supporter of the no-force system.


"Similarly, Galileo suggests that the planets were at first given their uniform motion by the Creator, and that a circular orbit is appropriate to uniform motion, which can continue indefinitely." --M.B. Hesse [3]



Nicolaus Copernicus
Credit: AIP Emilio Segre Visual Archives, T. J. J. See Collection

Galileo Galilei     Credit: AIP Emilio Segre Visual Archives, E. Scott Barr Collection

Copernicus, as well as Galileo, simply went with the flow: Aristotle had stated the rules of natural motion; the rules were understood and had become an enduring part of natural philosophy. There seemed no reason to change the fundamentals of the world system. (In this light, the Copernican revolution of demoting the functional position of the Earth appears rather timid.)

But then two discoveries spoiled everything.

First and foremost, Johannes Kepler (1571-1630), after brilliantly analyzing the numbers that Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe had collected over many years, discovered that orbits of the local heavenly bodies did not have the divined perfection of circles. The visible planets actually moved in elliptical orbits. Now, this was revolutionary. Whereas Copernicus and Galileo had made changes in the visible structure of the world system, Kepler forced changes in the very foundation.

Meanwhile, the work of Galileo led to the "discovery" that the natural state of motion is neither circular nor exponentially downward, but rather uniformly linear. Galileo, after conducting numerous experiments with rolling balls, concluded that in the ideal case of zero resistance, horizontal motion would never stop.

Galileo's rule for horizontal motion:
Velocity is constant (constant magnitude, constant direction) provided no force acts on the body.

In the absence of a net force the motion of the moving ball continues without change in a linear fashion. Newton, building on the foundation laid by Galileo, formalized the state of natural motion in a single statement: An object that is at rest will remain at rest, and an object that is moving will continue to move in a straight line with constant speed, if and only if the net force acting on the object is zero.

Let me sum up the situation.  Aristotle, Copernicus, and Galileo thought they had the ideal explanation for the orbital motions of the heavenly bodies. Aristotle had his rotating harmonious spheres. Copernicus had his idealized Solar system. Galileo had his Creator-induced heavenly-motion. They all believed that the natural motion of heavenly bodies is circular. But, in due course, Kepler found that that belief did not match reality. Kepler discovered that the planetary orbits are not circular. Real-world orbits are elliptical! Why was this discovery so revolutionary? ... Because it meant there was some kind of force, or influence, causing the planets to vary in speed and radial distance. It meant there was a force that causes the new Newtonian "natural" motion to deviate from its natural straight-line path.

Isaac Newton (1642-1727), in the 17th century, codified the force-law that could readily explain the evidence. At least he did so in mathematical terms. The cosmology that Newton constructed became the first in history to employ a force of gravity a force that mediates the interaction of all mass throughout the universe.

But there was a problem. A force of gravity, if it is to be consistent with what it means to be a "force," requires a force carrier sort of a messenger particle relaying the force's influence to other bodies (or between bodies). The problem was, no force carriers have ever been found not then, and not since. For many years Newton had pondered the question of the nature of the agent (modern "force carriers") necessary for the mediation of his gravitation force but could draw no conclusion; unable even to decide whether such agent is material or immaterial, particulate or ethereal.

However, there is really no need for us to dwell on the missing force carriers. It turns out that Newton's system was the exception to the rule. Gravity, in fact, is not a true force.

Now, since I have finished answering the question suggested in the title of this essay, it might be interesting to explore another chapter of this theme. I invite the reader to join me in applying the same basic question to three or four other world systems. The entire presentation is summarized in the accompanying table.


2.  Other World Systems

 Let us, then, briefly examine why Einstein (1879-1955) did not need a gravitational force.

Albert Einstein (date 1922)
Credit: Burndy Library Collection, Huntington Library, courtesy AIP Emilio Segre Visual Arch.

In 1916-1917 Einstein constructed a universe, commonly known as the Einstein Equilibrium model, based on a highly abstract theory of gravity called General Relativity. Einstein's gravity was not a force in the usual sense, rather it was an effect associated with the curvature of space.

The Einstein universe was a mathematical construction in which the curvature of space (a mathematical concept) was intimately connected to the presence of matter; that is, the quantity and density of matter determined the degree of curvature of space. Now since Einstein's "space" was a mathematical abstraction, the curvature distortion of such space must also be a mathematical abstraction.

But if the gravity effect is purely an abstraction, how is it connected to the brick-and-mortar world of reality? ... No causal mechanism has ever been found to explain how matter “curves” space and how “curvature” sustains a body’s orbital motion. The problem is deepened by Einstein’s rejection of the existence of any sort of detectable space medium. In his own words, taken from the famous Leyden Lecture (1920):


"The [a]ether of the general theory of relativity is a medium which is itself devoid of all [original italics] mechanical and kinematic qualities."

"But this [a]ether may not be thought of as endowed with the quality characteristic of ponderable media."  –Einstein (1920) [4]


Einstein worked on the gravity theory for most of his life including the year of his death, 1955. It is my conviction that because of his insistence on having space as an abstraction (he called it the relativation of ether, or the relativization of space, depending on the German-to-English translation), the cause lurking behind the formulation of gravity was never found.

Now take careful note of the following. Originally (in 1905) Einstein had been "arguing the total nonexistence of the aether" but by the time he presented the Leyden Lecture (in 1920) he had modified his view.


"More careful reflection teaches us, however, that the special theory of relativity does not [after all] compel us to deny ether." –Einstein (1920) [5]


His original nonexisting aether now became merely non-ponderable aether (as in the earlier quote above) !

In other words, the aether that filled space was not a material substance —granted— but it could be a non-material substance. Perhaps it is an ethereal substance with unusual properties —including gravitational properties.

Einstein's retraction was, in hindsight, a wise move indeed. He basically re-opened the aether door —the door to a non-material medium.

Let me sum up Einstein's Equilibrium universe. It was a static universe —notably non-expanding— which did not require gravity to be a force.

In the years 1927 and 1929 the first Big Bang universe appeared. Many versions followed throughout the rest of the 20th century. This period in the history of cosmology can best be described as the Golden Age of Expanding Universes. And, yes, even the Steady State models of Herman Bondi, Thomas Gold, and Fred Hoyle were (are) members of this class. The vast majority of these models did not require gravity to be a force. Why not? ... It was because they were based on Einstein's curved-space gravity theory. There's no need to repeat the problems with this concept; we simply accept that the Big Bang models are mathematical universes (albeit highly unnatural and highly speculative representations). Instead, there is a simple question to consider.

Given that gravity is a spacetime distortion effect, and not a force, why are Big Bang proponents searching for force carriers? Why this decades-long search for gravitons !? And make no mistake, we’re talking about a perennially fruitless pursuit!

It would be nice, but I really don't expect a common sense answer. Maybe there's a deep mathematical answer; maybe not. Meanwhile, the Big Bang continues to be highly unnatural, highly speculative, and, in light of the "force" ambivalence, highly confusing.

A new century, a new theory of gravity. The pivotal year of 2002 witnessed the introduction of a combined luminiferous and gravitational aether. In that year an Australian professor, Reginald T. Cahill, developed a quantum foam theory of space. Space is a quantum system undergoing classicalization and, at a deep substratum level, has the characteristics of a quantum foam. From this quantum-foam aether, Cahill constructed an aether theory of gravity. In his words:


"This quantum foam is in differential motion [bulk in-flow towards mass which acts as a sink], and the inhomogeneities and time dependencies of this motion cause accelerations which we know as gravity." –R.T. Cahill [6]


Gravity has now become an inhomogeneous aether flow towards mass/matter. Knowingly or unknowingly Cahill had explored behind the nonmaterial-aether door which Einstein had left open (back in 1920) but had never exploited.

Reginald Cahill
(1945-  )

Courtesy: R.T. Cahill

The theory is truly powerful. Cahill has discovered a second gravitational constant, which is actually the dimensionless fine structure constant α, with which it is possible to resolve numerous so-called ‘gravitational anomalies’ —the experimental observations of gravitational effects incompatible with Newtonian gravity and general relativity. The best known of these is the “dark matter” effect, namely that spiral galaxies appear to require at least ten times the observed matter content in order to explain the high rotation speeds of stars and gas clouds in the outer regions of the spiral disk. The quantum foam theory of gravity makes it clear that the dark-matter effect is not caused by any form of matter, but rather by a non-Newtonian aspect of gravity. [7]

Such is the explanatory capacity of process physics. But the relevant point for us is this: Once more, gravity is not considered to be a force.

Turning now to the Cellular World-System called the Dynamic Steady State Universe (DSSU). Gravity in the DSSU is not a force. It is a side effect of a heretofore unrecognized natural process. Gravity is a side effect of the way in which all matter —mass and radiation— is conducted by, and through, the aether. Of course, keep in mind that the aether of our universe is, as Einstein proposed in 1920, a non-material aether —an almost-but-not-quite-material medium. (In DSSU theory it is  the essence substance —described as the subquantum level of reality.)

Yes, gravity is a simple side effect. As gravity expert John Wheeler had predicted, decades ago, it is utterly and astonishingly simple —the simplicity that characterizes inevitability.


"To my mind there must be, at the bottom of it all, not an equation, but an utterly simple idea. And to me that idea, when we finally discover it, will be so compelling, so inevitable, that we will say to one another, ‘Oh, how beautiful. How could it have been otherwise?’ ” –American physicist John A. Wheeler (1985) [8]



Definition: The core (generic) definition of gravity for the DSSU is much the same as for Cahill's Quantum-Foam theory of gravity. The phenomenon of gravity is the inhomogeneous flow of the space medium towards matter, which acts as a sink. Note carefully, it is not the aether motion itself but the inhomogeneity (effectively the acceleration) of the flow that manifests the gravity effect. The direction of gravity is along the line of the maximum rate of change of the aether flow. The main cause (but not the root cause) of inhomogeneity is space-medium contraction (and, depending on the type of cosmic region, space-medium expansion).

The key idea that underlies the effect of gravity is the unusual mode of conduction of mass and radiation by the aether. The gravity that we are familiar with is the byproduct associated with the amazing mode of conduction of all radiant particles and all mass particles. To say that it is unusual is an understatement. The process of conduction is unique. Prior to the DSSU discovery, the concept simply did not exist !  Nothing like it has been found in the literature.

Kepler, Galileo, and Newton redefined the nature of motion. Now the Conduction Theory of Matter redefines the nature of gravity —revealing its root cause.

The following DSSU research papers present the profound details:

 The Processes of Gravitation –The Cause and Mechanism of Gravitation, by C. Ranzan
(Originally published in the Journal of Modern Physics and Applications (JMPA) Vol.2014:3)
●Abstract  ●Reviews  ●Links

  For the updated version see:
The Nature of Gravity –How one factor unifies gravity’s convergent, divergent, vortex, and wave effects, International Journal of Astrophysics and Space Science (IJASS), Vol.6, No.5, 2018, pp.73-92. (Doi: )
LINK to local Reprint ( )

Both of these articles reveal the mysterious Primary Cause of gravity.

DSSU theory clearly reveals why gravity needs no force carriers and therefore is not a force! [9]

* * * *


3.  Summary:  Who Needs a Force of Gravity?

SUMMARY TABLE: Who Needs a Force of Gravity?


(Geocentric System)

Was based on the principle that the natural state of motion in the heavenly realm is circular.


(The original Heliocentric System)

No force was required. Earth and the planets simply followed preordained perfectly circular orbits.

However, having the Sun at the center was considered too radical !
Lay dormant for almost 18 centuries.


(Rediscovered the System of Aristarchus of Samos, after Copernicus visited Italy)

Was based on the Aristotelian principle of natural motion.

PROBLEMS: (i) Kepler showed that the actual state of motion was ELLIPTICAL, not circular.
(ii) Galileo found that natural motion, that is, when there is NO FORCE, is LINEAR, not circular.


(Newton’s system has a force of gravity)

No force carrier has ever been discovered !


(Einstein’s system uses a mathematical construction —the curvature distortion of spacetime induced by the presence of matter.)

No causal mechanism has ever been found to explain how matter “curves” space and how “curvature” sustains a body’s orbital motion. The problem is deepened by Einstein’s initial rejection of the existence of any sort of space medium.


(The Big Bang is based on Einstein’s mathematical system, aka general relativity; therefore, it does not use a force.)

Big confusion.
Gravity is not a force; YET for some strange reason researchers are looking for force-carriers called gravitons !


(Gravity is not a force; rather it is an inhomogeneous aether flow towards mass/matter.)

There are two gravitational constants, the Newtonian G, and the fine structure constant α. Resolves many problems (the so-called ‘gravitational anomalies’) in Newton’s and Einstein’s gravity —including the well known “dark matter” effect.


(The DSSU does not treat gravity as a fundamental force.)

Gravity is the unambiguous side effect of the mode of conduction of ALL matter at its MOST fundamental level.

* * * *

This is a fully open-access article and may be used in whole, or in part, and distributed and reproduced in any medium; provided the original webpage address (, the website URL (, and the originating author (Conrad Ranzan) are properly cited.

2011; rev 2019-8

References and Notes

  1. ^ Simon Singh, BIG BANG, The Origin of the Universe (Fourth Estate, Harper Collins Publishers, New York, 2004) p22
  2. ^ Mary B. Hesse. 1961. Forces and Fields (a study of action at a distance in the history of physics) (Littlefield, Adams & Co., Totown, New Jersey, 1965) p129
  3. ^ Ibid. p129
  4. ^ Einstein's Leyden Lecture: Ether and the Theory of Relativity, An Address delivered on May 5th, 1920, at the University of Leyden. As in Sidelights on Relativity by Albert Einstein, 1922. Translated by G.B. Jeffery and W. Perrett (Methuen & Co. Ltd., 36 Essex Street, London)
  5. ^ Ibid.
  6. ^ R.T. Cahill, (2005) The Einstein Postulates: 1905-2005 A Critical Review of the Evidence, p11
    Posted at:
  7. ^ Ibid. p10
  8. ^ American physicist John Archibald Wheeler from a 1985 interview with Timothy Ferris (as in Timothy Ferris Coming of Age in the Milky Way  p346)
  9. ^ C. Ranzan,  The Story of Gravity and Lambda –How the Theory of Heraclitus Solved the Dark Matter Mystery, Physics Essays Vol.23, No.1 P75-87 (2010 Mar)

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