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(2019 December 20): After considerable delay, the History of the Aether Theory —with its extensive chronicle (Table) of the development of aether theory— has now been UPDATED (with new table entries for 1900, 2015, 2017, and 2018).

(2019 December): New webpage-article For Educators has been posted:
The Nobel Foundation Endorses the Unsubstantiated Dark Matter Hypothesis

(2019 November): Some brief comments on Fantasyland Physics

(2019 October 24): Canadians have voted to allow the invasion of the country to continue —and worse— to allow it to expand!! Inevitably, ever more precious farmland will be urbanized. … With the 2019 October National election, Canadians have turned their backs on freedom of speech, freedom in general, and acquiesced to the Country’s continuing descent along the path of socialism and fascism. Very, very sad.
Link to the JustRightMedia Oct-31st commentary and the Nov-7th analysis.

(2019 October 10): Several new webpages have been added and serve as “Resources for Educators, Instructors, & New-Cosmology Enthusiasts.” DIRECTORY

(2019 September 20): Canadian broadcaster Robert Metz focuses on cosmology and gives a masterful presentation —a superb show in which he exposes the absurdity of the Big Bang hypothesis, delves into some key aspects of the DSSU, and praises the veracity of the modern steady-state perspective. Listen to the Just Right program #623 originally broadcast around the world over the internet and on shortwave radio on 2019 September 19.

(2019 August): German philosopher praises Cellular Universe website and endorses DSSU theory. [Link to his comments]
    This month of August marks the 19th anniversary of DSSU theory.

(2019 August): Corruption of justice in Canada continues. White Man sentenced to one year in jail for the “offence” of exercising his constitutional right of free speech! While for the same “offence” (and in the very same trial) Native Man sentenced to optional reconciliation session and NO jail time! Editors, publishers, writers, and researchers take note. LINK to several postings on the persecution of Dr James Sears and LeRoy St. Germaine.

(2019 August 10): Corruption of justice in Germany continues. Alfred Schaefer Receives 18 Months Additional Prison Time for Defending Himself!  Punished for simply presenting evidence for his own defense in court! Alfred’s sister has posted this 8-minute video.

(2019 July 1): New webpage posted: Highlights ●Reviews ●Comments relating to the recently published article "Mass-to-Energy Conversion, the Astrophysical Mechanism".

(2019 June 1 & June 7): New research paper dealing with the physical nature of length contraction has been published. Physical Nature of Length Contraction (Part 2) How the Electron Elongates While Its Orbit Contracts, ... See the Press Release (2019 June) for details.

(2019 May 1): New DSSU article reveals how a simple extension of Einstein’s relativity  radically changes black-hole physics.  Published in the Journal of High Energy Physics, ...  See the Press Release (2019 May) for details.

(2019 April 12): Response to a reader’s Question on the root (the origin) of “information” in the universe.
Response to a reader’s Question on the extraction of energy from aether.

(2019 March 30): Currently two articles are undergoing peer-review and another one is being prepared.
    Meanwhile the suicide of Western Nations continues. Check this out: Popular philosopher Stefan Molyneux discovered that in British Colombia it would have cost him and the event organizers $40,000 to stop violent attacks and to peacefully exercise their constitutional right of freedom-of-speech! (Link to the Molyneux video of 2019-3-20)
    It gets worse. Socialism as a death sentence! Just Right program #603, (2019-4-11)

(2019 March 20): Article revealing how energy is extracted from nonmaterial aether has just been published in the current issue of INFINITE ENERGY Magazine. See the Press Release (2019 March) for details.

(2019 March 14): Oppression of freedom: Powerful discussion on the evil of the political center: “Left, Right, and the Extreme Center” (Just Right #599 Audio program, Mar.14, 2019)

(2019 February 13, 14, & 15): Three days of remembrance and mourning: the horror and tragedy of the Dresden Holocaust (1945, Feb 13-15), the most devastating single terrorist event in the history of mankind. [ HELLSTORM ]

(2019 January): Regarding the latest DSSU research article: The theoretical and evidential proof of total mass-to-energy conversion was rejected by the Canadian Journal of Physics. Unable to find errors in the physics or flaws in the logic, the editor Dr. Michael Steinitz and his anonymous Associate Editor dismissed the Paper as being too technical in nature and not being a “topic of high interest for the widest audience of physicists.” … Who would have guessed? The editors of Canadian Journal of Physics find basic first-year university physics too technical!! … Regarding the other excuse, I politely asked the editors: “Do you seriously believe that your target audience, mostly physicists and others with an earnest interest in the physical sciences, would not value this new insight!? Should they not be made aware of this new knowledge?” No response! … So ends another FAKE REVIEW. –CR

(2018 December 28): See Press Release: Unprecedented Unification of Gravity Theory.

(2018 December 1): Unification-of-gravity paper has been accepted for publication.

(2018 November 22): Here we go again! Latest paper rejected.
   Reason? “The paper contains too many acronyms …” How many? Hey! It contains only one well-known acronym (DSSU)!
   Although clearly written and logically presented with an easy to follow style (text, examples, mathematics, graphics), the Reviewer/Editor found the article “impenetratable [sic] and therefore impossible to referee in any detail.” … No examples, no particulars, it was just hopelessly “impossible to referee.”
   The seeking and exposing of errors is the essence of a legitimate review process. Evidently the Reviewer/Editor failed to find anything that could be considered demonstrably false, and so, found it necessary to concoct BS objections (well-known acronym for bovine excrement). What happened here was simply a fake review. –CR

(2018 September 27): New research paper on GRAVITY is currently under review. … Details the unification of all five aspects of gravity … Presents a remarkable new development in the theoretical nature of gravity waves. …

(2018 September):
Fan of DSSU comments on the “train wreck” of modern physics and on big bang mythology.

(2018 September 1): PUBLISHED: Natural Mechanism for the Generation and Emission of Extreme Energy Particles, Physics Essays Vol.31, No.3, pp.358-376 (2018).

(2018 August): Press Release (2018 August): "The mechanism driving astrophysical jets has been discovered"

(2018 July 31): What’s the delay? Yes, the usual publication frustrations:
■ Journal 1: peer reviewed, no errors in the logic, no flaws in the science, tentative ACCEPTANCE, then REJECTED !
■ Journal 2: peer reviewed, no errors in the logic, no flaws in the science, REJECTED !
   Could it be that the editors promoting fake astro-science feel threatening by the DSSU revolution? …
■ Journal 3: peer reviewed, “This is a scholarly and erudite article that deserves to be published in recognition of its tutorial nature and … the validity of the author’s proposals.” ACCEPTED for publication.
The article —Natural Mechanism for the Generation and Emission of Extreme Energy Particles— is toxic and revolutionary! Details to follow. –CR

(2018 May 24): Two papers are currently under review. Meanwhile, work has begun on a new research paper ---delving deeper into the amazing properties of aether.

(2018 April 28):
Question: What drives astrophysical jets?
What process or mechanism generates the stupendous power of those spectacular emission jets associated with certain stars? (I’m talking about gamma photons and neutrinos with energy equivalent to a million hydrogen atoms!! Imagine that much energy contained in a single gamma photon or neutrino!)
    This has been one of the biggest mysteries of the universe —one that has baffled the academic cognoscenti for decades.
    The answer will be revealed in the next research article, which is currently under review. And as the followers of DSSU theory have come to expect, the answer is perfectly natural; the concepts are straightforward, the arguments logical, the conclusions compelling, the implications profound.

(2018 February 1): Research paper Sachs-Wolfe Effect Disproof has been published in in the International Journal of Astrophysics and Space Science. Abstract & links.
Reprint (download PDF).

(2017 December 30): Press release: The Sacks-Wolfe Effect has now been disproved. … Expansion Cosmology has lost its last supporting pillar. …

(2017 December 29): Another powerful research paper … another devastating blow for the Big Bang … the "Sacks-Wolfe Effect Disproof " has been accepted for publication in an international journal for astrophysics. (Details to follow within a few days.)

(2017 December): Comment posted: Galaxy age misinterpretation. Does cosmic distant have any relationship to a galaxy’s age?

(2017 December): 2nd printing of "The Nature of Gravitational Collapse": (Details)

(2017 November): Special purchase offer on the book "Guide to the Construction of the Natural Universe": (Mail-in Order Form.)

(2017 Sept): Recently brought to my attention: DSSU material appears on The New Illuminati website accompanied by some amazing graphics.

New Illuminati –The DSSU is The New Cosmology

New Illuminati –Hidden Substrate of Reality
–History of the Aether Theory

(2017 Sept): "Assorted Comments" added to QuestionsAnswersComments.

(2017 July): The book The Nature of Gravitational Collapse is now available.

The Nature of Gravitational Collapse

Subtitle: How the photon, the particle of light, is responsible for mass, gravity, superneutron stars, and supermassive black holes

—Reveals the truth about stellar and supermassive black holes.

This work contains 311+ pages, 67 illustrations, references, and index. …
Second printing details (2017 November)
First printing details (Lambert Academic Publishing).

(2016 December): “So easy to understand” comment from an Australian engineer.

(2016 November): “Large-Scale Structure of the Dynamic Steady State Universe” now published in the American Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Vol.4, No.6, 2016, pp.65-77. Astract and Links to HTML and PDF.

(2016 June): Revolutionary research paper:
The Nature of Gravitational Collapse –published in the American Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Vol.4, No.2, 2016, pp.15-33. Abstract and Links:
—Another major DSSU success, as it reveals amazing new insights! The theory has uncovered the mechanism by which mass undergoes a total conversion to energy. Yes, a mass to energy conversion with 100% efficiency!  As everything else in the DSSU, it is a perfectly natural process. Truly amazing!

(2016 April 26):  A mathematical cosmologist claims the values of the Hubble-expansion parameter and the cosmic-background temperature are the most important elements for understanding the real Universe! Letter and response.

(2016 March):  What is the difference between a physical and a mechanical aether? ...
Be aware of the distinctions among the terms commonly applied to aether: Terms such as physical, mechanical, subquantum, and dynamic. Link to new Question & Answer.

The book, Guide to the Construction of the Natural Universe, is now available at the Niagara Falls Public Library  (Victoria branch). If you live in the Province of Ontario, your local library can request the book from the Niagara Falls Public Library.

Participate in a unique exploration of the Cosmos: venture into the sub-atomic realm, even into the sub-quantum realm where the roots of reality reside, and into the domain of cosmic-scale cell-structure and beyond to infinity. Along the way, discover the cause of mass, the cause of gravitation, and rediscover Einstein’s “nonponderable” aether and Heraclitus’ harmony-of-opposites principle. … The book represents the ultimate vindication for all the skeptics who resisted the "preposterous" Big Bang mythology and who refused to join the exploding-cosmos religion.
The book contains 317 pages, 61 illustrations, references, and index …
Available from C-FAR Books.
Or use this mail-in Order Form.


My comments on the 2016 "Official Science" news story:

Do not be misled by the recent reports of the detection of gravity waves. What the LIGO apparatus measures is the interference from beams of self-generated electromagnetic waves. It seems highly probable that what LIGO actually detected was some vibrational “noise” or some unexplained interference; and NOT gravity waves originating from a distant binary system (in which two extremely massive black holes are supposedly in the process of merging). How the data, the wave patterns, are interpreted is subject to theory and restricted by theory. Naturally the official interpretation must conform to the Officially-sanctioned theory of gravity —Einstein’s general theory of relativity. Thus, the light patterns recorded by LIGO are interpreted via Einstein’s mathematical concept of gravity. The problem is the general-relativity-gravity interpretation, as is well known, ignores the space medium!

Have gravity waves really been detected?
Think about this: The academic experts do not have the cause and mechanism of gravity (Isaac Newton did not, Albert Einstein did not, and today’s big-bang astrophysicists do not). Their theory of gravity is embarrassingly incomplete! So, if they do not yet understand the nature of gravity itself, how then can they claim to be able to recognize the waves that gravity supposedly emits? The experts cannot even answer the simple question: Specifically, what is it that is waving? What is waving back and forth?
    Here is something else the reports fail to mention: The gravity waves that are actually detectable are those associated with the turbulence in the aether flow (the space medium streaming through our Solar System). Australian physicist Reginald T. Cahill has been examining these aether-flow waves for over 15 years. –CR (2016 May)
Updated 2016 June: See Comment #19
Updated 2018 Dec: See Press Release 2018-12

(2016 Jan 6): Published:
Olbers’ Paradox Resolved for the Infinite Non-Expanding Universe
, American Journal of Astronomy & Astrophysics Vol.4, No.1, (2016 January). Abstract & download links.
● “The man accredited with discovering universe expansion did not believe that the universe was expanding. Hubble was convinced that the key evidence, the cosmic redshift, was caused by some other factor, something more fundamental than mere expansion.”
● “With the recent discovery of a new cosmic-redshift mechanism, and its theoretical validation, it turns out that Hubble was right.”
● Explains how “an infinite, non-expanding, perpetually regenerating universe" is able to predict a dark night sky.

Press Release (2015 Oct 15):
The Big Bang is no longer a viable hypothesis !

(2016 June): FREE DOWNLOAD:
"DSSU Validated by Redshift Theory and Structural Evidence", Physics Essays, Vol.28, No.4, pp.455-473 (2015 Dec) —Delivers the coup de grâce to the Big Bang. Abstract & Links.
Both Reviewers enthusiastically endorsed this "well-written and incisive article."

(2015-Oct 6): Webpage added for article Cosmic-Redshift Distance Law Without c Without H: Comments & Links  Describes the challenge of getting DSSU papers published.

(2015 Aug 20): Allow me to extend a sincere "Thank You" for the many invitations to join social media and professional networks. Unfortunately I must decline. It’s simply a matter of precious time —there is just too little of it. All my available time is taken up by research, writing, and website maintenance —in fact, two more web domains have been purchased. It is all being done for the purpose of providing the educated and interested public with the ammunition to refute and replace the utterly bankrupt big-bang Worldview. (However, not to give the impression of a total recluse, seclusionist, or misanthrope, I do manage to squeeze in a few delightful hours of ballroom dancing every week or two.) –CR

(2015 Aug): Brief update on the status of the neutrino and its adaptation into the DSSU particle theory. See Section 5 of the Discussion webpage for the article: The Fundamental Process of Energy

(2015 Aug): The article The Universe Is Infinite (Part 1) has been revised.

(2015 July): Comments and questions from a 14-year old student.

(2013): Higgs Boson Discovered?
After 50 long years of searching, Physicists claim to have detected the Higgs boson, the "particle" that ostensibly bestows the property of mass on all other such particles. Is it now time to celebrate? … Definitely not.
   The question now is this: If the Higgs ‘particle’ is the giver of mass to all other particles, what then gives the Higgs itself its mass?! (Yes, the newly discovered particle has mass, lots of it!) A difficult and embarrassing question indeed. It is like asking:
If God created everything, then who, or what, created God?
   While physicists think they have solved the mass problem, the reality is that they have unwittingly exposed an even bigger problem —the riddle of “First Cause”.


Mass-to-Energy Conversion, the Astrophysical Mechanism –Published in Journal of High Energy Physics, Gravitation and Cosmology, Vol.5, No.2 (2019). HTML version.

Nature’s Supreme Mechanism for Energy Extraction from Nonmaterial Aether –Published in Infinite Energy Magazine Vol.24, Issue#144 (2019 March/April)

The Nature of Gravity –How One Factor Unifies Gravity’s Convergent, Divergent, Vortex, and Wave Effects –Published in the International Journal of Astrophysics and Space ScienceVol.6, No.5, 2018.
Natural Mechanism for the Generation and Emission of Extreme Energy Particles –Published in Physics Essays Vol.31, No.3, p358 (2018). (Reprint)
Sachs-Wolfe Effect Disproof –Published in the International Journal of Astrophysics and Space Science, Vol.6, No.1, 2018. ( Abstract & Links.)

"The Nature of Gravitational Collapse"
–Published in American Journal of Astronomy & Astrophysics. ( Abstract and Links.)
(Note, there is a typo in AJA&A posted version in the Fig-10 caption. It should read: … acceleration is proportional to 1/r2.)
"Olbers’ Paradox Resolved for the Infinite Non-Expanding Universe" –Published in American Journal of Astronomy & Astrophysics. ( Abstract & download links.)
"DSSU Validated by Redshift Theory and Structural Evidence" published in Physics Essays, Vol.28, No.4, p455-473 (2015 Dec). Abstract.
Both Reviewers enthusiastically endorsed this "well-written and incisive article."
Published in the American Journal of Astronomy & Astrophysics, AJAA, Vol.3, No.2, 2015:
Ellipticity, Its Origin & Progression in Comoving Galaxies  
Local  high-resolution PDF.

• Provides the first-ever natural explanation for the cause of the elliptical shape of nonrotating galaxies
• Retains the foundation premise of all modern cosmology but rejects the absurd concept of whole-universe expansion
• Takes full advantage of the universe’s cosmic cellular structure and exploits the DSSU theory of unified gravity domains
• Amazingly, the mechanism that stretches galaxies turns out to be the very same mechanism that causes the cosmic spectral redshift!

Glossary of Terms used in Cosmology and Astrophysics with particular emphasis on DSSU theory.
(Opens in separate Window or Tab)


Mysteries & Paradoxes that Plague Standard Cosmology  (Updated 2015-7)

Cosmology Crisis of 1998 (Revised 2015-5)

Critique of Conventional Cosmology ... comments relating to the 'preposterous' expanding-universe paradigm.
Bafflement —the remarkable admission of a physicist.
The Cosmology Debate That Never Happened   —During the 20th century there was a decades-long debate: The cataclysmic expanding universe VS the stable expanding universe. But there has never been a debate of the dynamic expanding universe VS the dynamic non-expanding universe. (Posted 2011 Oct)

Models of the Universe —Historical, Expanding, and Cellular universes. INCLUDES A USEFUL TABLE FOR COMPARING THEORIES.

The Universe Is Infinite (Part 1) —overcoming a "central" problem of cosmology theories.

The Universe Is Infinite (Part 2) —an explanation of how the universe can always have existed and will always exist.

DSSU, The Non-Expanding Universe: Structure, Redshift, Distance —A long sought-after goal of astrophysicists has been a formulation of cosmic distance that is independent of the speed of light. The goal has now been achieved. The present Paper details the surprisingly simple distance expression and its validating agreement with Supernova data.

Why Copernicus Did Not Need a Force of Gravity —Explores the question of why no one, except Newton, invoked a force. (Re-Posted February, 2014)

Gravity and Lambda —A Story of Opposites (.htm) —A story of opposites in harmony. Key differences between the Conventional Cosmology and the New Cosmology are presented.

Dynamic Cosmic Cell —The Structural Component of the DSSU —Animated image and discussion of the self-sustaining, self-balancing system.

Why Einstein Did Not Receive the Nobel Prize for His Theory of Relativity —“By 1922 Einstein had been nominated about fifty times —most were for his relativity theories.”

Questions & Answers & Comments


(2016 June) FREE DOWNLOAD details:
DSSU Validated by Redshift Theory and Structural Evidence, Physics Essays, Vol.28, No.4, p455-473 (2015 Dec) —Delivers the coup de grâce to the Big Bang. Abstract & Links.
Both Reviewers enthusiastically endorsed this "well-written and incisive article."

The Dynamic Steady State Universe.
This work brings together the main pieces of the cosmic puzzle in a step-by-step construction of the Natural Universe. Published in Physics Essays Vol.27 No.2 (2014 June issue) (PDF download)  "... the arguments are well-made. The article is competent, enjoyable and readable." —Reviewer for Physics Essays Journal

Olbers’ Paradox Resolved for the Infinite Non-Expanding Universe
, American Journal of Astronomy & Astrophysics Vol.4, No.1, (2016 January). Abstract & download links.
● “The man accredited with discovering universe expansion did not believe that the universe was expanding. Hubble was convinced that the key evidence, the cosmic redshift, was caused by some other factor, something more fundamental than mere expansion.”
● “With the recent discovery of a new cosmic-redshift mechanism, and its theoretical validation, it turns out that Hubble was right.”

Cosmic Redshift in the Nonexpanding Cellular Universe  ( Journal links ) —details the actual causal mechanism. Published in the American Journal of Astronomy & Astrophysics, Vol.2, No.5 (2014) Abstract.
Local copy with quality images: (Reprint pdf).
• Entirely new concept for cosmic redshift mechanism;
• Retains the foundation premise of all modern cosmology;
• But does not require whole-universe expansion;
• A redshift based on the DSSU theory of unified gravity & cosmic cellular structure;
• Remarkable agreement with independently established redshift distances.

The Cosmology Debate That Never Happened
What historians call "the greatest cosmological debate in history” was between TWO  expanding universes —two hypothetical models that share the same, I repeat, the same foundational property! If one is to claim some great clash of ideas (let alone the "greatest") then surely there must exist some deep dividing difference! (Posted 2011-10)

The Case for a Cellular Universe
—the Story of a Baffling Omission in Modern Cosmology    (Revised 2015)

Large-Scale Structure of the Dynamic Steady State Universe published in the American Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Vol.4, No.6, 2016, pp.65-77. Astract and Links.
■ Presents the first 2 of the 4 main postulates that define the DSSU.
■ Space-medium expansion and contraction are perpetually held in balance, thus ensuring a non-expanding universe.
■ Explains how the two dynamic processes of the DSSU’s space medium sustain the cellular structure responsible for the pattern of matter distribution in our Universe.

Cosmic-Redshift Distance Law Without c Without H Comments & Links Simplifying the redshift-distance formula by removing the speed-of-light constant and the Hubble parameter —while maintaining agreement with observational evidence.


Cosmic Core website: Lavishly illustrated. Includes many articles discussing DSSU theory and cosmology.

New Illuminati
–The DSSU is The New Cosmology

New Illuminati –Hidden Substrate of Reality

Big Bang Never Happened –Home & Summary

Noteworthy video of a simulated cellular universe. The nodal galaxy structures are quite interesting.

DSSU Theory:

DSSU Validated by Redshift Theory and Structural Evidence, Physics Essays, Vol.28, No.4, p455-473 (2015 Dec) —Delivers the coup de grâce to the Big Bang. Abstract & Links.
Both Reviewers enthusiastically endorsed this "well-written and incisive article."

A historical tour of universes culminating with the Natural Universe —This essay gives a thematic tour of historical and modern universes. ... While the Universe is endlessly speaking, forever sending signals; philosophers and scientists listen and interpret.

Currently undergoing revision and updating: Theoretical Foundation and Pillars of the Dynamic Steady State Universe —The first complete presentation of all four postulates of DSSU theory. A powerful paper that resolves the cause-of-causes paradox, explains the non-independent nature of time, and reveals the 'supreme advantage'. It includes a concise comparison with standard cosmology focusing on real-world viability.
Supplementary Discussion: The Primary Process


The Fundamental Process of Energy —A Qualitative Unification of Energy, Mass, and Gravity. (Abstract & Reviews & Links) … This article reveals the secret behind photon confinement. (Contains only a bare minimum of mathematics and mainly in one of the 14 sections.)
PART 1 published in Infinite Energy Magazine Issue #113 (Jan/Feb 2014)
PART 2 published in Infinite Energy Magazine    Issue #114 (Mar/Apr 2014)

Headlined as:
A "Conceptual Unification of Energy, Mass and Gravity"

Dynamic Cosmic Cell —The Structural Component of the DSSU —Animated image and discussion of the self-sustaining, self-balancing system.

Unified Gravitation Cells of the DSSU —Constructing the Universe with Cosmic Gravity Cells

Space Flow Equations and Expansion-Contraction Rates (pdf) —This paper explores the mathematical aspects of the two space postulates of DSSU theory —and uncovers some profound consequences.


Documentary movie footage in which Einstein states, "There exists an aether"
High resolution .mpg video.
Low resolution .wmv video.

The Aether Experiments and the Impact on Cosmology —Aether was detected first in 1887 and then several more times during the 20th century. Its 21st–century "rediscovery" (in 2001) led to the long-sought causal mechanism of gravity —a discovery which, in turn, is revolutionizing cosmology.

Michelson-Morley and the Story of the Aether Theory —Richard Milton's analysis of the historical details involving the misrepresentation, bias, and cover-up that hampered the Aether theory.

The History of the Aether Theory —The historic development of the aether as a scientific theory of space itself. What started as the "fifth element" of Antiquity becomes molded by theoretical constraints and experimental evidence into the dual-dynamic sub-quantum medium —the Essence of the Universe. (Updated 2016-2)

Relativity of Time in the Aether-Space of the DSSU —How intrinsic time and relative time are related.

DSSU Relativity –The Lorentz Transformations Applied to Aether-Space —Ranzan
Reprinted by permission of Physics Essays Publication, Physics  Essays Vol.23, No.3, p520. (2010). ABSTRACT

Physical Nature of Length Contraction —the DSSU Theory of Length Contraction Induced by Absolute Motion.
An easy to follow examination of how the mode by which matter is “conducted” through luminiferous aether causes the matter to contract. A simple derivation of the mathematical expression for this physical phenomenon is presented. There is also a brief discussion of relevant historical aspects and of nonphysical length contraction.
Reviewer's comments: “This is amazing …”  “The paper is interesting …” –Applied Physics Research reviewer. Published in Applied Physics Research journal Vol.5, No.1 (2013 Feb).

Contradiction Divides Two Aether Theories —An exploration into the three parts of the speed-of-light postulate.
Reprinted by permission of PEP, from  Physics Essays Journal (Vol 24, No.3, Sept, 2011) ... ABSTRACT

Basic-level mathematical and graphical exploration of dynamic aether flow: PDF

Here is an external webpage with an extensive list of research papers on the aether-drift experiments, and the larger question of energy in space.


Sachs-Wolfe Effect Disproof (published in in the International Journal of Astrophysics and Space Science Vol.6, No.1, 2018.)
Abstract & links.

DSSU Cosmic Redshift-Distance Relation (htm) —Converting the cosmic redshift into distance for our Cellular Universe using a simple and elegant equation.

Large Scale Structure of the Dynamic Steady State Universe (pdf)   How a dual-dynamic space medium sustains the cellular structure (published in AJAA in 2016).
  —Presents the postulates and implications of regional space-medium expansion and contraction.

Cosmic-Scale Structural Features Explained (pdf) (Chapter 2 of original DSSU Manuscript)
—The Spacing of Clusters
—Sheets of Galaxies
—Right-angled Walls of Galaxies.

The Cosmic Background Radiation in the DSSU —The natural explanation of the microwave background radiation applicable to the natural Cellular Universe.

Ellipticity, Its Origin & Progression in Comoving GalaxiesAmerican Journal of Astronomy & Astrophysics, AJAA, Vol.3, No.2, 2015.
Local  high-resolution PDF.
HTML version available from AJAA here.


The Nature of Gravity –How One Factor Unifies Gravity’s Convergent, Divergent, Vortex, and Wave Effects –Published in International Journal of Astrophysics and Space Science (IJASS), Vol.6, No.5, 2018, pp.73-92. (Abstract and Links.)

The Nature of Gravitational Collapse
–Published in American Journal of Astronomy & Astrophysics Vol.4, No.2, 2016, pp.15-33. (Abstract and Links.)
(Note, there is a typo in AJA&A posted version in the Fig-10 caption. It should read: … acceleration is proportional to 1/r2.)

Gravity and Dark Energy (How they Shape the Universe) –An Introduction. Provides a preamble and overview for a couple of earlier DSSU articles.

The Processes of Gravitation –The Cause and Mechanism of Gravitation by C. Ranzan –A revolutionary paper on gravity published in J. Mod. Phys. Appl. Vol.2014:3 (2014).
(Abstract & Reviews & Links. Includes link to hi-resolution PDF) "Revolutionary".

Why Copernicus Did Not Need a Force of Gravity —Explores the question of why no one, except Newton, invoked a force. (Rev 2011-9)

First ever, journal-published paper featuring the DSSU:
The Story of Gravity and Lambda –How the Theory of Heraclitus Solved the Dark Matter Mystery –Ranzan
Reprinted by permission of PEP, from Physics Essays, Vol 23, No1, p75-87 (2010 Mar). ABSTRACT
This is the cure for the fallacious belief in cosmic-scale Dark Matter.

The Story of Gravity and Lambda –How the Theory of Heraclitus Solved the Dark Matter Mystery (Color version) –Ranzan Considered "an excellent contribution to the [PE journal]" --professional reviewer (2010).

Unified Gravitation Cells of the DSSU —Constructing the Universe with Cosmic Gravity Cells


Why Einstein Did Not Receive the Nobel Prize for His Theory of Relativity (●Abstract ●Links ●Excerpts ●Extras) —“By 1922 Einstein had been nominated about fifty times —most were for his relativity theories.”

Einstein’s Simple Mathematical Trick –and the Illusion of a Constant Speed of Light  (Abridged version with links to Journal-published version. Posted July 2013)

Extended Relativity –Exploiting the Loopholes in Einstein's Relativity. A Logical extension of special relativity. Reprinted by permission of PEP, from Physics Essays Vol.25, No.3 (2012 Sept).
Abstract & Links & Reviews

The Three Components of the Speed-of-Light Postulate.  Published in Physics Essays journal Vol.26,No.1 (2013 March)
Local copy: The Three Components of the Speed-of-Light Postulate (pdf) Absolute vs relative. Variance vs invariance. Another instance of the Heraclitian "Harmony of Opposites." (Reprinted by permission of PEP, from Physics Essays, Vol.26, No.1, 2013).

Relativity of Time in the Aether Medium of the DSSU —Absolute Motion and Intrinsic Time

Resolving a Paradox in Special Relativity –Absolute Motion and the Unified Doppler Equation.
(Posted 2011, July). Reprinted by permission of PEP, from Physics  Essays Vol.23, No.4, p594 (2010). ABSTRACT

How DSSU Relativity Resolves the Speed Paradox (Introductory Discussion)   —Absolute Motion Resolves a (speed) Paradox in Einstein’s Special Relativity. (Supplementary Discussion)

DSSU Relativity –The Lorentz Transformations Applied to Aether-Space (Posted 2011, July). Reprinted by permission of Physics Essays Publication, Physics  Essays Vol.23, No.3, p520. (2010). ABSTRACT

The Key that Extends Einstein’s Relativity (Part 1) —Response to a reviewer critical of DSSU aether-based relativity
The Key that Extends Einstein’s Relativity (Part 2) —How to convert abstract-space equations into aether-based equations

Restoring the Physical Meaning of Energy
Published in Applied Physics Research journal Vol.5, No.2 (2013 May).
LOCAL COPY: Restoring the Physical Meaning of Energy —distinguishing between the apparent energy and the real energy of moving mass.

An Open Letter to the Scientific Community
(Published in New Scientist, May 22, 2004)

"The big bang today relies on a growing number of hypothetical entities, things that we have never observed-- inflation, dark matter and dark energy are the most prominent examples. Without them, there would be a fatal contradiction between the observations made by astronomers and the predictions of the big bang theory. In no other field of physics would this continual recourse to new hypothetical objects be accepted as a way of bridging the gap between theory and observation. It would, at the least, raise serious questions about the validity of the underlying theory. ..."  continues ...
A devastating Declaration of opposition to Big Bang cosmology signed by more than 400 Researchers.

For the full text click on: or alternate site.

This website is mainly concerned with revisionism in cosmology. Those of us involved in replacing the unnatural expanding-universe paradigm are aware of the difficulties involved.
   However, other revisionists have unimaginable difficulties. Consider the ongoing persecution of revisionists in other fields of intellectual pursuit: 
"It makes you wonder —about the immense effort being made by State and State-sponsored organizations with budgets of tens of millions of dollars and thousands of employees and associates to smother and punish these few men and women. Every punishing instrument imaginable is used, every vicious slander conceivable, every flagrant and pervasive form of censorship that law allows, including the imprisonment of simple writers for thought crimes against the State. ... Makes you wonder."Bradley R. Smith (2011)

"Discussing truth is so controversial, so dangerous … In most of the world it is simply illegal.” Gordon Duff, Senior Editor, Veterans Today (2011)

"The further a society drifts from truth the more it will hate those who speak it." –George Orwell

DEDICATION: This website is solemnly dedicated to those individuals who have conducted research in their chosen field and have informed others of their inquiries and suffered the consequences when subpoenaed by the Inquisition or some variant thereof. The dedication extends to those individuals currently imprisoned, and those facing trial and persecution simply for exercising their basic human right of freedom of expression supposedly granted to them under the UN Charter of Human Rights.
"Every year, hundreds of writers and other literary professionals around the world are imprisoned, prosecuted, persecuted, attacked, threatened, forced into exile or even murdered as a result of their work."

ALSO: Be aware of the continuing threat to our precious freedom of expression on the Internet. The threat is serious and relentless. It is described as “… the formal effort to mimic Communist China’s system of Internet censorship.” See The Secret Behind SOPA  (2012-Jan). Update.
More information on threats to internet freedom:

Reporter-journalist Arthur Topham, Canadian victim of the Inquisition, arrested (2012) for posting his research.
“Arthur Topham faces prison time for daring to speak his mind on his own website, as he faces criminal charges under Canada’s hate crimes legislation contained in Section 318 - 320 of the criminal code.” –Rights and Freedoms Bulletin Issue No. 204 Feb 7, 2015.
VERDICT: Arthur Topham found “guilty” AND “not guilty” of hate speech by a brain-dead jury!
 –Dr. James Sears, reporting in “The world’s Largest Anti-Marxist Publication” (Issue 2015 December,
2016 Update: Panel Discussion on The Trial of Arthur Topham

Free-speech crusader
Bill Whatcott defies British Colombia Human Rights Tribunal efforts to impose gender language tyranny.

“I have no intention on wasting money on a lawyer for the Morgane Oger vs Bill Whatcott case, as human rights tribunals are kangaroo courts and the odds of … getting justice in these biased tribunals is next to zero.” –2017 June ( …)

End of free speech in Britain:

A hostile jury, by a hasty unanimous verdict, decided that Nationalist Leader Jez Turner deserves to be sent to jail for his critical views! Report (2018-5-15).

British Maverick Psychologist jailed for publishing his research. … “The ambivalence of librarians getting writers imprisoned quite defies comprehension.” –Simon Sheppard (2013)

The repression of free speech in Canada has degenerated to the point where …

■ Freedom advocates, such as Marc Lemire, are censured for merely expressing their reasoned opinions. Freedomsite, whose motto is “Fighting for freedom against the censorship enforcers”, documents the official persecution.
■ A tenured professor has lost his position for revealing his research and views on history. This is unprecedented. Professor Anthony J. Hall at the University of Lethbridge, Alberta, has been suspended (2016 October 5) without pay.
“… Any thinking person should recognize that there is something deeply wrong when a history professor is persecuted for saying we should be able to examine our history.” –Monika Schaefer 2017
■ A publisher/editor, for expressing his reality-based views, has been denied postal services. Dr. James Sears, publisher and editor of Your Ward News was stripped of Canada Post Mail Service by government order (2016 June).
■ A violin teacher and truth revealer, Monika Schaefer, for posting a video (an apology to her dead mother), has been attacked by various so-called community leaders.

The treatment of violinist Monika Schaefer signals the end of our free and democratic society.” –The American Herald Tribune, 2016 Sept

American Speaker Arrested in Canada for the textual material on his iPad
—2017 June 24
While the invasion continues, the “guardians” of the nation are busy suppressing the freedom of expression: going after deemed violations in what people think and write and say.

Canada Claims Authority to Censor Your Internet Searches –Reason magazine
The "justice" system is being used to suppress opinions: In a legal battle (2018) for freedom of speech in Canada ... the prosecution and silencing of Dr. James Sears expected to cost taxpayers $20 million!

“I estimate the Board of Review, police investigating and Crown prosecuting us on criminal matters, will cost the taxpayers over $20 million, assuming no appeals past 2018 (murderers & rapists will walk free as huge blocks of court time bump their cases, causing them to be thrown out).”
–Dr. James Sears, Your Ward News, Fall, 2018, p17

Updates are posted at .
Update for 2019 April 8:  Why the ruling against Your Ward News hurts free speech in Canada
Updates for 2019 Aug: LINK to Several postings.

The Continuing Struggle for Freedom

A ray of hope in the ongoing struggle for freedom. Populist and nationalist movements around the world are gaining ascendancy over the New World Order’s effort to establish global governance and impose tyrannical control over every last square meter of the Earth’s surface. –The Barnes Review Vol.23 No.1 (2017 Jan p70)

"This Is Very Serious" –S. Molyneux, 2018-7
(7-minute video on the importance of freedom of speech)

In repressive Germany:

Ursula Haverbeck, 89, Sentenced to 14 Months in Jail for Heresy! –2017 November
This amazing 89-year-old woman continues advocating under the dictum: "Only the truth will set you free”.
Mrs. Haverbeck, along with her late husband, founded the education facility Collegium Humanum in 1963, but which was banned by the Marxist thought police in 2008.

Update (2018-5-16): Ursula Haverbeck will celebrate her 90th birthday in a German prison cell. The sprightly grandmother is now serving a two-year prison term without parole merely for stating a sincerely held opinion that is supported by acclaimed academics worldwide!!
“Frau Haverbeck is now sentenced to two years in prison, merely for her peaceful historical research” –The Barnes Review Vol.24, No.5 (Sept/Oct 2018) p71

UPDATE (2019-11): On November 9th (2019), the very day of Ursula Haverbeck’s 91st. birthday, hundreds of German nationalists, patriots and friends, well-wishers and admirers rallied in her support. Report on the Rally to Celebrate Political Prisoner Ursula Haverbeck.

INFO on Monika Schaefer's case:
For expressing her opinion on historical events, Canadian citizen Monika Schaefer has been arrested and imprisoned (2018-1-3) in Germany. She had committed no crime. Author Mike Walsh warns potential visitors to Germany to stay away from this dangerous police state. –Merkel Madness Grips Germany, (2018-1-7)
... Found guilty and sentenced to 10 months of imprisonment (time served); her brother Alfred was sentenced to 38 months!! –(2018 November)
UPDATE (2019 August 10): Corruption of justice in Germany continues. Alfred Schaefer Receives 18 Months Additional Prison Time for Defending Himself!  Punished for simply presenting evidence for his own defense in court!

For more on Freedom (and Objectivism),
Freedomain Radio (
presented by Stefan Molyneux.

 Just Right Media (

... about the author ...

© Copyright 2005-2019 by
Conrad RanzanDSSU Research
All Rights Reserved
  For information regarding permission to reproduce selected material herein, please contact:

D S S U  Research
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The Processes of Gravitation –The Cause and Mechanism of Gravitation
●Abstract   ●Reviews   ●Links

Conrad Ranzan


: A heretofore unrecognized but essential process is introduced. This sine qua non process serves to endow matter with the property of mass and mass equivalence (in the case of “massless” particles), and simultaneously serves as the primary causal process of gravitation, with the latter leading to the secondary process of gravitation. Then, with the inclusion of the Lambda “force” as the tertiary process, a complete and clear picture emerges —a picture in which the three processes manifest as observable, verifiable, cosmic gravitation cells, a picture in which gravitation has an intrinsic scale.

By combining Einstein’s nonponderable aether, Williamson’s bound-radiation electron, Hubble’s space-medium expansion, and DSSU’s triple-process gravitation, an elegant and supremely powerful cosmology is constructed.

Full 24-page article:
The Processes of Gravitation –The Cause and Mechanism of Gravitation (

Originally published in Journal of Modern Physics and Applications (JMPA) Vol.2014:3 (2014).
UPDATE note: It appears that this journal no longer exists.
–CR, 2019




Review from a DSSU Proponent
Review from “General Relativity and Gravitation”
Reviews from Entropy journal Special Issue on Gravity
Caught in a Catch Twenty-Two
New-Research Article? or Review-Type Article?
Journal of Gravity

The New Understanding of Gravitation (LINKS)

"Just as Lorentz's Aether Theory is the physical basis of Special Relativity, flowing space [aether] is the physical basis of General Relativity." –Henry H. Lindner



The Reviews

Review from a DSSU Proponent

After having spent many enjoyable hours reading and re-reading this extraordinary "Processes of Gravitation" paper, I must admit: it may well be the crowning jewel of the DSSU cellular universe. It is an important and revolutionary work that deserves a wide audience in the scientific community, particularly as it opens the door of unification and solves one of the most vexing problems in the history of science: Gravitation and the Aether. Its importance is truly far-reaching, since the author relates the gravity processes to the entire architecture of the universe from subatomic quantum to the realm of galaxies and beyond! No small feat and I stand in awe! It must find its way into the blood stream of current cosmology and sooner rather than later!

The author starts out with an informative historical sketch to place the age old problem of gravity, and its cause, into perspective. Especially interesting were the early segments dealing with the nature of the photon and the fundamentally prominent role it plays in particle physics —all of which delighted and stunned me. The amazing concept of photon confinement, supported by several illustrations and the brilliant work of J. Williamson, literally blew my mind! This beautifully written prelude on photon confinement was all part and parcel of a powerful integration of the aether-absorption-annihilation process and its relation to the three gravity processes: primary, secondary and tertiary; all landing on my delirious grey matter like an awakening flash of lightening! All of this coming together with the familiar Cellular Universe that I've come to support and understand after these many years.

The conclusion in Section 2 is that all particles in the universe consist of either free-state or confined-state photons. This is an extraordinary statement to make; so cosmically powerful, so relevant to particle physics and unification. The Section deserves an entire paper! It brings clarity and logic to bear on photon/particle characteristics: spin, charge, angular momentum, and the photonic origin of the property of mass! This encompasses all of the Standard Model but with the photon as the fundamental unit: a huge statement!

The discussion of the photon as being the excitation of essence fluctuators, as the transitory fleeting excitation of the aether, is fascinating. But then, combining the propagating excitation of aether with the “absorption-annihilation” of the affected aether, along the path of propagation, is unprecedented. Brilliant!

In connection with Secondary gravity, the concept of the Gravitation Amplifier is nicely presented and I like the leaky bucket analogy referring to inflow and intensity. It helps the mind to picture the funneling inflow of aether near a planet-like body, whereby “initial aether-contraction (absorption-assimilation) by mass, leads to acceleration; leads to secondary contraction; leads to more acceleration, etc.” Undeniably, this describes a Gravity Amplifier.

The section on "Tertiary Gravity" is one I looked forward to since it ties everything together and explains how primary, secondary, and tertiary manifestations of gravity are responsible for the DSSU cellularity structure. I found this to be the crowning moment in the paper —like arriving at a much anticipated train station! Figures 9 & 10 left no doubt. I now understand, better than at any previous time, the relationship between Gravity and Lambda, and the relevancy of the mantra: the natural harmony of opposites. Magnificent!

What is so astonishingly beautiful and revolutionary about this paper is the concept of “absorption-annihilation” as a form of conduction whereby “energy particles are conducted by aether and through aether.”  Furthermore, the non-energy excitation fluctuators, the units that make up the essence space-medium, are “real and physical” only momentarily as they fall prey to absorption-annihilation.  The author makes indelible the fact that the fluctuators themselves do not have mass. But they are involved in the acquisition of mass: “A photon in DSSU theory is a wave-like conduction-disturbance of aether” and exists by absorbing aether in a manner destructive of aether leading to the creation of mass equivalence and, in the case of a “confined” photon, leading to particle mass.  With the mechanisms of energy and mass in hand, the author takes the discussion into the explanations of Direct and Secondary Gravity; and into the climatic Tertiary Gravitation. Revolutionary, and written with the joy of discovery throughout.

The presentation is eloquent and beautifully written, the ideas well organized and easy to follow. Much appreciated, as a useful roadmap of concepts, is the summary-of-ideas flowchart.

As I have said, I’ve read the paper several times, absorbed its scope and meaning. I see it as a tour-de-force revolutionary work that takes on the universe from its subquantum essence to its cosmic-scale cellularity and beyond to its infinite vastness.  This is an astonishing achievement within the context of all prior cosmologies bar none!

Let me conclude by echoing and underscoring the title of the closing section, the implications for Cosmology are profound indeed.

–Roger Ferragallo (California, 2012-11)

Review from “General Relativity and Gravitation”

General Relativity and Gravitation (GRG) is a European journal (Springer, Netherlands) whose gravity-related subject matter, as their website claims, includes Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology.

The editors-reviewers for this publication, unable or unwilling to come up with any scientific or logic arguments to disqualify the paper, simply decided they did not like the style, stating:


“This paper is not written in an acceptable scientific style, and thus cannot be considered for publication in GRG.”


–Per 2012-09-13 email from Roy Maartens, editor-in-chief, General Relativity and Gravitation

Reviews from Entropy journal Special Issue: “Modified Gravity: From Black Holes Entropy to Current Cosmology”


The author of this article attempts to devise a model to "explain" gravitation and the distribution of galaxies, claiming that the standard model of cosmology has failed to do so. However, for an article in a scientific journal it is not enough to just construct a graphical or somewhat mathematical model; it is essential to confront one's ideas with observations, to make sure that all known phenomena can consistently be encompassed, and ideally to make new testable predictions. The author has failed to fulfill any of these requirements. [These requirements are more than adequately fulfilled in several other DSSU papers. –CR]  The model is not quantitative, except for brief manipulations of simple and well-known formulas. There are no new predictions. And instead of presenting a model consistent with known phenomena, the author has made several statements in clear conflict with observations. For instance, he claims that galaxy clusters are not moving apart. However, galaxy clusters are the largest bound objects in the universe and are known to follow the expansion of the universe. [The expansion of the universe is a myth. –CR]  The author also claims that there is no cosmic expansion, but he does not say how he can explain the cosmic microwave background, among other things. [This paper is about the aether theory of gravity, not CMB! –CR]  If he wants to contrast his construct with the standard model of cosmology, he should confront all the successes of the latter. [What success! The Big Bang is the biggest blunder in the history of modern science! –CR]  Unfortunately, he has only picked a few of the ingredients to discuss, making the article incomplete, very likely to be wrong, and unsuitable for publication.


–Anonymous reviewer (2012-10-2)


Another review from another Big-Bang believer:


The article “The Processes of Gravitation – Cause and Mechanism of Gravitation” has two cornerstones. The first one is the work of Williamson (cited in References); a speculation that photons might be the most fundamental building blocks (in fact it is argued that photons are the constituents of quarks and leptons). While improbable, the hypothesis of Williamson is very well developed mathematically, and because of it has deserved publication. The second cornerstone is a particular kind of the aether postulated by the author, together with the conjecture that matter (immersed in the aether) absorbs-and-annihilates the aether. The author believes that gravitation can be explained by bulk motion of such aether. A serious shortcoming is that the presentation of the second cornerstone is very incomplete and the reader is directed to Reference #12. It seems to me that the work is artificially divided in two separate papers. [Two!? It is a single paper detailing three very distinct processes! –CR]  The conclusions of the author contradict the Standard Model of Particles and Fields. For instance: (a) the author argues that gluons (apparently well established as mediators of strong interactions) do not exist and (b) the proposed aether is incompatible with the quantum vacuum in quantum field theories.

Of course, we must be broad minded. In principle I like speculations challenging the mainstream physics, however as a minimum in theoretical physics, the speculations must be supported by the convincing mathematical presentation, what is not the case in the present paper. The author uses the word “revolutionary” for his work, but I can’t see how such a colossal work as the Standard Model can be challenged with a dozen of equations in the framework of the elementary mathematics. I would be very happy if I am wrong.

In conclusion, this paper should not be accepted for publication.


–Anonymous reviewer (2012-9-30)


One reviewer, instead of commenting on the remarkably detailed and self-consistent explanation of the cause of gravitation, “suggest[s] that the author learns General Relativity” (2012-9-29). That, along with an outright rejection, was the reviewer’s only comment —nothing else. This anonymous victim of institutionalized indoctrination would prefer that the author, rather than use a natural mechanistic model for gravity and its cause, should instead, work with a mathematical theory (geometric General Relativity) devoid of a causal mechanism! … No wonder Physics is in a crisis (as headlined in Scientific American, 2014, May issue).

Caught in a Catch Twenty-Two

The following assessment comes from the journal ISRN Astronomy and Astrophysics:


Dear C. Ranzan,

After checking your Research Article 158292 titled "The Processes of Gravitation –the Cause and Mechanism of Gravitation," I regret to inform you that it was found unsuitable for publication in ISRN Astronomy and Astrophysics.

Thank you for submitting your manuscript to ISRN Astronomy and Astrophysics.

Best regards,
Sara Ibrahiem, Editorial Office (2013-01-30)



Unsuitable? What does this mean?  Since my submitted paper is based on sound physics principles, definitely presents significantly new perspectives, and are written in flawless English, I was very curious to know why it was deemed to be “unsuitable.”

It turned out the paper had not even been reviewed!


Dear Mr. Ranzan, …  Please allow me to clarify that we have not considered your manuscript 158292, as after checking your manuscript, we noticed that all of the references are not scientific articles published in academic Journals. …

Best regards,
Sara Ibrahiem, Editorial Office, (2013-2-3)



It’s a catch-22 situation: In order to publish a new discovery you are expected to provide proper referencing; but because it is a new discovery, there are no prior works available in the scientific literature to cite!! And so the paper, ostensibly, was rejected for not having establishment-approved references.

But the simple fact is there are no papers published on the processes of gravity that can be referenced. I know of no academic journals that have published papers on the topic of the aether-based processes of gravitation that I could refer to or use as citations! I don’t believe such papers exist. DSSU Research seems to be the only organization doing this kind of investigation.

The problematic referencing was just a pretext.

New-Research Article or Review-Type Article?

Editorial staff struggle to decide how to categorize the DSSU “revolutionary” processes-of-gravity paper.

Amira Abu Taleb from the Editorial Office of Hindawi Publishing Corporation questions the qualifying status of the DSSU paper The Processes of Gravitation –the Cause and Mechanism of Gravitation:


“After checking the content of your manuscript, I found that the manuscript type is more fitting to be a Review Article than a Research Article. According to our definition a Review Article provides an overview of the published literature in a particular subject area. …” (per email dated 2013-04-23)



My response to perplexed Amira:


I believe that you may have missed the key point of the Paper. It introduces a key process that appears nowhere in the scientific literature; the whole purpose of the Paper centers on this key process. It is the process that makes it possible, for the first time, to unify the mass-acquisition process with the gravitation process. It is the process that represents the long-sought-and-essential causal mechanism of gravitation. Since the Paper presents original research, I fail to see how it could be classified as a “review” article.

Furthermore, the Paper takes several existing theories and discoveries and assembles them, in a self-evident way, to produce an INTRINSICALLY cellular universe (as opposed to the conventional PHENOMENOLOGICALLY cellular construct). Never before has there been an intrinsically cellular cosmological model. Never before has the intrinsic size-scale-limits of gravitation been revealed. Never before has gravitation been divided into “primary,” “secondary,” and “tertiary.”  This is definitely original research!

Thank you.
Warm regards, Conrad.  (2013-4-24)



 Two weeks later the question of New Research versus Review Article was decided:


Dear Dr. Ranzan,  We have investigated the matter and the type of your manuscript 493651 will remain as "Research Article."

I am very sorry for the inconvenience.

Best regards,  Amira
Amira Abu Taleb, Editorial Office, Hindawi Publishing Corporation (2013-05-09)



Finally, the reviews:


From my point of view I can only say this "new theory" refers to many untested and perhaps untestable external elements (as for instance the aether, the Lambda force) which complicate the general view.  Provides no useful contribution to its area of research and should be rejected. [Has this reviewer/editor never heard of Einstein’s aether or Lambda-driven expansion of space? –CR]


–Editor #1


The next referee finds the ideas “interesting and intriguing” but does not want them to be seen by others:


This paper presents an interesting and intriguing essay on a possible new explanation for gravity based on a new cosmology known as the Dynamic Steady State Universe. While I think the ideas deserve at least some consideration by the general physics and astronomical communities, I cannot recommend the publication of this article, at least not in its current form. Overall the article is just not rigorous in substantiating either existing or new claims regarding cosmology and gravitation. In order to gain the acceptance of such a radically new idea, it is imperative to provide solid substantiation that is more than just speculation. [Seems this reviewer has it backwards: The Big Bang is the cosmology based on a radical speculation (and extrapolation); the DSSU is the cosmology based on sound natural processes. But what is most relevant is that the DSSU specifies a causal mechanism for gravity; Big Bang based on general relativity does not! –CR]

The entire DSSU theory is … undocumented in mainstream, peer-reviewed journals and hence is impossible to substantiate. [Here is that Catch 22 again. –CR]

The whole discussion of photon confinement contains not a single statement as the cause of confinement or unconfinement. Interesting states of being, but what causes them? [It is the fact of photon confinement that is relevant to the discussion of gravity. The cause of photon confinement is another story, one that is explored in several references. –CR]

Who are the authors of the confinement theory (no references given)? [Yes, authors and references are given; see #11 and #14. –CR]

There are statements that seem to deride the notion of the Higgs boson. How do recent experimental results that seem to indicate detection of the Higgs boson affect these statements? [I stand by the statements. Consider, what gives the Higgs particle its own self-masses!? –CR]

Reference 16 and the statements about Williamson's explanations are all based on conference presentations, not peer-reviewed articles in mainstream journals, which doesn't help substantiate any of these theories. [Williamson's paper, reference #11, is in a journal that IS peer reviewed. –CR]

First paragraph of Section 3: The author states that the fluctuators cannot be manifestations of energy is due to the definition of energy. How so? Please elaborate and explain. [See the Glossary provided in the paper. –CR]

The whole concept of the aether is intriguing, but of course completely untestable and hence unprovable, as are most of the ideas of the entire article. [And yet ever more evidence and proof is being found. –CR]

After detailing primary and secondary gravity, they never actually show mathematically how the two work together. [The paper purposely focuses on qualitative processes. –CR]  Specifically, if primary gravity has a r^5 dependence, how does the addition of Secondary gravity get us back to the well-observed and documented r^2 dependence seen in the real world? [One third of the paper is devoted to how Secondary gravity accomplishes this. –CR]

Under "Cosmic Tension." Simply saying "as any astronomer will confirm" is not a legitimate reference for a statement about the cellular structure of the universe. We must have actual references. That's the way journal articles are done. [According to customary practice, well-established facts/observations need not be referenced. –CR]


–Editor #2 [Oddly, this reviewer did not mention anything from the second half of the paper. –CR]


And lastly:


The submission is very poor. In my opinion, it is. It should be rejected [As this is all the review stated, I am led to wonder if this editor/reviewer actually read the paper. –CR]


–Editor #3

Journal of Gravity

Somebody at this journal was kind enough to send me a personal invitation:


Subject: Invitation to Submit an Article

Dear Dr. Ranzan,

I am writing to invite you to submit an article to Journal of Gravity which provides a rapid forum for the dissemination of original research articles as well as review articles related to all aspects of gravity.

Journal of Gravity is published using an open-access publication model … The journal has a distinguished editorial board with extensive academic qualifications, ensuring that the journal maintains high academic standards and has a broad international coverage. A full list of editors can be found on the journal's website at

Please do not hesitate to contact me if you have any questions about the journal.

Best regards,
Shaimaa Saied, Editorial Office (Dated 2013-02-14)
Journal of Gravity [another publication of the Hindawi Corporation,]



Sounds good, “original research articles” and “all aspects of gravity.”  It turns out, however, there is one aspect of gravity they are not interested in —its veritable cause!


Dear Dr. Ranzan,

After checking your Research Article 896738 titled "The Processes of Gravitation –the Cause and Mechanism of Gravitation," I regret to inform you that it was found unsuitable for publication in Journal of Gravity.

Thank you for submitting your manuscript to Journal of Gravity.

Best regards,
Badiaa Sayed, Editorial Office (Dated 2013-06-03)



Sorry, no reviews from the orthodox "gravity" professionals at the Journal of Gravity.


The New Understanding of Gravitation

In the end, the paper was published in the Journal of Modern Physics and Applications Vol.2014:3

Complete 24-page article: Download (high-resolution PDF).
The Processes of Gravitation –The Cause and Mechanism of Gravitation (

UPDATE NOTE: The original processes-of-gravity article is non-committal with respect to the status of the neutrino. But, it can now be shown that the illusive neutrino does fit into the framework of the DSSU particle model (whereby all particles consist of propagating photons or of confined photon configurations). The neutron is now understood to be a twin-photon structure. –CR, 2015

For a non-mathematical perspective on gravity see:

C. Ranzan, The Story of Gravity and Lambda –How the Theory of Heraclitus Solved the Dark Matter Mystery, Physics Essays Vol.23, No.1, pp75-87 (2010 Mar)

Full 13-page article: PDF Download ( )


The new understanding of gravitation has profound implications for cosmology.

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