The   Dynamic   Steady   State   Universe

 Home    Advance Search    Contact    For Educators (Under Construction)   

NEW ITEMS:


(2017 October): Coming up in a matter of weeks … another powerful research paper … another devastating blow for the Big Bang. (Currently being submitted for peer review. Details to follow.)
 


(2017 Sept): Recently brought to my attention: DSSU material appears on The New Illuminati website accompanied by some amazing graphics.

New Illuminati –The DSSU is The New Cosmology

New Illuminati –Hidden Substrate of Reality
 


(2017 Sept): "Assorted Comments" added to QuestionsAnswersComments.
 


(2017 Sept): Special purchase offer on the book "Guide to the Construction of the Natural Universe". (Mail-in Order Form.)
 


(2017 July): The book The Nature of Gravitational Collapse is now available.
 

The Nature of Gravitational Collapse

Subtitle: How the photon, the particle of light, is responsible for mass, gravity, superneutron stars, and supermassive black holes


—Reveals the truth about stellar and supermassive black holes.


This new work contains 310+ pages, 67 illustrations, references, and index. … Additional details.


(2016 December): “So easy to understand” comment from an Australian engineer.


(2016 November): “Large-Scale Structure of the Dynamic Steady State Universe” now published in the American Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Vol.4, No.6, 2016, pp.65-77. Astract and Links to HTML and PDF.


(2016 June):
Revolutionary research paper:
The Nature of Gravitational Collapse –published in the American Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Vol.4, No.2, 2016, pp.15-33. Abstract and Links:
—Another major DSSU success, as it reveals amazing new insights! The theory has uncovered the mechanism by which mass undergoes a total conversion to energy. Yes, a mass to energy conversion with 100% efficiency!  As everything else in the DSSU, it is a perfectly natural process. Truly amazing!


Have gravity waves really been detected?

Comments updated  2016 June: Comment #19
 


(2016-4-26:)  A mathematical cosmologist claims the values of the Hubble-expansion parameter and the cosmic-background temperature are the most important elements for understanding the real Universe! Letter and response.


(2016 March)  What is the difference between a physical and a mechanical aether? ...
Be aware of the distinctions among the terms commonly applied to aether: Terms such as physical, mechanical, subquantum, and dynamic. Link to new Question & Answer.


The book, Guide to the Construction of the Natural Universe, is  now available at the Niagara Falls Public Library  (Victoria branch). If you live in the Province of Ontario, your local library can request the book from the Niagara Falls Public Library.
 

Participate in a unique exploration of the Cosmos: venture into the sub-atomic realm, even into the sub-quantum realm where the roots of reality reside, and into the domain of cosmic-scale cell-structure and beyond to infinity. Along the way, discover the cause of mass, the cause of gravitation, and rediscover Einstein’s “nonponderable” aether and Heraclitus’ harmony-of-opposites principle. … The book represents the ultimate vindication for all the skeptics who resisted the "preposterous" Big Bang mythology and who refused to join the exploding-cosmos religion.
This new work contains 317 pages, 61 illustrations, references, and index … Available from C-FAR Books.
Or use this mail-in Order Form.

 


My comments on the latest mass media "Official Science" news story:


Do not be misled by the recent reports of the detection of gravity waves.
What the LIGO apparatus measures is the interference from beams of self-generated electromagnetic waves. It seems highly probable that what LIGO actually detected was some vibrational “noise” or some unexplained interference; and NOT gravity waves originating from a distant binary system (in which two extremely massive black holes are supposedly in the process of merging). How the data, the wave patterns, are interpreted is subject to theory and restricted by theory. Naturally the official interpretation must conform to the Officially-sanctioned theory of gravity —Einstein’s general theory of relativity. Thus, the light patterns recorded by LIGO are interpreted via Einstein’s mathematical concept of gravity. The problem is the general-relativity-gravity interpretation, as is well known, ignores the space medium!

Have gravity waves really been detected?
Think about this: The academic experts do not have the cause and mechanism of gravity (Isaac Newton did not, Albert Einstein did not, and today’s big-bang astrophysicists do not). Their theory of gravity is embarrassingly incomplete! So, if they do not yet understand the nature of gravity itself, how then can they claim to be able to recognize the waves that gravity supposedly emits? The experts cannot even answer the simple question: Specifically, what is it that is waving? What is waving back and forth?
    Here is something else the reports fail to mention: The gravity waves that are actually detectable are those associated with the turbulence in the aether flow (the space medium streaming through our Solar System). Australian physicist Reginald T. Cahill has been examining these aether-flow waves for over 15 years. –CR (2016 May)
Updated 2016 June. See Comment #19


(2016 Jan 6) Now published:
Olbers’ Paradox Resolved for the Infinite Non-Expanding Universe
, American Journal of Astronomy & Astrophysics Vol.4, No.1, (2016 January). Abstract & download links.
Excerpts:
● “The man accredited with discovering universe expansion did not believe that the universe was expanding. Hubble was convinced that the key evidence, the cosmic redshift, was caused by some other factor, something more fundamental than mere expansion.”
● “With the recent discovery of a new cosmic-redshift mechanism, and its theoretical validation, it turns out that Hubble was right.”
● Explains how “an infinite, non-expanding, perpetually regenerating universe" is able to predict a dark night sky.


Press Release (2015 Oct 15):
The Big Bang is no longer a viable hypothesis !

(2016 June) FREE DOWNLOAD:
"DSSU Validated by Redshift Theory and Structural Evidence", Physics Essays, Vol.28, No.4, p455-473 (2015 Dec) —Delivers the coup de grâce to the Big Bang. Abstract & Links.
Both Reviewers enthusiastically endorsed this "well-written and incisive article."
 


(2015-Oct 6) Webpage added for article Cosmic-Redshift Distance Law Without c Without H: Comments & Links  Describes the challenge of getting DSSU papers published.
 


(2015 Aug 20:) Allow me to extend a sincere "Thank You" for the many invitations to join social media and professional networks. Unfortunately I must decline. It’s simply a matter of precious time —there is just too little of it. All my available time is taken up by research, writing, and website maintenance —in fact, two more web domains have been purchased. It is all being done for the purpose of providing the educated and interested public with the ammunition to refute and replace the utterly bankrupt big-bang Worldview. (However, not to give the impression of a total recluse, seclusionist, or misanthrope, I do manage to squeeze in a few delightful hours of ballroom dancing every week or two.) –CR
 


(2015 Aug:) Brief update on the status of the neutrino and its adaptation into the DSSU particle theory. See Section 5 of the Discussion webpage for the article: The Fundamental Process of Energy

(2015 Aug:) The article The Universe Is Infinite (Part 1) has been revised.

(2015 July:) Comments and questions from a 14-year old student.
 


RECENT RESEARCH PAPERS:

"The Nature of Gravitational Collapse"
–Published in American Journal of Astronomy & Astrophysics. ( Abstract and Links.)
(Note, there is a typo in AJA&A posted version in the Fig-10 caption. It should read: … acceleration is proportional to 1/r2.)
-------------------------
"Olbers’ Paradox Resolved for the Infinite Non-Expanding Universe" –Published in American Journal of Astronomy & Astrophysics. ( Abstract & download links.)
-------------------------
"DSSU Validated by Redshift Theory and Structural Evidence" published in Physics Essays, Vol.28, No.4, p455-473 (2015 Dec). Abstract.
Both Reviewers enthusiastically endorsed this "well-written and incisive article."
-------------------------
Published in the American Journal of Astronomy & Astrophysics, AJAA, Vol.3, No.2, 2015:
Ellipticity, Its Origin & Progression in Comoving Galaxies  
Local  high-resolution PDF.

HIGHLIGHTS:
• Provides the first-ever natural explanation for the cause of the elliptical shape of nonrotating galaxies
• Retains the foundation premise of all modern cosmology but rejects the absurd concept of whole-universe expansion
• Takes full advantage of the universe’s cosmic cellular structure and exploits the DSSU theory of unified gravity domains
• Amazingly, the mechanism that stretches galaxies turns out to be the very same mechanism that causes the cosmic spectral redshift!


Published Dec 2014 in the American Journal of Astronomy & Astrophysics:

"Cosmic Redshift in the Nonexpanding Cellular Universe” —details the actual causal mechanism. Abstract.
Preprint with larger images.
HIGHLIGHTS:
• Entirely new concept for cosmic redshift mechanism;
• Retains the foundation premise of all modern cosmology;
• But does not require whole-universe expansion;
• A redshift based on the DSSU theory of unified gravity & cosmic cellular structure;
• Remarkable agreement with independently established redshift distances.



Higgs Boson Discovered?
After 50 long years of searching, Physicists claim to have detected the Higgs boson, the "particle" that ostensibly bestows the property of mass on all other such particles. Is it now time to celebrate? … Definitely not.
   The question now is this: If the Higgs ‘particle’ is the giver of mass to all other particles, what then gives the Higgs itself its mass?! (Yes, the newly discovered particle has mass, lots of it!) A difficult and embarrassing question indeed. It is like asking:
If God created everything, then who, or what, created God?
   While physicists think they have solved the mass problem, the reality is that they have unwittingly exposed an even bigger problem —the riddle of “First Cause”.
 

Glossary of Terms used in Cosmology and Astrophysics with particular emphasis on DSSU theory.
(Opens in separate Window or Tab)

GENERAL INTEREST ARTICLES:

Mysteries & Paradoxes that Plague Standard Cosmology  (Updated 2015-7)

Cosmology Crisis of 1998 (Revised 2015-5)

Critique of Conventional Cosmology ... comments relating to the 'preposterous' expanding-universe paradigm.
Bafflement —the remarkable admission of a physicist.
The Cosmology Debate That Never Happened   —During the 20th century there was a decades-long debate: The cataclysmic expanding universe VS the stable expanding universe. But there has never been a debate of the dynamic expanding universe VS the dynamic non-expanding universe. (Posted 2011 Oct)

Models of the Universe —Historical, Expanding, and Cellular universes. INCLUDES A USEFUL TABLE FOR COMPARING THEORIES.

The Universe Is Infinite (Part 1) —overcoming a "central" problem of cosmology theories.

The Universe Is Infinite (Part 2) —an explanation of how the universe can always have existed and will always exist.

DSSU, The Non-Expanding Universe: Structure, Redshift, Distance —A long sought-after goal of astrophysicists has been a formulation of cosmic distance that is independent of the speed of light. The goal has now been achieved. The present Paper details the surprisingly simple distance expression and its validating agreement with Supernova data.

Why Copernicus Did Not Need a Force of Gravity —Explores the question of why no one, except Newton, invoked a force. (Posted April, 2011)

Gravity and Lambda —A Story of Opposites (.htm) —A story of opposites in harmony. Key differences between the Conventional Cosmology and the New Cosmology are presented.

Dynamic Cosmic Cell —The Structural Component of the DSSU —Animated image and discussion of the self-sustaining, self-balancing system.

Why Einstein Did Not Receive the Nobel Prize for His Theory of Relativity —“By 1922 Einstein had been nominated about fifty times —most were for his relativity theories.”


Questions & Answers & Comments
 

COSMOLOGY ARTICLES, etc:

(2016 June) FREE DOWNLOAD details:
DSSU Validated by Redshift Theory and Structural Evidence, Physics Essays, Vol.28, No.4, p455-473 (2015 Dec) —Delivers the coup de grâce to the Big Bang. Abstract & Links.
Both Reviewers enthusiastically endorsed this "well-written and incisive article."


The Dynamic Steady State Universe.
This work brings together the main pieces of the cosmic puzzle in a step-by-step construction of the Natural Universe. Published in Physics Essays Vol.27 No.2 (2014 June issue) (PDF download)  "... the arguments are well-made. The article is competent, enjoyable and readable." —Reviewer for Physics Essays Journal


Revolutionary:
Olbers’ Paradox Resolved for the Infinite Non-Expanding Universe
, American Journal of Astronomy & Astrophysics Vol.4, No.1, (2016 January). Abstract & download links.
Excerpts:
● “The man accredited with discovering universe expansion did not believe that the universe was expanding. Hubble was convinced that the key evidence, the cosmic redshift, was caused by some other factor, something more fundamental than mere expansion.”
● “With the recent discovery of a new cosmic-redshift mechanism, and its theoretical validation, it turns out that Hubble was right.”


"Cosmic Redshift in the Nonexpanding Cellular Universe" (Journal pdf) —details the actual causal mechanism. Published in the American Journal of Astronomy & Astrophysics, Vol.2, No.5 (2014) Abstract.
Local copy with quality images: (Preprint pdf).
HIGHLIGHTS:
• Entirely new concept for cosmic redshift mechanism;
• Retains the foundation premise of all modern cosmology;
• But does not require whole-universe expansion;
• A redshift based on the DSSU theory of unified gravity & cosmic cellular structure;
• Remarkable agreement with independently established redshift distances.

The Cosmology Debate That Never Happened
What historians call "the greatest cosmological debate in history” was between TWO  expanding universes —two hypothetical models that share the same, I repeat, the same foundational property! If one is to claim some great clash of ideas (let alone the "greatest") then surely there must exist some deep dividing difference! (Posted 2011 Oct)

The Case for a Cellular Universe
—the Story of a Baffling Omission in Modern Cosmology    (Revised 2015)
 

Large-Scale Structure of the Dynamic Steady State Universe published in the American Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Vol.4, No.6, 2016, pp.65-77. Astract and Links.
Highlights:
■ Presents the first 2 of the 4 main postulates that define the DSSU.
■ Space-medium expansion and contraction are perpetually held in balance, thus ensuring a non-expanding universe.
■ Explains how the two dynamic processes of the DSSU’s space medium sustain the cellular structure responsible for the pattern of matter distribution in our Universe.

Cosmic-Redshift Distance Law Without c Without H Comments & Links Simplifying the redshift-distance formula by removing the speed-of-light constant and the Hubble parameter —while maintaining agreement with observational evidence.
 

DSSU Theory:

DSSU Validated by Redshift Theory and Structural Evidence, Physics Essays, Vol.28, No.4, p455-473 (2015 Dec) —Delivers the coup de grâce to the Big Bang. Abstract & Links.
Both Reviewers enthusiastically endorsed this "well-written and incisive article."



Theoretical Foundation and Pillars of the DSSU (Introduction) —This introductory essay gives a thematic tour of historical and modern universes culminating with the Natural Universe.

Currently undergoing revision and updating: Theoretical Foundation and Pillars of the Dynamic Steady State Universe (pdf) —The first complete presentation of all four postulates of DSSU theory. A powerful paper that resolves the cause-of-causes paradox, explains the non-independent nature of time, and reveals the 'supreme advantage'. It includes a concise comparison with standard cosmology focusing on real-world viability.
Supplementary Discussion: The Primary Process

 


The Fundamental Process of Energy —A Qualitative Unification of Energy, Mass, and Gravity. (Abstract & Reviews & Links) … This article reveals the secret behind photon confinement. (Contains only a bare minimum of mathematics and mainly in one of the 14 sections.)
PART 1 published in Infinite Energy Magazine Issue #113 (Jan/Feb 2014)
PART 2 published in Infinite Energy Magazine    Issue #114 (Mar/Apr 2014)

Headlined as:
A "Conceptual Unification of Energy, Mass and Gravity"



Dynamic Cosmic Cell —The Structural Component of the DSSU —Animated image and discussion of the self-sustaining, self-balancing system.

Unified Gravitation Cells of the DSSU —Constructing the Universe with Cosmic Gravity Cells

Space Flow Equations and Expansion-Contraction Rates (pdf) —This paper explores the mathematical aspects of the two space postulates of DSSU theory —and uncovers some profound consequences.
 

ARTICLES on AETHER:

Documentary movie footage in which Einstein states, "There exists an aether"
High resolution .mpg video.
Low resolution .wmv video.


The Aether Experiments and the Impact on Cosmology —The aether has been detected at least 6 times in recent history. Its most recent "re-discovery", in 2001, led to the long-sought causal mechanism of gravity —a discovery which, in turn, is revolutionizing cosmology.

Michelson-Morley and the Story of the Aether Theory —Richard Milton's analysis of the historical details involving the misrepresentation, bias, and cover-up that hampered the Aether theory.

The History of the Aether Theory —The historic development of the aether as a scientific theory of space itself. What started as the "fifth element" of Antiquity becomes molded by theoretical constraints and experimental evidence into the dual-dynamic sub-quantum medium —the Essence of the Universe. (Updated 2016-2)

Relativity of Time in the Aether-Space of the DSSU —How intrinsic time and relative time are related.

DSSU Relativity –The Lorentz Transformations Applied to Aether-Space —Ranzan
Reprinted by permission of Physics Essays Publication, Physics  Essays Vol.23, No.3, p520. (2010). ABSTRACT

The Physical Nature of Length Contraction —the DSSU Theory of Length Contraction Induced by Absolute Motion.
An easy to follow examination of how the mode by which matter is “conducted” through luminiferous aether causes the matter to contract. A simple derivation of the mathematical expression for this physical phenomenon is presented. There is also a brief discussion of relevant historical aspects and of nonphysical length contraction.
Reviewer's comments: “This is amazing …”  “The paper is interesting …” –Applied Physics Research reviewer. Published in Applied Physics Research journal Vol.5, No.1 (2013 Feb).

Contradiction Divides Two Aether Theories —An exploration into the three parts of the speed-of-light postulate.
Reprinted by permission of PEP, from  Physics Essays Journal (Vol 24, No.3, Sept, 2011) ... ABSTRACT

Basic - level mathematical and graphical exploration of dynamic aether flow: PDF

Here is an external webpage with an extensive list of research papers on the aether-drift experiments, and the larger question of energy in space.

DSSU RESEARCH PAPERS:

DSSU Cosmic Redshift-Distance Relation (htm) —Converting the cosmic redshift into distance for our Cellular Universe using a simple and elegant equation.

Large Scale Structure of the Dynamic Steady State Universe (pdf)  How a dual-dynamic space medium sustains the cellular structure (published in AJAA in 2016).
  —Presents the postulates and implications of regional space-medium expansion and contraction.

Cosmic-Scale Structural Features Explained (pdf) (Chapter 2 of original DSSU Manuscript)
—The Spacing of Clusters
—Sheets of Galaxies
—Supernodes
—Right-angled Walls of Galaxies.


The Cosmic Background Radiation in the DSSU —The natural explanation of the microwave background radiation applicable to the natural Cellular Universe.

Ellipticity, Its Origin & Progression in Comoving GalaxiesAmerican Journal of Astronomy & Astrophysics, AJAA, Vol.3, No.2, 2015.
Local  high-resolution PDF.
HTML version available from AJAA here.

GRAVITY:

"The Nature of Gravitational Collapse"
–Published in American Journal of Astronomy & Astrophysics Vol.4, No.2, 2016, pp.15-33. (Abstract and Links.)
(Note, there is a typo in AJA&A posted version in the Fig-10 caption. It should read: … acceleration is proportional to 1/r2.)



The Processes of Gravitation –The Cause and Mechanism of Gravitation by C. Ranzan –A revolutionary paper on gravity published in the Journal of Modern Physics and Applications Vol.2014:3  (2014).
( Abstract & Reviews & Links. Includes link to hi-resolution PDF) "Revolutionary".



Why Copernicus Did Not Need a Force of Gravity —Explores the question of why no one, except Newton, invoked a force. (Rev 2011-9)

First ever, journal-published paper featuring the DSSU:
The Story of Gravity and Lambda –How the Theory of Heraclitus Solved the Dark Matter Mystery –Ranzan

Reprinted by permission of PEP, from Physics Essays, Vol 23, No1, p75-87 (2010 Mar). ABSTRACT
This is the cure for the fallacious belief in cosmic-scale Dark Matter.

The Story of Gravity and Lambda –How the Theory of Heraclitus Solved the Dark Matter Mystery (Color version) Ranzan Considered "an excellent contribution to the [PE journal]" --professional reviewer.

Unified Gravitation Cells of the DSSU —Constructing the Universe with Cosmic Gravity Cells

 

RELATIVITY ARTICLES:

Why Einstein Did Not Receive the Nobel Prize for His Theory of Relativity (●Abstract ●Links ●Excerpts ●Extras) —“By 1922 Einstein had been nominated about fifty times —most were for his relativity theories.”

Einstein’s Simple Mathematical Trick –and the Illusion of a Constant Speed of Light  (Abridged version with links to Journal-published version. Posted July 2013)

Extended Relativity –Exploiting the Loopholes in Einstein's Relativity. A Logical extension of special relativity. Reprinted by permission of PEP, from Physics Essays Vol.25, No.3 (2012 Sept).
Abstract & Links & Reviews


The Three Components of the Speed-of-Light Postulate.  Published in Physics Essays journal Vol.26,No.1 (2013 March)
Local copy: The Three Components of the Speed-of-Light Postulate (pdf) Absolute vs relative. Variance vs invariance. Another instance of the Heraclitian "Harmony of Opposites." (Reprinted by permission of PEP, from Physics Essays, Vol.26, No.1, 2013).

Relativity of Time in the Aether Medium of the DSSU —Absolute Motion and Intrinsic Time

Resolving a Paradox in Special Relativity –Absolute Motion and the Unified Doppler Equation.
(Posted 2011, July). Reprinted by permission of PEP, from Physics  Essays Vol.23, No.4, p594 (2010). ABSTRACT

How DSSU Relativity Resolves the Speed Paradox (Introductory Discussion)   —Absolute Motion Resolves a (speed) Paradox in Einstein’s Special Relativity. (Supplementary Discussion)

DSSU Relativity –The Lorentz Transformations Applied to Aether-Space (Posted 2011, July). Reprinted by permission of Physics Essays Publication, Physics  Essays Vol.23, No.3, p520. (2010). ABSTRACT

The Key that Extends Einstein’s Relativity (Part 1) —Response to a reviewer critical of DSSU aether-space relativity
The Key that Extends Einstein’s Relativity (Part 2) —How to convert abstract-space equations into aether-space equations

Restoring the Physical Meaning of Energy
Published in Applied Physics Research journal Vol.5, No.2 (2013 May).
LOCAL COPY: Restoring the Physical Meaning of Energy —distinguishing between the apparent energy and the real energy of moving mass.
 

An Open Letter to the Scientific Community
(Published in New Scientist, May 22, 2004)

"The big bang today relies on a growing number of hypothetical entities, things that we have never observed-- inflation, dark matter and dark energy are the most prominent examples. Without them, there would be a fatal contradiction between the observations made by astronomers and the predictions of the big bang theory. In no other field of physics would this continual recourse to new hypothetical objects be accepted as a way of bridging the gap between theory and observation. It would, at the least, raise serious questions about the validity of the underlying theory. ..."  continues ...
 

A devastating Declaration of opposition to Big Bang cosmology signed by more than 400 Researchers.

For the full text click on:
CosmologyStatement.org or alternate site.

INTELLECTUAL FREEDOM:
This website is mainly concerned with revisionism in cosmology. Those of us involved in replacing the unnatural expanding-universe paradigm are aware of the difficulties involved.
   However, other revisionists have unimaginable difficulties. Consider the ongoing persecution of revisionists in other fields of intellectual pursuit: 
"It makes you wonder —about the immense effort being made by State and State-sponsored organizations with budgets of tens of millions of dollars and thousands of employees and associates to smother and punish these few men and women. Every punishing instrument imaginable is used, every vicious slander conceivable, every flagrant and pervasive form of censorship that law allows, including the imprisonment of simple writers for thought crimes against the State. ... Makes you wonder."Bradley R. Smith (2011)


"Discussing truth is so controversial, so dangerous … In most of the world it is simply illegal.” Gordon Duff, Senior Editor, Veterans Today (2011)

DEDICATION: This website is solemnly dedicated to those individuals who have conducted research in their chosen field and have informed others of their inquiries and suffered the consequences when subpoenaed by the Inquisition or some variant thereof. The dedication extends to those individuals currently imprisoned, and those facing trial and persecution simply for exercising their basic human right of freedom of expression supposedly granted to them under the UN Charter of Human Rights.
"Every year, hundreds of writers and other literary professionals around the world are imprisoned, prosecuted, persecuted, attacked, threatened, forced into exile or even murdered as a result of their work."

ALSO: Be aware of the continuing threat to our precious freedom of expression on the Internet. The threat is serious and relentless. It is described as “… the formal effort to mimic Communist China’s system of Internet censorship.” See The Secret Behind SOPA  (2012-Jan). Update.
More information on threats to internet freedom: https://battleforthenet.com/


Reporter-journalist Arthur Topham, Canadian victim of the Inquisition, arrested (2012) for posting his research.
“Arthur Topham faces prison time for daring to speak his mind on his own website, as he faces criminal charges under Canada’s hate crimes legislation contained in Section 318 - 320 of the criminal code.” –Rights and Freedoms Bulletin Issue No. 204 Feb 7, 2015.
VERDICT: Arthur Topham found “guilty” AND “not guilty” of hate speech by a brain-dead jury!
 –Dr. James Sears, reporting in “The world’s Largest Anti-Marxist Publication” (Issue 2015 December, http://www.yourwardnews.com/backissues.html)
2016 Update: Panel Discussion on The Trial of Arthur Topham


Free-speech crusader Bill Whatcott defies British Colombia Human Rights Tribunal efforts to impose gender language tyranny

“I have no intention on wasting money on a lawyer for the Morgane Oger vs Bill Whatcott case, as human rights tribunals are kangaroo courts and the odds of … getting justice in these biased tribunals is next to zero.” –2017 June (www.freenorthamerica.ca …)



The struggle for freedom and justice in Canada lost its greatest champion, its most dedicated defender. On March 11, 2013, Douglas Christie passed away.



British Maverick Psychologist jailed for publishing his research. … “The ambivalence of librarians getting writers imprisoned quite defies comprehension.” –Simon Sheppard (2013)



The repression of free speech in Canada has degenerated to the point where …

■ Freedom advocates, such as Marc Lemire, are censured for merely expressing their reasoned opinions. Freedomsite, whose motto is “Fighting for freedom against the censorship enforcers”, documents the official persecution.
■ A tenured professor has lost his position for revealing his research and views on history. This is unprecedented. Professor Anthony J. Hall at the University of Lethbridge, Alberta, has been suspended (2016 October 5) without pay.
“… Any thinking person should recognize that there is something deeply wrong when a history professor is persecuted for saying we should be able to examine our history.” –Monika Schaefer 2017
■ A publisher/editor, for expressing his reality-based views, has been denied postal services. Dr. James Sears, publisher and editor of Your Ward News was stripped of Canada Post Mail Service by government order (2016 June).
■ A violin teacher and truth revealer, Monika Schaefer, for posting a video (an apology to her dead mother), has been attacked by various so-called community leaders.

The treatment of violinist Monika Schaefer signals the end of our free and democratic society.” –The American Herald Tribune, 2016 Sept

American Speaker Arrested in Canada for the textual material on his iPad
—2017 June 24
While the invasion continues, the “guardians” of the nation are busy suppressing the freedom of expression: going after deemed violations in what people think and write and say.
 


The Continuing Struggle for Freedom

A ray of hope in the ongoing struggle for freedom. Populist and nationalist movements around the world are gaining ascendancy over the New World Order’s effort to establish global governance and impose tyrannical control over every last square meter of the Earth’s surface. –The Barnes Review Vol.23 No.1 (2017 Jan p70)


For more on Freedom (and Objectivism),
visit: Just Right Media
(Website: http://www.justrightmedia.org)



... about the author ...


© Copyright 2005-2017 by
Conrad RanzanDSSU Research
All Rights Reserved
  For information regarding permission to reproduce selected material herein, please contact:

D S S U  Research
Niagara Falls, Canada
16th year on the Internet.
Most recent update:
2017 Oct 15

Visits since mid-2010 : Hit Counter

2017-10-15

 Gravity and Lambda
a Story of Opposites

In a cellular universe the story takes an unexpected turn and reveals a counterintuitive relationship.

Conrad Ranzan
DSSU Research, Niagara Falls, Canada

Published as an open-access article at www.CellularUniverse.org  (2007; rev2010)

 

 

Unless you expect the unexpected you will never find truth, for it is hard to discover and hard to attain. –Heraclitus

 

 

 CONTENTS
1   GRAVITY
2   LAMBDA: THE GENERIC EXPANSION FACTOR
3   THE TRADITIONAL STORY OF GRAVITY AND LAMBDA: OPPOSITES IN CONFLICT
4   THE NEW COSMOLOGY STORY: OPPOSITES IN HARMONY
5   IMPLICATIONS OF GRAVITY AND LAMBDA IN HARMONY
6   REFLECTIONS
7   SUMMARY
 

Most believe in the superficial harmony of a universe that seems to be expanding —of a universe involved in a harmonious Hubble expansion. Others hold that the universe is not expanding and that a deeper, superior, harmony rules the universe accounting for not only its grand structure but also for the unity of the opposites of gravity and Lambda.

 

1.   GRAVITY

THE RANGE OF GRAVITY.   One of the key differences between the conventional cosmology of universe-wide expansion and the new cosmology of cosmic cellularity involves the range of gravity. Conventional cosmology, popularly called the Big Bang, permits the effect of gravity to have an unlimited range; the New Cosmology, in contrast, imposes a strict limit to gravity’s reach. In the Big Bang (BB) model of the universe every particle, every star, and every galaxy has a gravitational influence on every other particle, star, and galaxy. Everything “pulls” on everything else in accordance with the inverse-square law. For example, the gravitational pull of our Sun on a distant object decreases with the inverse of the square of the distance; as the distance to the object approaches infinity, the strength of the Sun’s pull on it approaches zero. But it never becomes zero. It means that conventional gravity’s reach has no limit. In terms of general relativity we would say that the Sun’s matter curves space (or spacetime) and contributes to the curvature of the entire universe.
   However, this is not the case in our Cellular Universe. The reach of gravity of any particle, star, and galaxy has strict limits.

CAUSE OF GRAVITATION.   There is another important difference. Often overlooked is the fact that neither Newton’s theory of gravity nor Einstein’s general relativity theory includes an all-important cause of gravitation. Newton’s gravity theory describes in mathematical terms the forces in a gravitational system —but not what causes the forces. The question, “What causes matter to grab a hold of other matter?” is left unanswered. As for Einstein’s gravity theory, although it uses a more advanced mathematical method (something called metric curvature) to describe the gravitational effect with truly remarkable precision, the causative mechanism by which matter attracts other matter is, once again, absent. Remarkably, both of these famous gravity theories are incomplete! ... In the second year of the present millennium the cause of gravitation which had eluded theorists for centuries was discovered by an Australian physicist. This remarkable achievement may yet become known as the greatest astrophysics discovery of the present age encompassing the 20th and 21st centuries. (The cause was also found independently in that same year, 2002, during the development of the Dynamic Steady State Universe theory.) And here is the big difference: BB cosmology has not yet incorporated this key component. The New Cosmology makes full use of the cause of gravitation.
  
   Before describing the mysterious Lambda effect, the key role of gravity must be emphasized. Gravity is, because of its cumulative nature, far the most powerful effect in all Nature. For an understanding of the Universe, there is nothing of greater importance than a comprehensive fully-functional theory of gravity. The description of gravity is critically important because, whatever it may be, it ends up at the very heart of the theory of the Cosmos. Consequently, if one’s theory of gravity lacks a causative mechanism then the associated universe model will be flawed, or incomplete at best.

2.   LAMBDA: THE GENERIC EXPANSION FACTOR

GENERIC LAMBDA.   The lack of a modus operandi for the gravitational force of Newton’s theory, or the lack of a physical meaning of positive curvature of space of Einstein’s theory, did not in any way prevent cosmologists and philosophers from constructing models of the Universe. But the problems were formidable. For one thing, ‘limitless’ gravity, it seemed, was too powerful. Almost invariably theorists found that they needed to tame this universal and domineering ‘force’ tending to crush everything in the cosmos into some doomsday black hole. Unrestricted gravity would lead to the end of a functional universe —not to mention all the painstakingly crafted world models.  In the attempts to address this need, theorists have postulated various ways to counteract the effect of gravity. They have, at one time or another, invoked: a new force, some mysterious energy, a dynamic effect, and more curved geometry —all with the express purpose of opposing gravity. And they all share a wonderfully simplifying commonality.
   The variously proposed opposites of gravity all produce the same result as can be had with the singular process of space expansion. Each could be replaced by some appropriate degree of space-medium growth. Space expansion is like a generic cosmological constant (the "cosmological constant" being the famous factor used in the first general-relativity model of the universe). In the light of space expansion the cosmological constant or Lambda loses much of its mysterious nature. It is equivalent to a straightforward concept.
   Lambda, symbolized by the Greek letter Λ, is the generic name herein given to any cosmic phenomenon that opposes gravity.  And as it is applied to the various posited opposites of gravity, it really doesn’t matter how space is defined. Generic Lambda simply means there is more and more of it. If we think of gravity as decreasing the space between cosmic objects, then Λ is the increase of space.


HISTORIC EXAMPLES OF USE OF LAMBDA.  Lambda made its first appearance in 1917 when Albert Einstein used it in a failed attempt to model a static universe. At that time in the history of the science of cosmology, the universe was believed to be static on the large scale. In his famous universe model, based on his recently developed theory of general relativity, the generic Lambda was called the cosmological constant. It functioned as a new kind of force —a cosmic repulsion effect. Since Einstein denied (or ignored) the existence of a space medium, he found it necessary to create this new effect. Nevertheless, his Λ force, as it tended to increase the distances between galaxies, behaved exactly as if space itself was expanding. The model had generic space expansion.

   So why didn’t the model work? It didn’t work because it involved an unscientific extrapolation. General relativity, it must be understood, is a powerful mathematical theory of local dynamic space —not universal dynamic space. General relativity is not a theory of the universe and cannot serve as such. Whenever attempts are made to substitute general relativity for a theory of the greater universe, that is, whenever it is applied to the universe as a whole, serious problems arise. Thus, when Einstein used the relativity theory to formulate his 1917 model he needed some contrived component to give it stability. And so he introduced his cosmological constant as a precise counterbalance to all the gravity present in the universe. The picture that emerged was one of gravity and Lambda in opposition: Gravity struggles to pull everything in the universe together; Lambda strives to push everything in the universe apart.  But the picture failed, stability was not to be had, and Einstein eventually abandoned the model.

   Others followed the lead of Einstein and throughout this period and into the 1920s generic Λ became a central ingredient of various universe models. The Willem de Sitter universe (1917) used Λ as the expansion of flat (non-curved) space. Alexander Friedmann (1922 & 1924) had his own version of a generic Λ; he called it space curvature and used it to produce a “space curvature” expansion of his universe (and in another version he used Λ to produce a “space curvature” contraction). It did not represent space expansion in the absolute sense, as it does in the Dynamic Steady State Universe (DSSU) theory, but rather, it modeled the expansion of the esoteric kind of space used in Einstein’s general relativity —a geometrically dynamic curved space, a purely mathematical space. But no matter, the results are the same as if absolute space itself expands.

LAMBDA WAS USED TO MODEL A BIG BANG.   Georges Lemaître, instead of aiming for harmonious stability in the universe, gave Lambda the upper hand. In his universe (1927-29) Λ overpowers its dynamic opposite. Lambda reigns, gravity submits. While gravity as usual pulls everything in the universe together, Λ works even harder pushing everything apart. By “everything” we are referring to the big stuff like galaxy clusters. Net result? ... A really big universal explosion.

LAMBDA WAS USED TO “CORRECT” MAJOR PROBLEMS WITH THE BIG BANG.  As detailed in the historical records, the Lemaître big bang had big problems. Some of these were of the worst kind —outright paradoxes! And so, generic Λ was called upon “to save appearances” as it were. After considerable trial and error, several American cosmologists, including Alan Guth and Paul Steinhardt, and Russian experts, notably Andrei Linde, came up with a new and improved expansion mechanism —a reformulation of generic Λ which became known as inflation. They devised a supercharged Λ-effect with super-fast space expansion. Hypothetically, Inflation dominated the earliest epoch of the BB universe to such an extend that gravity’s role was practically negligible.

   We now move ahead a few years. With the Crisis of 1998, Lambda took on the role of dark energy —the mysterious force causing an unexpected renewed phase of, you guessed it, space expansion.

LAMBDA’S MANY GUISES.   A quick review of Lambda’s better-known manifestations. It appears as an anti-gravity force in the 1917 Einstein static universe. In the Friedmann models, Λ takes the guise of space curvature. It appears as a hyper-lightspeed explosion under the dictates of Inflation theory. And sometimes it appears in the equations describing a universe model just in case it is needed; the model might not actually need Λ (i.e., it is set to zero) but it is retained and serves to represent some unknown force that just might permeate the cosmos. In some theories Λ morphs into something called quintessence. And under the auspices of current orthodoxy in cosmology, Λ rules as a mysterious force appropriately called dark energy.
   Cosmologists have enlisted Lambda in so many ways that it is sometimes called a “fudge factor” a highly useful easily-adjusted term in the equations. It is this and much more:

 

It stands for the unknown, spiritual element that the scientist desperately hopes will make each cosmological model more beautiful, more complete, more true.
–Corey S. Powell, God in the Equation, p144

 

   In some theories Lambda shares properties with vacuum energy. Then there are theories in which Λ is named according to its physical characteristics: negative pressure and, equivalently, tension. Not surprisingly, a region of space that is subjected to negative pressure EXPANDS. A region of space that is subjected to tension EXPANDS. In the end, whatever one may choose to label it, generic Λ is a necessary ingredient. It is equivalent to space expansion and is the counter-effect to gravity. And Λ in the DSSU is no exception.

WHAT CAUSES THE SPACE EXPANSION REPRESENTED BY LAMBDA?  All expanding-space models implicitly or explicitly point to some sort of “energy in the vacuum” or energy in space itself. Does this mean that the vacuum energy is the cause of space expansion? Or is the action of space, as it expands, the cause of the vacuum energy that permeates space? Is it even possible to determine the answer? ...
 

3.   THE TRADITIONAL STORY OF GRAVITY AND LAMBDA:  OPPOSITES IN CONFLICT

   Throughout the 20th century and into the present, the conventional view on gravity and generic Λ has been two-fold: First, they were considered to be opposites in which gravity tends to pull things together and Λ tends to push things apart. Secondly, they were seen to be in conflict with each other. The traditional view has been that of two opposite effects in conflict. This view is embodied in BB cosmology. It may seem an oversimplification, but it is fundamentally sound; the Big Bang universe is a construction in which gravity pulls everything radially inward and Λ, as a cosmic repulsion, pushes radially outward.

   Cosmologist Edward Harrison, in his textbook Cosmology, the Science of the Universe, makes it clear that when Lambda is positive it acts as a cosmic repulsion —a force that opposes gravity. It “offsets the attraction of gravity.” [E. Harrison p293]

   A schematic representation of this view is shown in Fig. 1. Although the drawing suggests the presence of a center-point, one need not be presumed; with or without such a center, gravity and Λ are viewed as opposing each other.

   
 

Fig. 1.  Gravity and Lambda are treated as forces-in-opposition by the 20th-century cosmology.

 


   As a representation of reality, the Big Bang view —to put it bluntly— is wrong. Although it is true that positive-valued Lambda behaves as a cosmic repulsion it does not follow that it also acts in opposition to gravity. Astronomers and theorists, unaware of the non sequitur, have long assumed that the two effects oppose each other. Unfortunately their traditional view of opposites in conflict leads to an unanticipated riddle.

   Put yourself in the shoes of a physicist. The traditional view leads you to believe that Λ opposes gravitational clustering. But by failing to recognize the invalid premise and accepting it into your model you will have immediately burdened yourself with an artificial mystery. Allow me to explain. By placing gravity and Λ in conflict with each other you are in effect weakening the force of gravity; weakening the tendency of galaxies to cluster; weakening the cohesion that binds clusters and superclusters.  Consequently, you will now be confronted with the task of explaining what in the world ... what in the name of heaven ... keeps any galaxy cluster together? Astronomers have accumulated abundant observations and theorists have the detailed calculations and together they have a sea of data that embodies the mystery: galaxy motions within a cluster are far too high; the cluster should be flying apart! Individual galaxies should be fleeing the cluster.  But they are not.  What is it then that holds the cluster together? The insurmountability of this problem is so enormous that should you manage to discover the cause of cohesion while retaining the above premise, then expect to receive a communiqué from the Nobel selection committee.

   Evidently, something must be maintaining the integrity of the clusters and superclusters. Something is holding them together and their observable self-gravitation is insufficient for the task. Something mysterious is augmenting gravity. And what better way is there to solve a gravity mystery, at least within the traditional storyline, than with some kind of unseen mysterious material?

 

...[M]odels worked a lot better if they added certain kinds of unseen material, or “dark matter,” into the mix. Dark matter could provide the extra gravitational pull needed to build galaxies and flatten out [i.e., reduce expansion of] the universe, and if its properties were just right, it might not interfere with the [other aspects of the BB model]. The mystery material was ... designed to amplify rather than counteract the pull of gravity.
–Corey S. Powell, God in the Equation, p186‑7

 


   Here is the insurmountable part of the problem: No dark matter has ever been found. Although the search has been and continues to be intensive, no lab experiment has ever produced a dark matter particle and no detector has ever recorded one. The list of the possible candidates for the elusive particles is perplexing and extensive: WIMPS, neutrinos, axions, photinos, neutralinos, ... . All have been more or less rejected. Although the futility of the search is disheartening, in the long run it is unimportant. As stated above the mystery is artificial. It actually does not exist. Nevertheless ...

 

Nonetheless, the dark matter search goes on, because without dark matter our picture of the universe makes no sense. Visible matter alone cannot explain the gravitational dynamics of galaxies and clusters of galaxies.
–Corey S. Powell, God in the Equation, p190 (Emphasis added)

 


   As if to deny the BB model the plausibility it so desperately seeks, Corey S. Powell then pens these discouraging words: ”Even the addition of dark matter did not solve the essential mysteries of the big bang.”

   If tragedy in a story appeals to you, this comes close. With or without dark matter, the BB model makes no sense. They (the astro-scientists) can’t seem to figure out how the space in the universe is expanding while all the material stuff is sticking together! ... What is going on? ...

   Undoubtedly something is assisting gravity. ... It is not dark matter.

   But wait. There is something more —something unexpected and sinister, in this sub-story of conflict.  Standard cosmology has added a new dimension to the alleged conflict between gravity and Λ. With the Crisis of 1998 it was found that Λ does more than simply reduce the effect of gravity —it was determined, or so they claim, that Λ completely overpowers gravity. Λ now becomes the dominant force in the BB universe; and not just during the big bang genesis but forever after. This new enhanced Λ-effect is the reason that the revised model is often called the inflationary-BB-accelerating universe —with the new emphasis on accelerating.

   The conventional view that gravity and Λ are opposites-in-conflict will now be challenged.
 

4.   THE NEW-COSMOLOGY STORY: OPPOSITES IN HARMONY

One seldom sees what one is not looking for  —saying

If one is looking for conflict in opposites, one may miss seeing their harmony.


   A simple question: Can two opposite effects amplify each other? Consider an example for which the answer is obviously “no”: the two opposite parts of a propagating wave —crests and troughs. In the simple interference patterns of light or water waves, the crests and troughs just cancel each other; there is no amplification. Next, consider positive and negative electrical charges; they are obvious opposites. Depending on the configuration of their associated electric fields they may either cancel their combined effect or they may amplify the effect. For another example consider the opposite poles of a magnet. A pair of “U” shaped magnets, when aligned to demonstrate mutual attraction, represents a configuration of opposites acting in harmony.


   Hidden in the configuration of our dynamic steady state universe lies the harmony between gravity and Lambda. These opposites do amplify each other. As we have seen Lambda involves the dynamic expansion of space. Ordinary gravity involves the dynamic contraction of space. (These are basic Postulates #1 and #2 of DSSU theory.) They appear to be, and really are, opposite effects. And you will agree that in regions of expanding space galaxies move apart and in regions of contracting space galaxies move closer together. It certainly sounds like these ‘forces’ are in conflict. ... And yet it can be shown —and this is about as magical as the story gets— that Lambda and gravity are actually oriented in a common direction.
   Both effects work towards a common purpose and a common outcome. On the size-scale of greatest importance —of greatest importance for shaping our Universe— Λ pushes matter together while ordinary gravity (as always) pulls matter together. This harmony of forces is made graphically clear in Fig. 2 and Fig. 3.

   The unexpected twist in the story of Lambda and gravity is that the acceleration vectors and the flow lines, which define these effects, are all directed towards the same regional destination!
 
A LOOK AT THE COMOVING TRAJECTORIES IN THE CELLULAR UNIVERSE.   The scale of importance in the DSSU is the scale of its bubble-like cosmic cells which have a nominal diameter of 300 million lightyears. I have used a hexagon as a schematic of one such cell. The actual cosmic structure, in general, has a non-Platonic dodecahedral shape. We may think of the flat hexagon as being the cross-section view of a polyhedron (dodecahedron). Space within the cell is dynamic and when we imagine sprinkling galaxies into this space
like sprinkling bread crumbs onto the surface of a lazy stream or like blowing bubbles into a gentle breeze they will comove with the space into which we have placed them. The motions of the “sprinkled galaxies” become comoving trajectories. The trajectories coincide with the Λ and gravity vectors/flowlines in the diagram.
   Consider, for the moment, the situation in which all the matter in the universe was somehow evenly distributed around the perimeter of each cosmic cell. Then the Λ-effect and gravitation effect and the resulting trajectories would be represented with a simple radial pattern as shown in Fig. 2.

   
 

Fig. 2.   Opposites in harmony. The arrows represent the direction of the Lambda “force” (in red) and the gravitation “force” (in blue) under the unrealistic condition in which matter is uniformly distributed within the cell walls (yellow). The arrows also serve to indicate the direction of movement of space itself and the comovement of contained objects.

 


   Matter, however, is not evenly distributed. Like a beehive honeycomb the cell ‘walls’ at midpoints have very little material, while the cell nodes are substantially reinforced. Matter, mainly in the form of galaxies, tends to clump together at the cosmic-cell nodes —as any astronomer will verify. These accumulations are naturally called galaxy clusters. Away from the nodes we have the cell walls, or cell interfaces, which contain considerably fewer galaxies. And these galaxies are in transit towards the nearest node. In fact, it is the law of cosmic motion that all galaxies obey regardless of where they originate or where we may place them in our diagram: all follow a trajectory towards the nearest node (allowing for the occasional momentary detour and the possibility of galactic cannibalism).

   Once again, we are able to underscore just how strongly divergent the two cosmologies really are. In the DSSU the Lambda effect actually reinforces gravity! No mathematical proof is required; simply look at the drawing (Fig. 3) and visualize force vectors (or simply acceleration vectors) along the curved paths. The Λ-effect vectors are in the same general direction as the nearest vectors representing the gravitational effect. In the DSSU, objects subjected to either Λ or gravity will move in the same general direction. On the cosmic-cell scale, the Λ vectors are directed towards mass-concentration regions, as are the gravity vectors.
 

   
 

Fig. 3.   Opposites in harmony in a dynamic cosmic cell. The curves are the trajectories of the movement of space itself and the idealized comovement of contained objects. There is a perpetual flow; first through the Lambda region (along the red paths); then through the gravitating region (along the blue paths) and into the very cores of the nodal galaxy clusters. (The hexagon is a schematic cross-section of a single cell of the DSSU.)

 


    The DSSU picture reveals the beauty and symmetry of the harmony of opposites. Lambda “pushes” galaxies, and any other comoving objects, towards the cell’s interfaces where basic gravity takes over and “pulls” them in. The direction of the vectors confirms that Lambda does indeed amplify gravity. When it comes to holding galaxy clusters together ordinary gravity will not do it on its own; Lambda  —not dark matter— partakes in the effort. By grasping the underlying principle, known as the harmony of opposites, we have gained crucial insight. Heraclitus of Ephesus (530-470 BC), the Ancient Greek originator of the theory of the harmony of opposites and a participant in the first revolution in cosmology, had paved the way

 

Heraclitus develop[ed] a new theory ... and this is his signal discovery: and contribution to philosophy: the real world consists in a balanced adjustment of opposing tendencies. Behind the strife between opposites, according to measures, there lies a hidden harmony or attunement which is the world. –Bertrand Russell, Wisdom of the West, p24

 

   If Heraclitus could have foreseen the future he probably would have wondered what took us so long to apply his famous principle. And the novelist and social critic George Orwell would have understood the human factor in resolving the gravity-Lambda mystery: Orwell was keenly aware of the danger of intellectual pacifism when he exhorted, “To see what is in front of one’s nose requires a constant struggle.”

 
   If Heraclitus could have foreseen the future he probably would have wondered what took us so long to apply his famous principle. And the novelist and social critic George Orwell would have understood the human factor in resolving the gravity-Lambda mystery: Orwell was keenly aware of the danger of intellectual pacifism when he exhorted, “To see what is in front of one’s nose requires a constant struggle.”

“[T]here is one way in which wisdom can be achieved, and that is by grasping the underlying principle of things. This formula is the harmony of opposites, but men do not recognize it, though it manifests itself everywhere. ... If we do not recognize the formula then no amount of learning is going to be of any use."
–Heraclitus, as interpreted by Bertrand Russell, Wisdom of the West, p26

 

5.   IMPLICATIONS OF GRAVITY AND LAMBDA IN HARMONY

   Einstein was correct in principle when in 1917 he envisioned a universe in which Λ would exactly balance the effect of gravitation keeping the universe motionless (non-expanding, non-contracting). It was the pattern of the balancing dynamics that eluded him. I do not make the following claim lightly, but it seems that it never occurred to Einstein that he could use Λ —even keep it positive— to assist gravity and still achieve the realistic goal of a static universe.
   His balanced static universe was not a success. The way Λ was used turned out to be a formula for instability. If Einstein, however, had fashioned Λ into a simple cellular pattern he would not only have modeled a truly stable and quasi-static universe, he would also have discovered the real universe —the Dynamic Steady State Universe.

   As far as the quest for dark matter is concerned, it would be naïve to think that with the elucidation of the true nature of Λ —that in our cellular universe it acts in the same direction as gravity— the fruitless search for mysterious dark matter and dark energy would cease. It is not easy to argue that there simply is no dark matter; there is a dilemma in trying to prove a negative. One can only assert, as does Professor Reginald T. Cahill, of Flinders University, an expert in process physics:

 

There is no ‘dark matter’, merely an exotic self-interaction and annihilation process [i.e., a space-contraction process] of the quantum cellular structure that is space.
–Space and Gravitation

 

   The quest for dark matter will continue. It will continue mainly for two reasons. First, the unexpected discovery will be ignored and even suppressed. Secondly, research into dark matter is funded by government and quasi-government institutions; funding decisions are influenced by factors often far removed from truth and reality.
   For the foreseeable future expect more of the same —more speculative mysterious-matter theories.

   Nevertheless, there are profound and far-reaching implications in the discovery that gravity and Lambda act in harmony.

   For instance, consider the unusual symmetry pattern (Fig. 3) of the Λ-gravity field? ...Without going into detail in this short article, it simply means that the largest individual gravitational fields in our Universe are not spherical; which in turn means that the usual inverse-square law does not apply.

   If we define the force of cosmic gravity at any point in space as the mass of a test particle multiplied by its comoving acceleration (realizing that the comoving acceleration is towards the cell interface in general and the nodal dominant galaxy in particular), then could we not simply combine expansionary Λ and contractile gravity into something called a unified-cosmic-gravitation?  Any point we may wish to investigate in a typical cosmic cell is accelerating (meaning that the space medium is in motion) towards the interface and towards the nearest node! Indeed, all points “experience” gravitation as defined; all locations except for certain Lagrangian neutral sites.  Lambda can simply be incorporated into a unified gravitation field. Each node with its galaxy cluster becomes the center of its own unified gravitation field. The implications are explored in greater detail in a related research paper.

   The symmetry partly revealed by Fig. 3 may be expressing another way: All centers of gravity are surrounded by Λ regions. Consequently, we conclude that the range of gravity is indeed limited (as claimed in the opening discussion). Furthermore, the universe is not random or chaotic. Gravity and Lambda manifest as the two dynamic processes that order the universe. The order of processes imposes the order of structure. The harmonious activity of space expansion and contraction mold our ordered Universe our cellular Cosmos.
 

6.   REFLECTIONS

   In the DSSU we see the ultimate in balance between gravity and Λ. We see this clearly in our minds because we grasp the underlying principle that Λ manifests as the expansion of space and gravity manifests as the contraction of space. It is a balance that maintains our Universe’s observed structure. They are two sides of the same coin.
   We see a harmony of opposites. What does institutionalized cosmology see? ... The view of the leaders of the Supernova research teams is representative:

 

What [Saul] Perlmutter and [Brian] Schmidt see, instead, is the ultimate in unbalance — a runaway universe, in which galaxies race ever faster away from one another.
–Corey S. Powell, God in the Equation, p238

 

   What academic cosmology sees must, of course, conform to the established BB religion. As Corey Powell effectively argues, its congregation deifies Lambda as the Angel of Dark Energy. First, the BB religion provided its followers with a creation story in the form of an exploding singularity; the Angel of Dark Energy now provides followers with a doomsday scenario —a prolonged demise in which Perlmutter and Schmidt’s speculations of accelerated expansion leads their universe towards increasing emptiness and death by dilution. Academic cosmologists envision a rather gloomy future.

 

The [Λ dominated] accelerating universe could create a spiritual crisis...
–Corey S. Powell, God in the Equation, p238

 

    All the while the practical crisis is very real, for what has a beginning must also have an ending. The adherents of the creationism cosmology, having failed in unraveling the mystery of their creation event, now brood over the gloomy fate of their universe.

   What a blockbuster story gravity and Λ is turning out to be! The story is leading to what must surely be the death-blow crisis for creationism cosmology.

   To the BB congregation and the non-believers, to the academics and the amateurs, I make the following prophecy in expressing one more implication associated with the discovery of the harmony of gravity and Λ. It is probably this feature of DSSU theory more than any of its other equally valid arguments that has the persuasiveness to trigger a paradigm shift in astrophysics and usher in the Fifth Revolution in cosmology.  ...
 

A convenient comparison-summary of the ideas herein covered is presented below.
 

7.   SUMMARY

 

   
 

Fig. 4.  The role of Gravity and Lambda for two radically different cosmologies.

 


In stating, in the Fig.-4 flowchart, that Einstein’s gravitation lacks a cause I mean that there is no ‘mechanism’ (for lack of a better word) to explain how mass distorts, or curves, Einstein’s spacetime.

The conclusion that the 20th-Century Cosmology is a problem-plagued cosmology encompasses both the Big Bang class of models and the historic Steady State class.

According to general relativity theory, gravity and Lambda are the active dynamics of spacetime.
According to DSSU theory gravity and Lambda are the active dynamics of aether-permeated space. Both theories have gravity and Lambda as similar effects of their respective space. Both theories identify the dynamic effects with space expansion and contraction. So, what’s the difference?

The heart of the difference the profound difference is relational:

Opposites in conflict versus opposites in harmony.

*  *  *

For the continuation of the story of Gravity and Λ, including its climactic finding and a more in-depth treatment of the ideas in the above article, please see the research paper:

"Preprint" version (includes color images):
The Story of Gravity and Lambda –How the Theory of Heraclitus Solved the Dark Matter Mystery –C. Ranzan

Journal-published version (black and white images):
The Story of Gravity and Lambda How the Theory of Heraclitus Solved the Dark Matter Mystery –C. Ranzan

Reprinted by permission of Physics Essays Publication, from Physics Essays, Vol.23, No.1, pp75-87 (2010 Mar).

 

Copyright ©  by Conrad Ranzan          Contact details:   www.CellularUniverse.org

2007; rev2009-12; rev2010


Selected Sources:

Cahill, R. T. Space and Gravitation. Magister Botanicus, Vol.2, pp.13-22, January 2004

Harrison, E. R. Cosmology, the Science of the Universe (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1981) ISBN 0-521-22981-2

Layzer, D. Constructing the Universe, Scientific American Library (W H Freeman & Co. New York, 1984) ISBN 0-7167-5003-1)

Powell, C. S.  God in the Equation (The Free Press, New York, 2002) ISBN 0-684-86348-0

Russell, B. Wisdom of the West, Editor Paul Foulkes (Crescent Books, Inc., & Rathbone books Limited, London, reprinted 1977 & 1978) ISBN 0-517-06420-0
 


Top of page            Back to DSSU Home Page 

Copyright © 2005-2017
All rights reserved.
  C. Ranzan Email:
DSSUresearch@CellularUniverse.org
  Site updated: 17-04-23