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(2020 September 18): Law of physics 20th-century scientists overlooked … Part 4 is currently under review … Part 5 is being prepared.
(2020 September 4): “Governments are in fear of the people they lied to!” as the scope of the pandemic fraud is uncovered. … “One tragic statistic [is] the ‘cases’ of people who are suffering and dying directly as a consequence of the lockdowns and fascist rules of disassociation. That will soon change as the public slowly awakens to the true nature and scale of a crime wrought solely by their own politicians.” –Just Right Media (2020-9-3)

(2020 August 21): “[T]he whole COVID-19 pandemic has been an orchestrated fraud from the very beginning. Worse, it is a political/criminal conspiracy, comprised of politicians, government health officials, the mainstream media, and various corporate interests. … It’s remarkable how many people remain unaware that, thanks to the COVID-19 conspiracy, parts of Australia have been turned into a literal police state, no different from communist China.” –Just Right Media (2020-8-20)

(2020 August 14): New article: Law of Physics 20th-Century Scientists Overlooked (Part 2): Energy Generation via Velocity Differential Blueshift. Published in Physics Essays Vol.33. No.3, pp289-298 (2020). Reprint.

New article: Law of Physics 20th-Century Scientists Overlooked (Part 3): Noninteraction Mass-to-Energy Conversion. Published in International Journal of High Energy Physics. Vol.7, No.1, pp.19-31 (2020).

(2020 July 31): The enslavement continues. “Actions taken by world governments in managing the fake COVID-19 crisis have employed documented techniques used in the psychological torture of prisoners. And the objective is the same: submission.” –Just Right Media Program: COVID-19's new world disorder

(2020 July 23): The facts are in. The entire “COVID-19 pandemic” fiasco was a fascist fraud! … It’s all about freedom-hating politicians and power-drunk bureaucrats demanding our submission. Given the enormity of the damage caused by their direct actions, these oppressors should be charged with high crimes and treason. –Just Right Media program #664

(2020 July 10): TWO new articles have been accepted for journal publication.

Author's Curriculum Vitae has now been posted.

(2020 May 29): Now published: "Natural Cause of Galaxy Rotation" now appears in the American Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics. Revolutionary. Press Release.

(2020 May 22): Now published: Law of Physics 20th-Century Scientists Overlooked (Part 1) … –The historic failure of scientists to recognize this law led to a momentous misinterpretation of Edwin Hubble’s redshift observations. Their oversight of a remarkable simple principle connecting light and gravity had revolutionary consequences —it gave birth to the preposterous expanding universe concept. Find out exactly why the big bang hypothesis has no scientific foundation. Abstract. Pdf download. Reprinted by permission of PEP, from Physics Essays, Vol.33, No.2, pp163-174 (2020 June).

(2020 May 7): Updates on the tyranny and enslavement:
“Pandemic parallels: The COVID-19 climate changer” –Just Right program #653

David Duke interviews Dr. Anthony G. Beck who has been “practicing integrated medicine for 26 years … and has been researching the coronavirus.” –Radio program 2020 May 5

“This is no longer a viral pandemic. It is a political, economic, and social disaster, made possible by decades of drifting morally, intellectually, and politically Leftward. Fueled by the evil and inverted morality of altruism, the Left condemns the ‘selfishness’ of those who wish to independently survive and praises the ‘sacrifice’ of those forced to give up their livelihoods and freedoms.” –The COVID-19 credibility gap (Just Right program #652)

(2020 April 30): Never imagined it would be so easy to enslave the masses of the world. The global puppet masters must surely be laughing and, no doubt, are wondering why so relatively few of the victims are fighting back or even resisting! Sadly, there are simply too many gullible people. Professor James McCanney sums up the situation, “People have been watching football and beauty pageants while their country has been stolen from them in the background. … Welcome to the New World Order!” –Science Hour, 2020 April 23, radio program (@44:25 min mark). Although Professor McCanney is wrong about many things, he most certainly understands the nature of the enemy.

Meanwhile: The revolutionary research into the "Natural Cause of Galaxy Rotation" has been accepted for publication in the American Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics.

(2020 April 10): Year after year our freedoms were incrementally taken away. Now, as of March/April 2020, we live in a police state. Robert Metz of Just Right Media reports on the dire situation: Program #648 and Program #649

(2020 April 3):Whatever the “problem”, governments seemingly always make it worse.
Just Right Media Program #648 (2020-4-2): “First, we were faced with a coronavirus health pandemic. Then, world governments created a second crisis by shutting down their economies and precipitating an unemployment pandemic and a financial pandemic. Now, it appears that we have a serious COVID-19 ‘statistics crisis,’ which may in the end be the one most responsible for precipitating all the fear and panic … There is also evidence surfacing that the statistics are being manipulated to present a false picture of the situation.”

(2020 March 27): Freedom fades, tyranny advances:
History has repeatedly demonstrated that government-declared emergencies are too often simply a justification for violating individual freedom. History also demonstrates that the violation of life, liberty and property kills —and has killed— more people than any flu virus ever has. What needs to be spread is a ‘virus’ of liberty, not a pandemic of government control.” –Just Right Media, 2020 March 26 program

(2020 March 20): According to Professor James McCanney, corona-virus tests are giving results that are 80% false positive. He also reports that “China is back to normal.” Link to his radio program of 2020 March 19 (and March 26).

(2020 March 6): Local Webpage was reformatted and its technical problems were fixed. See
The Story of a Baffling Omission in Modern Cosmology.

(2020 Feb 14): February 14-16 marks the 75th anniversary of the senseless and diabolical destruction of Dresden (in 1945). An event that should always be remembered.
Killed a hundred thousand civilians in two hours

(2020 January 31) Latest DSSU research paper is currently under review: This one deals with the natural cause of galaxy rotation. Motivated by the recent awarding of the Nobel Prize to James Peebles for, in part, “how galaxies have formed and evolved.”

(2019 December 20): After considerable delay, the History of the Aether Theory —with its extensive chronicle (Table) of the development of aether theory— has now been UPDATED (with new table entries for 1900, 2015, 2017, and 2018).

(2019 December): New webpage-article For Educators has been posted:
The Nobel Foundation Endorses the Unsubstantiated Dark Matter Hypothesis

(2019 November): Some brief comments on Fantasyland Physics

(2019 October 24): Canadians have voted to allow the invasion of the country to continue —and worse— to allow it to expand!! Inevitably, ever more precious farmland will be urbanized. … With the 2019 October National election, Canadians have turned their backs on freedom of speech, freedom in general, and acquiesced to the Country’s continuing descent along the path of socialism and fascism. Very, very sad.
Link to the JustRightMedia Oct-31st commentary and the Nov-7th analysis.

(2019 October 10): Several new webpages have been added and serve as “Resources for Educators, Instructors, & New-Cosmology Enthusiasts.” DIRECTORY

(2019 September 20): Canadian broadcaster Robert Metz focuses on cosmology and gives a masterful presentation —a superb show in which he exposes the absurdity of the Big Bang hypothesis, delves into some key aspects of the DSSU, and praises the veracity of the modern steady-state perspective. Listen to the Just Right program #623 originally broadcast around the world over the internet and on shortwave radio on 2019 September 19.

(2019 August): German philosopher praises Cellular Universe website and endorses DSSU theory. [Link to his comments]
    This month of August marks the 19th anniversary of DSSU theory.

(2019 August): Corruption of justice in Canada continues. White Man sentenced to one year in jail for the “offence” of exercising his constitutional right of free speech! While for the same “offence” (and in the very same trial) Native Man sentenced to optional reconciliation session and NO jail time! Editors, publishers, writers, and researchers take note. LINK to several postings on the persecution of Dr James Sears and LeRoy St. Germaine.

(2019 August 10): Corruption of justice in Germany continues. Alfred Schaefer Receives 18 Months Additional Prison Time for Defending Himself!  Punished for simply presenting evidence for his own defense in court! Alfred’s sister has posted this 8-minute video.

(2019 July 1): New webpage posted: Highlights ●Reviews ●Comments relating to the recently published article "Mass-to-Energy Conversion, the Astrophysical Mechanism".

(2019 June 1 & June 7): New research paper dealing with the physical nature of length contraction has been published. Physical Nature of Length Contraction (Part 2) How the Electron Elongates While Its Orbit Contracts, ... See the Press Release (2019 June) for details.

(2019 May 1): New DSSU article reveals how a simple extension of Einstein’s relativity  radically changes black-hole physics.  Published in the Journal of High Energy Physics, ...  See the Press Release (2019 May) for details.

(2019 April 12): Response to a reader’s Question on the root (the origin) of “information” in the universe.
Response to a reader’s Question on the extraction of energy from aether.

(2019 March 30): Currently two articles are undergoing peer-review and another one is being prepared.
    Meanwhile the suicide of Western Nations continues. Check this out: Popular philosopher Stefan Molyneux discovered that in British Colombia it would have cost him and the event organizers $40,000 to stop violent attacks and to peacefully exercise their constitutional right of freedom-of-speech! (Link to the Molyneux video of 2019-3-20)
    It gets worse. Socialism as a death sentence! Just Right program #603, (2019-4-11)

(2019 March 20): Article revealing how energy is extracted from nonmaterial aether has just been published in the current issue of INFINITE ENERGY Magazine. See the Press Release (2019 March) for details.

(2019 March 14): Oppression of freedom: Powerful discussion on the evil of the political center: “Left, Right, and the Extreme Center” (Just Right #599 Audio program, Mar.14, 2019)

(2019 February 13, 14, & 15): Three days of remembrance and mourning: the horror and tragedy of the Dresden Holocaust (1945, Feb 13-15), the most devastating single terrorist event in the history of mankind. [ HELLSTORM ]

(2019 January): Regarding the latest DSSU research article: The theoretical and evidential proof of total mass-to-energy conversion was rejected by the Canadian Journal of Physics. Unable to find errors in the physics or flaws in the logic, the editor Dr. Michael Steinitz and his anonymous Associate Editor dismissed the Paper as being too technical in nature and not being a “topic of high interest for the widest audience of physicists.” … Who would have guessed? The editors of Canadian Journal of Physics find basic first-year university physics too technical!! … Regarding the other excuse, I politely asked the editors: “Do you seriously believe that your target audience, mostly physicists and others with an earnest interest in the physical sciences, would not value this new insight!? Should they not be made aware of this new knowledge?” No response! … So ends another FAKE REVIEW. –CR

(2018 December 28): See Press Release: Unprecedented Unification of Gravity Theory.

(2018 December 1): Unification-of-gravity paper has been accepted for publication.

(2018 November 22): Here we go again! Latest paper rejected.
   Reason? “The paper contains too many acronyms …” How many? Hey! It contains only one well-known acronym (DSSU)!
   Although clearly written and logically presented with an easy to follow style (text, examples, mathematics, graphics), the Reviewer/Editor found the article “impenetratable [sic] and therefore impossible to referee in any detail.” … No examples, no particulars, it was just hopelessly “impossible to referee.”
   The seeking and exposing of errors is the essence of a legitimate review process. Evidently the Reviewer/Editor failed to find anything that could be considered demonstrably false, and so, found it necessary to concoct BS objections (well-known acronym for bovine excrement). What happened here was simply a fake review. –CR

(2018 September 27): New research paper on GRAVITY is currently under review. … Details the unification of all five aspects of gravity … Presents a remarkable new development in the theoretical nature of gravity waves. …

(2018 September):
Fan of DSSU comments on the “train wreck” of modern physics and on big bang mythology.

(2018 September 1): PUBLISHED: Natural Mechanism for the Generation and Emission of Extreme Energy Particles, Physics Essays Vol.31, No.3, pp.358-376 (2018).

(2018 August): Press Release (2018 August): "The mechanism driving astrophysical jets has been discovered"

(2018 July 31): What’s the delay? Yes, the usual publication frustrations:
■ Journal 1: peer reviewed, no errors in the logic, no flaws in the science, tentative ACCEPTANCE, then REJECTED !
■ Journal 2: peer reviewed, no errors in the logic, no flaws in the science, REJECTED !
   Could it be that the editors promoting fake astro-science feel threatening by the DSSU revolution? …
■ Journal 3: peer reviewed, “This is a scholarly and erudite article that deserves to be published in recognition of its tutorial nature and … the validity of the author’s proposals.” ACCEPTED for publication.
The article —Natural Mechanism for the Generation and Emission of Extreme Energy Particles— is toxic and revolutionary! Details to follow. –CR

(2018 May 24): Two papers are currently under review. Meanwhile, work has begun on a new research paper ---delving deeper into the amazing properties of aether.

(2018 April 28):
Question: What drives astrophysical jets?
What process or mechanism generates the stupendous power of those spectacular emission jets associated with certain stars? (I’m talking about gamma photons and neutrinos with energy equivalent to a million hydrogen atoms!! Imagine that much energy contained in a single gamma photon or neutrino!)
    This has been one of the biggest mysteries of the universe —one that has baffled the academic cognoscenti for decades.
    The answer will be revealed in the next research article, which is currently under review. And as the followers of DSSU theory have come to expect, the answer is perfectly natural; the concepts are straightforward, the arguments logical, the conclusions compelling, the implications profound.

(2018 February 1): Research paper Sachs-Wolfe Effect Disproof has been published in in the International Journal of Astrophysics and Space Science. Abstract & links.
Reprint (download PDF).

(2017 December 30): Press release: The Sacks-Wolfe Effect has now been disproved. … Expansion Cosmology has lost its last supporting pillar. …

(2017 December 29): Another powerful research paper … another devastating blow for the Big Bang … the "Sacks-Wolfe Effect Disproof " has been accepted for publication in an international journal for astrophysics. (Details to follow within a few days.)

(2017 December): Comment posted: Galaxy age misinterpretation. Does cosmic distant have any relationship to a galaxy’s age?

(2017 December): 2nd printing of "The Nature of Gravitational Collapse": (Details)

(2017 November): Special purchase offer on the book "Guide to the Construction of the Natural Universe": (Mail-in Order Form.)

(2017 Sept): Recently brought to my attention: DSSU material appears on The New Illuminati website accompanied by some amazing graphics.

New Illuminati –The DSSU is The New Cosmology

New Illuminati –Hidden Substrate of Reality
–History of the Aether Theory

(2017 Sept): "Assorted Comments" added to QuestionsAnswersComments.

(2017 July): The book The Nature of Gravitational Collapse is now available.

The Nature of Gravitational Collapse

Subtitle: How the photon, the particle of light, is responsible for mass, gravity, superneutron stars, and supermassive black holes

—Reveals the truth about stellar and supermassive black holes.

This work contains 311+ pages, 67 illustrations, references, and index. …
Second printing details (2017 November)
First printing details (Lambert Academic Publishing).

(2016 December): “So easy to understand” comment from an Australian engineer.

(2016 November): “Large-Scale Structure of the Dynamic Steady State Universe” now published in the American Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Vol.4, No.6, 2016, pp.65-77. Astract and Links to HTML and PDF.

(2016 June): Revolutionary research paper:
The Nature of Gravitational Collapse –published in the American Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Vol.4, No.2, 2016, pp.15-33. Abstract and Links:
—Another major DSSU success, as it reveals amazing new insights! The theory has uncovered the mechanism by which mass undergoes a total conversion to energy. Yes, a mass to energy conversion with 100% efficiency!  As everything else in the DSSU, it is a perfectly natural process. Truly amazing!

(2016 April 26):  A mathematical cosmologist claims the values of the Hubble-expansion parameter and the cosmic-background temperature are the most important elements for understanding the real Universe! Letter and response.

(2016 March):  What is the difference between a physical and a mechanical aether? ...
Be aware of the distinctions among the terms commonly applied to aether: Terms such as physical, mechanical, subquantum, and dynamic. Link to new Question & Answer.

The book, Guide to the Construction of the Natural Universe, is now available at the Niagara Falls Public Library  (Victoria branch). If you live in the Province of Ontario, your local library can request the book from the Niagara Falls Public Library.

Participate in a unique exploration of the Cosmos: venture into the sub-atomic realm, even into the sub-quantum realm where the roots of reality reside, and into the domain of cosmic-scale cell-structure and beyond to infinity. Along the way, discover the cause of mass, the cause of gravitation, and rediscover Einstein’s “nonponderable” aether and Heraclitus’ harmony-of-opposites principle. … The book represents the ultimate vindication for all the skeptics who resisted the "preposterous" Big Bang mythology and who refused to join the exploding-cosmos religion.
The book contains 317 pages, 61 illustrations, references, and index …
Available from C-FAR Books.
Or use this mail-in Order Form.


My comments on the 2016 "Official Science" news story:

Do not be misled by the recent reports of the detection of gravity waves. What the LIGO apparatus measures is the interference from beams of self-generated electromagnetic waves. It seems highly probable that what LIGO actually detected was some vibrational “noise” or some unexplained interference; and NOT gravity waves originating from a distant binary system (in which two extremely massive black holes are supposedly in the process of merging). How the data, the wave patterns, are interpreted is subject to theory and restricted by theory. Naturally the official interpretation must conform to the Officially-sanctioned theory of gravity —Einstein’s general theory of relativity. Thus, the light patterns recorded by LIGO are interpreted via Einstein’s mathematical concept of gravity. The problem is the general-relativity-gravity interpretation, as is well known, ignores the space medium!

Have gravity waves really been detected?
Think about this: The academic experts do not have the cause and mechanism of gravity (Isaac Newton did not, Albert Einstein did not, and today’s big-bang astrophysicists do not). Their theory of gravity is embarrassingly incomplete! So, if they do not yet understand the nature of gravity itself, how then can they claim to be able to recognize the waves that gravity supposedly emits? The experts cannot even answer the simple question: Specifically, what is it that is waving? What is waving back and forth?
    Here is something else the reports fail to mention: The gravity waves that are actually detectable are those associated with the turbulence in the aether flow (the space medium streaming through our Solar System). Australian physicist Reginald T. Cahill has been examining these aether-flow waves for over 15 years. –CR (2016 May)
Updated 2016 June: See Comment #19
Updated 2018 Dec: See Press Release 2018-12

(2016 Jan 6): Published:
Olbers’ Paradox Resolved for the Infinite Non-Expanding Universe
, American Journal of Astronomy & Astrophysics Vol.4, No.1, (2016 January). Abstract & download links.
● “The man accredited with discovering universe expansion did not believe that the universe was expanding. Hubble was convinced that the key evidence, the cosmic redshift, was caused by some other factor, something more fundamental than mere expansion.”
● “With the recent discovery of a new cosmic-redshift mechanism, and its theoretical validation, it turns out that Hubble was right.”
● Explains how “an infinite, non-expanding, perpetually regenerating universe" is able to predict a dark night sky.

Press Release (2015 Oct 15):
The Big Bang is no longer a viable hypothesis !

(2016 June): FREE DOWNLOAD:
"DSSU Validated by Redshift Theory and Structural Evidence", Physics Essays, Vol.28, No.4, pp.455-473 (2015 Dec) —Delivers the coup de grâce to the Big Bang. Abstract & Links.
Both Reviewers enthusiastically endorsed this "well-written and incisive article."

(2015-Oct 6): Webpage added for article Cosmic-Redshift Distance Law Without c Without H: Comments & Links  Describes the challenge of getting DSSU papers published.

(2015 Aug 20): Allow me to extend a sincere "Thank You" for the many invitations to join social media and professional networks. Unfortunately I must decline. It’s simply a matter of precious time —there is just too little of it. All my available time is taken up by research, writing, and website maintenance —in fact, two more web domains have been purchased. It is all being done for the purpose of providing the educated and interested public with the ammunition to refute and replace the utterly bankrupt big-bang Worldview. (However, not to give the impression of a total recluse, seclusionist, or misanthrope, I do manage to squeeze in a few delightful hours of ballroom dancing every week or two.) –CR

(2015 Aug): Brief update on the status of the neutrino and its adaptation into the DSSU particle theory. See Section 5 of the Discussion webpage for the article: The Fundamental Process of Energy

(2015 Aug): The article The Universe Is Infinite (Part 1) has been revised.

(2015 July): Comments and questions from a 14-year old student.

(2013): Higgs Boson Discovered?
After 50 long years of searching, Physicists claim to have detected the Higgs boson, the "particle" that ostensibly bestows the property of mass on all other such particles. Is it now time to celebrate? … Definitely not.
   The question now is this: If the Higgs ‘particle’ is the giver of mass to all other particles, what then gives the Higgs itself its mass?! (Yes, the newly discovered particle has mass, lots of it!) A difficult and embarrassing question indeed. It is like asking:
If God created everything, then who, or what, created God?
   While physicists think they have solved the mass problem, the reality is that they have unwittingly exposed an even bigger problem —the riddle of “First Cause”.


Mass-to-Energy Conversion, the Astrophysical Mechanism –Published in Journal of High Energy Physics, Gravitation and Cosmology, Vol.5, No.2 (2019). HTML version.

Nature’s Supreme Mechanism for Energy Extraction from Nonmaterial Aether –Published in Infinite Energy Magazine Vol.24, Issue#144 (2019 March/April)

The Nature of Gravity –How One Factor Unifies Gravity’s Convergent, Divergent, Vortex, and Wave Effects –Published in the International Journal of Astrophysics and Space ScienceVol.6, No.5, 2018.
Natural Mechanism for the Generation and Emission of Extreme Energy Particles –Published in Physics Essays Vol.31, No.3, p358 (2018). (Reprint)
Sachs-Wolfe Effect Disproof –Published in the International Journal of Astrophysics and Space Science, Vol.6, No.1, 2018. ( Abstract & Links.)

"The Nature of Gravitational Collapse"
–Published in American Journal of Astronomy & Astrophysics. ( Abstract and Links.)
(Note, there is a typo in AJA&A posted version in the Fig-10 caption. It should read: … acceleration is proportional to 1/r2.)

Glossary of Terms used in Cosmology and Astrophysics with particular emphasis on DSSU theory.
(Opens in separate Window or Tab)


Mysteries & Paradoxes that Plague Standard Cosmology  (Updated 2015-7)

Cosmology Crisis of 1998 (Revised 2015-5)

Critique of Conventional Cosmology ... comments relating to the 'preposterous' expanding-universe paradigm.
Bafflement —the remarkable admission of a physicist.
The Cosmology Debate That Never Happened   —During the 20th century there was a decades-long debate: The cataclysmic expanding universe VS the stable expanding universe. But there has never been a debate of the dynamic expanding universe VS the dynamic non-expanding universe. (Posted 2011 Oct)

Models of the Universe —Historical, Expanding, and Cellular universes. INCLUDES A USEFUL TABLE FOR COMPARING THEORIES.

The Universe Is Infinite (Part 1) —overcoming a "central" problem of cosmology theories.

The Universe Is Infinite (Part 2) —an explanation of how the universe can always have existed and will always exist.

DSSU, The Non-Expanding Universe: Structure, Redshift, Distance —A long sought-after goal of astrophysicists has been a formulation of cosmic distance that is independent of the speed of light. The goal has now been achieved. The present Paper details the surprisingly simple distance expression and its validating agreement with Supernova data.

Why Copernicus Did Not Need a Force of Gravity —Explores the question of why no one, except Newton, invoked a force. (Re-Posted February, 2014)

Gravity and Lambda —A Story of Opposites (.htm) —A story of opposites in harmony. Key differences between the Conventional Cosmology and the New Cosmology are presented.

Dynamic Cosmic Cell —The Structural Component of the DSSU —Animated image and discussion of the self-sustaining, self-balancing system.

Why Einstein Did Not Receive the Nobel Prize for His Theory of Relativity —“By 1922 Einstein had been nominated about fifty times —most were for his relativity theories.”

Questions & Answers & Comments


(2016 June) FREE DOWNLOAD details:
DSSU Validated by Redshift Theory and Structural Evidence
, Physics Essays, Vol.28, No.4, p455-473 (2015 Dec) —Delivers the coup de grâce to the Big Bang. Abstract & Links.
Both Reviewers enthusiastically endorsed this "well-written and incisive article."

The Dynamic Steady State Universe.
This work brings together the main pieces of the cosmic puzzle in a step-by-step construction of the Natural Universe. Published in Physics Essays Vol.27 No.2 (2014 June issue) (PDF download)  "... the arguments are well-made. The article is competent, enjoyable and readable." —Reviewer for Physics Essays Journal

Olbers’ Paradox Resolved for the Infinite Non-Expanding Universe
, American Journal of Astronomy & Astrophysics Vol.4, No.1, (2016 January). Abstract & download links.
● “The man accredited with discovering universe expansion did not believe that the universe was expanding. Hubble was convinced that the key evidence, the cosmic redshift, was caused by some other factor, something more fundamental than mere expansion.”
● “With the recent discovery of a new cosmic-redshift mechanism, and its theoretical validation, it turns out that Hubble was right.”

Cosmic Redshift in the Nonexpanding Cellular Universe  ( Journal links ) —details the actual causal mechanism. Published in the American Journal of Astronomy & Astrophysics, Vol.2, No.5 (2014) Abstract.
Local copy with quality images: (Reprint pdf).
• Entirely new concept for cosmic redshift mechanism;
• Retains the foundation premise of all modern cosmology;
• But does not require whole-universe expansion;
• A redshift based on the DSSU theory of unified gravity & cosmic cellular structure;
• Remarkable agreement with independently established redshift distances.

The Cosmology Debate That Never Happened
What historians call "the greatest cosmological debate in history” was between TWO  expanding universes —two hypothetical models that share the same, I repeat, the same foundational property! If one is to claim some great clash of ideas (let alone the "greatest") then surely there must exist some deep dividing difference! (Posted 2011-10)

The Case for a Cellular Universe
—the Story of a Baffling Omission in Modern Cosmology    (Revised 2015)

Large-Scale Structure of the Dynamic Steady State Universe published in the American Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Vol.4, No.6, 2016, pp.65-77. Astract and Links.
■ Presents the first 2 of the 4 main postulates that define the DSSU.
■ Space-medium expansion and contraction are perpetually held in balance, thus ensuring a non-expanding universe.
■ Explains how the two dynamic processes of the DSSU’s space medium sustain the cellular structure responsible for the pattern of matter distribution in our Universe.

Galaxy Morphology:

Ellipticity, Its Origin & Progression in Comoving Galaxies,  American Journal of Astronomy & Astrophysics, AJAA, Vol.3, No.2, 2015.
Journal  Abstract and Links.
Local  high-resolution PDF.
HTML version available from AJAA here.
• Provides the first-ever natural explanation for the cause of the elliptical shape of nonrotating galaxies
• Retains the foundation premise of all modern cosmology but rejects the absurd concept of whole-universe expansion
• Takes full advantage of the universe’s cosmic cellular structure and exploits the DSSU theory of unified gravity domains
• Amazingly, the mechanism that stretches galaxies turns out to be the very same mechanism that causes the cosmic spectral redshift!

Cosmic-Redshift Distance Law Without c Without H Comments & Links Simplifying the redshift-distance formula by removing the speed-of-light constant and the Hubble parameter —while maintaining agreement with observational evidence.


Cosmic Core website: Lavishly illustrated. Includes many articles discussing DSSU theory and cosmology.

New Illuminati
–The DSSU is The New Cosmology

New Illuminati –Hidden Substrate of Reality

Big Bang Never Happened –Home & Summary

Noteworthy video of a simulated cellular universe. The nodal galaxy structures are quite interesting.

DSSU Theory:

DSSU Validated by Redshift Theory and Structural Evidence, Physics Essays, Vol.28, No.4, p455-473 (2015 Dec) —Delivers the coup de grâce to the Big Bang. Abstract & Links.
Both Reviewers enthusiastically endorsed this "well-written and incisive article."

A historical tour of universes culminating with the Natural Universe —This essay gives a thematic tour of historical and modern universes. ... While the Universe is endlessly speaking, forever sending signals; philosophers and scientists listen and interpret.

Currently undergoing revision and updating: Theoretical Foundation and Pillars of the Dynamic Steady State Universe —The first complete presentation of all four postulates of DSSU theory. A powerful paper that resolves the cause-of-causes paradox, explains the non-independent nature of time, and reveals the 'supreme advantage'. It includes a concise comparison with standard cosmology focusing on real-world viability.
Supplementary Discussion: The Primary Process


The Fundamental Process of Energy —A Qualitative Unification of Energy, Mass, and Gravity. (Abstract & Reviews & Links) … This article reveals the secret behind photon confinement. (Contains only a bare minimum of mathematics and mainly in one of the 14 sections.)
PART 1 published in Infinite Energy Magazine Issue #113 (Jan/Feb 2014)
PART 2 published in Infinite Energy Magazine    Issue #114 (Mar/Apr 2014)

Headlined as:
A "Conceptual Unification of Energy, Mass and Gravity"

Dynamic Cosmic Cell —The Structural Component of the DSSU —Animated image and discussion of the self-sustaining, self-balancing system.

Unified Gravitation Cells of the DSSU —Constructing the Universe with Cosmic Gravity Cells

Space Flow Equations and Expansion-Contraction Rates (pdf) —This paper explores the mathematical aspects of the two space postulates of DSSU theory —and uncovers some profound consequences.


Documentary movie footage in which Einstein states, "There exists an aether"
High resolution .mpg video.
Low resolution .wmv video.

The Aether Experiments and the Impact on Cosmology —Aether was detected first in 1887 and then several more times during the 20th century. Its 21st–century "rediscovery" (in 2001) led to the long-sought causal mechanism of gravity —a discovery which, in turn, is revolutionizing cosmology.

Michelson-Morley and the Story of the Aether Theory —Richard Milton's analysis of the historical details involving the misrepresentation, bias, and cover-up that hampered the Aether theory.

The History of the Aether Theory —The historic development of the aether as a scientific theory of space itself. What started as the "fifth element" of Antiquity becomes molded by theoretical constraints and experimental evidence into the dual-dynamic sub-quantum medium —the Essence of the Universe. (Updated 2016-2)

Relativity of Time in the Aether-Space of the DSSU —How intrinsic time and relative time are related.

DSSU Relativity –The Lorentz Transformations Applied to Aether-Space —Ranzan
Reprinted by permission of Physics Essays Publication, Physics  Essays Vol.23, No.3, p520. (2010). ABSTRACT

Physical Nature of Length Contraction —the DSSU Theory of Length Contraction Induced by Absolute Motion.
An easy to follow examination of how the mode by which matter is “conducted” through luminiferous aether causes the matter to contract. A simple derivation of the mathematical expression for this physical phenomenon is presented. There is also a brief discussion of relevant historical aspects and of nonphysical length contraction.
Reviewer's comments: “This is amazing …”  “The paper is interesting …” –Applied Physics Research reviewer. Published in Applied Physics Research journal Vol.5, No.1 (2013 Feb).

Contradiction Divides Two Aether Theories —An exploration into the three parts of the speed-of-light postulate.
Reprinted by permission of PEP, from  Physics Essays Journal (Vol 24, No.3, Sept, 2011) ... ABSTRACT

Basic-level mathematical and graphical exploration of dynamic aether flow: PDF

Here is an external webpage with an extensive list of research papers on the aether-drift experiments, and the larger question of energy in space.


Sachs-Wolfe Effect Disproof (published in in the International Journal of Astrophysics and Space Science Vol.6, No.1, 2018.)
Abstract & links.

DSSU Cosmic Redshift-Distance Relation (htm) —Converting the cosmic redshift into distance for our Cellular Universe using a simple and elegant equation.

Large Scale Structure of the Dynamic Steady State Universe (pdf)   How a dual-dynamic space medium sustains the cellular structure (published in AJAA in 2016).
  —Presents the postulates and implications of regional space-medium expansion and contraction.

Cosmic-Scale Structural Features Explained (pdf) (Chapter 2 of original DSSU Manuscript)
—The Spacing of Clusters
—Sheets of Galaxies
—Right-angled Walls of Galaxies.

The Cosmic Background Radiation in the DSSU —The natural explanation of the microwave background radiation applicable to the natural Cellular Universe.

Ellipticity, Its Origin & Progression in Comoving GalaxiesAmerican Journal of Astronomy & Astrophysics, AJAA, Vol.3, No.2, 2015.
Journal  Abstract and Links
Local  high-resolution PDF.
HTML version available from AJAA here.
• Provides the first-ever natural explanation for the cause of the elliptical shape of nonrotating galaxies
• Retains the foundation premise of all modern cosmology but rejects the absurd concept of whole-universe expansion
• Takes full advantage of the universe’s cosmic cellular structure and exploits the DSSU theory of unified gravity domains
• Amazingly, the mechanism that stretches galaxies turns out to be the very same mechanism that causes the cosmic spectral redshift!


The Nature of Gravity –How One Factor Unifies Gravity’s Convergent, Divergent, Vortex, and Wave Effects –Published in International Journal of Astrophysics and Space Science (IJASS), Vol.6, No.5, 2018, pp.73-92. (Abstract and Links.)

The Nature of Gravitational Collapse
–Published in American Journal of Astronomy & Astrophysics Vol.4, No.2, 2016, pp.15-33. (Abstract and Links.)
(Note, there is a typo in AJA&A posted version in the Fig-10 caption. It should read: … acceleration is proportional to 1/r2.)

Gravity and Dark Energy (How they Shape the Universe) –An Introduction. Provides a preamble and overview for a couple of earlier DSSU articles.

The Processes of Gravitation –The Cause and Mechanism of Gravitation by C. Ranzan –A revolutionary paper on gravity published in J. Mod. Phys. Appl. Vol.2014:3 (2014).
(Abstract & Reviews & Links. Includes link to hi-resolution PDF) "Revolutionary".

Why Copernicus Did Not Need a Force of Gravity —Explores the question of why no one, except Newton, invoked a force. (Rev 2011-9)

First ever, journal-published paper featuring the DSSU:
The Story of Gravity and Lambda –How the Theory of Heraclitus Solved the Dark Matter Mystery –Ranzan
Reprinted by permission of PEP, from Physics Essays, Vol 23, No1, p75-87 (2010 Mar). ABSTRACT
This is the cure for the fallacious belief in cosmic-scale Dark Matter.

The Story of Gravity and Lambda –How the Theory of Heraclitus Solved the Dark Matter Mystery (Color version) –Ranzan Considered "an excellent contribution to the [PE journal]" --professional reviewer (2010).

Unified Gravitation Cells of the DSSU —Constructing the Universe with Cosmic Gravity Cells


Why Einstein Did Not Receive the Nobel Prize for His Theory of Relativity (●Abstract ●Links ●Excerpts ●Extras) —“By 1922 Einstein had been nominated about fifty times —most were for his relativity theories.”

Einstein’s Simple Mathematical Trick –and the Illusion of a Constant Speed of Light  (Abridged version with links to Journal-published version. Posted 2013)

Extended Relativity –Exploiting the Loopholes in Einstein's Relativity. A Logical extension of special relativity. Reprinted by permission of PEP, from Physics Essays Vol.25, No.3 (2012).
Abstract & Links & Reviews

The Three Components of the Speed-of-Light Postulate.  Published in Physics Essays journal Vol.26,No.1 (2013)
Local copy: The Three Components of the Speed-of-Light Postulate (pdf) Absolute vs relative. Variance vs invariance. Another instance of the Heraclitian "Harmony of Opposites." (Reprinted by permission of PEP, from Physics Essays, Vol.26, No.1, 2013).

Relativity of Time in the Aether Medium of the DSSU —Absolute Motion and Intrinsic Time

Resolving a Paradox in Special Relativity –Absolute Motion and the Unified Doppler Equation.
(Posted 2011, July). Reprinted by permission of PEP, from Physics  Essays Vol.23, No.4, p594 (2010). ABSTRACT

How DSSU Relativity Resolves the Speed Paradox (Introductory Discussion)   —Absolute Motion Resolves a (speed) Paradox in Einstein’s Special Relativity. (Supplementary Discussion)

DSSU Relativity –The Lorentz Transformations Applied to Aether-Space (Posted 2011). Reprinted by permission of Physics Essays Publication, Physics  Essays Vol.23, No.3, p520. (2010). ABSTRACT

The Key that Extends Einstein’s Relativity (Part 1) —Response to a reviewer critical of DSSU aether-based relativity
The Key that Extends Einstein’s Relativity (Part 2) —How to convert abstract-space equations into aether-based equations

Restoring the Physical Meaning of Energy
Published in Applied Physics Research journal Vol.5, No.2 (2013).
LOCAL COPY: Restoring the Physical Meaning of Energy —distinguishing between the apparent energy and the real energy of moving mass.

An Open Letter to the Scientific Community
(Published in New Scientist, May 22, 2004)

"The big bang today relies on a growing number of hypothetical entities, things that we have never observed-- inflation, dark matter and dark energy are the most prominent examples. Without them, there would be a fatal contradiction between the observations made by astronomers and the predictions of the big bang theory. In no other field of physics would this continual recourse to new hypothetical objects be accepted as a way of bridging the gap between theory and observation. It would, at the least, raise serious questions about the validity of the underlying theory. ..."  continues ...
A devastating Declaration of opposition to Big Bang cosmology signed by more than 400 Researchers.

For the full text click on: or alternate site.

This website is mainly concerned with revisionism in cosmology. Those of us involved in replacing the unnatural expanding-universe paradigm are aware of the difficulties involved.
   However, other revisionists have unimaginable difficulties. Consider the ongoing persecution of revisionists in other fields of intellectual pursuit: 
"It makes you wonder —about the immense effort being made by State and State-sponsored organizations with budgets of tens of millions of dollars and thousands of employees and associates to smother and punish these few men and women. Every punishing instrument imaginable is used, every vicious slander conceivable, every flagrant and pervasive form of censorship that law allows, including the imprisonment of simple writers for thought crimes against the State. ... Makes you wonder."Bradley R. Smith (2011)

"Discussing truth is so controversial, so dangerous … In most of the world it is simply illegal.” Gordon Duff, Senior Editor, Veterans Today (2011)

"The further a society drifts from truth the more it will hate those who speak it." –George Orwell

DEDICATION: This website is solemnly dedicated to those individuals who have conducted research in their chosen field and have informed others of their inquiries and suffered the consequences when subpoenaed by the Inquisition or some variant thereof. The dedication extends to those individuals currently imprisoned, and those facing trial and persecution simply for exercising their basic human right of freedom of expression supposedly granted to them under the UN Charter of Human Rights.
"Every year, hundreds of writers and other literary professionals around the world are imprisoned, prosecuted, persecuted, attacked, threatened, forced into exile or even murdered as a result of their work."

ALSO: Be aware of the continuing threat to our precious freedom of expression on the Internet. The threat is serious and relentless. It is described as “… the formal effort to mimic Communist China’s system of Internet censorship.” See The Secret Behind SOPA  (2012-Jan). Update.
More information on threats to internet freedom:

Reporter-journalist Arthur Topham, Canadian victim of the Inquisition, arrested (2012) for posting his research.
“Arthur Topham faces prison time for daring to speak his mind on his own website, as he faces criminal charges under Canada’s hate crimes legislation contained in Section 318 - 320 of the criminal code.” –Rights and Freedoms Bulletin Issue No. 204 Feb 7, 2015.
VERDICT: Arthur Topham found “guilty” AND “not guilty” of hate speech by a brain-dead jury!
 –Dr. James Sears, reporting in “The world’s Largest Anti-Marxist Publication” (Issue 2015 December,
2016 Update: Panel Discussion on The Trial of Arthur Topham

Free-speech crusader
Bill Whatcott defies British Colombia Human Rights Tribunal efforts to impose gender language tyranny.

“I have no intention on wasting money on a lawyer for the Morgane Oger vs Bill Whatcott case, as human rights tribunals are kangaroo courts and the odds of … getting justice in these biased tribunals is next to zero.” –2017 June ( …)

End of free speech in Britain:

A publisher of history books in Britain has reported that “due to new laws in the UK all their books will have to be censored moving forward” to avoid criminal penalties for “inciting racial hatred.” –The Barnes Review (2020 March/April) p77

A hostile jury, by a hasty unanimous verdict, decided that Nationalist Leader Jez Turner deserves to be sent to jail for his critical views! Report (2018-5-15).

British Maverick Psychologist jailed for publishing his research. … “The ambivalence of librarians getting writers imprisoned quite defies comprehension.” –Simon Sheppard (2013)

The repression of free speech in Canada has degenerated to the point where …

■ Freedom advocates, such as Marc Lemire, are censured for merely expressing their reasoned opinions. Freedomsite, whose motto is “Fighting for freedom against the censorship enforcers”, documents the official persecution.
■ A tenured professor has lost his position for revealing his research and views on history. This is unprecedented. Professor Anthony J. Hall at the University of Lethbridge, Alberta, has been suspended (2016 October 5) without pay.
“… Any thinking person should recognize that there is something deeply wrong when a history professor is persecuted for saying we should be able to examine our history.” –Monika Schaefer 2017
■ A publisher/editor, for expressing his reality-based views, has been denied postal services. Dr. James Sears, publisher and editor of Your Ward News was stripped of Canada Post Mail Service by government order (2016 June).
■ A violin teacher and truth revealer, Monika Schaefer, for posting a video (an apology to her dead mother), has been attacked by various so-called community leaders.

The treatment of violinist Monika Schaefer signals the end of our free and democratic society.” –The American Herald Tribune, 2016 Sept

American Speaker Arrested in Canada for the textual material on his iPad
—2017 June 24
While the invasion continues, the “guardians” of the nation are busy suppressing the freedom of expression: going after deemed violations in what people think and write and say.

Canada Claims Authority to Censor Your Internet Searches –Reason magazine
The "justice" system is being used to suppress opinions: In a legal battle (2018) for freedom of speech in Canada ... the prosecution and silencing of Dr. James Sears expected to cost taxpayers $20 million!

“I estimate the Board of Review, police investigating and Crown prosecuting us on criminal matters, will cost the taxpayers over $20 million, assuming no appeals past 2018 (murderers & rapists will walk free as huge blocks of court time bump their cases, causing them to be thrown out).”
–Dr. James Sears, Your Ward News, Fall, 2018, p17

Updates are posted at .
Update for 2019 April 8:  Why the ruling against Your Ward News hurts free speech in Canada
Updates for 2019 Aug: LINK to Several postings.
Update for 2020: Sentenced to one year in jail for revealing the truth.

The Continuing Struggle for Freedom

A ray of hope in the ongoing struggle for freedom. Populist and nationalist movements around the world are gaining ascendancy over the New World Order’s effort to establish global governance and impose tyrannical control over every last square meter of the Earth’s surface. –The Barnes Review Vol.23 No.1 (2017 Jan p70)

"This Is Very Serious" –S. Molyneux, 2018-7
(7-minute video on the importance of freedom of speech)

The ongoing fight for freedom and truth. –Just Right Media (2020, Sept 18, program)

In repressive Germany:

Ursula Haverbeck, 89, Sentenced to 14 Months in Jail for Heresy! –2017 November
This amazing 89-year-old woman continues advocating under the dictum: "Only the truth will set you free”.
Mrs. Haverbeck, along with her late husband, founded the education facility Collegium Humanum in 1963, but which was banned by the Marxist thought police in 2008.

Update (2018-5-16): Ursula Haverbeck will celebrate her 90th birthday in a German prison cell. The sprightly grandmother is now serving a two-year prison term without parole merely for stating a sincerely held opinion that is supported by acclaimed academics worldwide!!
“Frau Haverbeck is now sentenced to two years in prison, merely for her peaceful historical research” –The Barnes Review Vol.24, No.5 (Sept/Oct 2018) p71

UPDATE (2019-11): On November 9th (2019), the very day of Ursula Haverbeck’s 91st. birthday, hundreds of German nationalists, patriots and friends, well-wishers and admirers rallied in her support. Report on the Rally to Celebrate Political Prisoner Ursula Haverbeck.

INFO on Monika Schaefer's case:
For expressing her opinion on historical events, Canadian citizen Monika Schaefer has been arrested and imprisoned (2018-1-3) in Germany. She had committed no crime. Author Mike Walsh warns potential visitors to Germany to stay away from this dangerous police state. –Merkel Madness Grips Germany, (2018-1-7)
... Found guilty and sentenced to 10 months of imprisonment (time served); her brother Alfred was sentenced to 38 months!! –(2018 November)
UPDATE (2019 August 10): Corruption of justice in Germany continues. Alfred Schaefer Receives 18 Months Additional Prison Time for Defending Himself!  Punished for simply presenting evidence for his own defense in court!

For more on Freedom (and Objectivism),
Freedomain Radio (
presented by Stefan Molyneux.

 Just Right Media (

... about the author ...

Curriculum Vitae

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Conrad RanzanDSSU Research
  For information regarding permission to reproduce selected material herein, please contact:

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Cosmology Crisis of 1998

C. Ranzan
DSSU Research, Niagara Falls, Canada
Published on the Cellular Universe website ( ) 2005 rev2015-5


1   The Year the Standard Big Bang Model Failed
2   Model Patching
3   Standard Cosmology Response
4   The Patch
5   The Crisis on a Fundamental Level
6   Harmonious Match
7   Historical Roots of the Crisis
8   Resolution of the Crisis

Breakthrough of the Year. ...
Scientists and philosophers will be grappling with the implications for years to come.

Science magazine, 1998

1.   The Year the Standard Big Bang Model Failed

In 1998 one of the biggest science news story in decades unfolded. It was the year in which the generally accepted theory of the universe failed. The dramatic events were almost immediately detailed in a PBS NOVA science program; and four years later (in 2002) it was a televised feature story on the news program 60 Minutes. To convey the unexpected nature of the discovery, the 60 Minutes story compared it to casually tossing your car keys into the air and finding that they don’t fall back down! It was a memorable demonstration of a puzzlement confronting advocates of Big Bang cosmology. Here was a situation that had caught professional physicists off guard. The New York Times (January 1, 2002) reported the response to the discovery from one such expert:


It’s definitely the strangest experimental finding since I’ve been in physics,
–Dr. Edward Witten, Institute for Advanced Studies in Princeton


Astronomers use a certain class of supernovae in a sophisticated technique to measure cosmic distance. The class members serve as "standard candles" for measuring and calibrating extraordinary cosmic distances. Referred to as Type 1a, these extremely massive exploding stars have a known absolute brightness and a characteristic brightness profile, making the explosion event ideal for determining distance independent of the customary redshift method. The brightness profile identifies an astronomical object as Type 1a. A comparison between its theoretically known brightness and the apparent brightness makes it possible to estimate its distance.

By the year 1998, researchers had perfected the method.  And in that year, two independent teams discovered that the universe of their authoritative textbooks —the universe they thought they understood— was not behaving the way it is supposed to. At first it seemed too incredible to be believed. After an exhaustive check ruled out potential errors, they eventually accepted the conclusion coded in the data. The consensus was that the few dozen supernovae tested were 20 to 25 percent farther away than expected. Now it may not seem like much, roughly a 1/4 fractional difference, but in terms of absolute distance we are talking about a three-billion-lightyear discrepancy (when determined with the DSSU redshift-distance equation).

The astronomer-physicists reluctantly concluded that their Big Bang (BB) universe is not slowing down its expansion as had been predicted, but rather it appears to be expanding at an ever faster rate!

The Big Bang universe was now accelerating! Or so it was believed.


The fact that the universe is speeding up might be the biggest mystery in all of science. –Michael Turner, University of Chicago [1]


What a predicament! An embarrassing contradiction of standard theory. And there was no explanation (at least momentarily) as to why the universe seems to be speeding up, seems to be in acceleration mode. And so, 1998 was a crisis year for BB cosmology.

In the crisis year of 1998  astronomers found to their amazement that the predicted distance (bottom curve) of supernova stars did not agree with their actual distance (as measured be methods independent of their redshift). The supernovae were actually about 25 percent farther away. If astrophysicists had recognize the fundamental fact that the real Universe is structured into repeating regions, that it has a grand-scale cellular structure, then they would have found a remarkable agreement between measured distance and predicted distance (upper curve). Their failure to recognize this fact, embodied in the simple, elegant and valid, DSSU formulation (top equation), serves to further compound the crisis. (The distance 300Mly is the size of each cosmic cell measured in million lightyears. The symbol zcc is the redshift across one cosmic cell. Redshift index spanned by this graph is from 0 to 10.) 

2.  Model Patching

Needless to say, BB proponents don’t like to call the failure of their cherished model “a crisis” —too suggestive of a pending disaster. The BB model, it should be pointed out, has struggled, and survived, through more than three-quarters of a century. It survived the attacks from the traditional Steady State models and also the Quasi Steady State model. In hindsight, it should have died long ago but its faithful devotees keep coming up with one or another life-supporting patch. For instance, some years ago when someone checked the numbers, an embarrassing mismatch was uncovered: The universe was predicted to be considerably younger than many of the objects it contains. The universe was supposed to be10 billion years old while its oldest known stars were estimated to be about 14 billion years old! [2] [3]  A patch was needed and quickly adopted —something called inflation. Now almost everyone knows the meaning of monetary inflation, but what is the meaning of big bang inflation? ... Well, instead of just an ordinary big bang, this inflation magically turns it into a supersonic big bang. Inflation is the hypothesized super-fast (hyper-lightspeed-fast) expansion of space, a brief birthing phase that launched the main Big Bang event. But keeping in mind the original purpose, wouldn’t a universe that grew faster be a younger universe? Wouldn’t this make the age discrepancy worse instead better? The experts assured us the explanation is counterintuitive and so the BB theory survived the age-of the-universe problem.

Then there was the horizon problem. It deals with the question of why the temperature of the distant-and-early universe, which astronomers observe in opposite directions, is so uniform. Regions that are at opposite ends of the visible universe and unrelated with respect to cause and effect inexplicably have identical energy states! To solve the horizon problem, the inflation patch was adjusted and re-applied. Professor Edward Wright provides a detailed explanation [4], aimed at the initiated, which may be helpful in gaining understanding (but no promises).

The patched-up model of the 1970s and 1980s became known as the inflationary BB model.

Jumping ahead to the year 1998, we find the BB model confronted with the formidable problem discussed earlier. Distant supernovae were found to be farther away than their redshifts suggest. As highlighted in the graph, above, their actual distance is significantly greater than what had been predicted. And since prediction is based on the redshift-versus-distance equation, the equation had to be wrong.

Faced with the unexpected mismatch between redshift and distance of their 1a-supernova standard candles, what do you think the experts did? ... Exactly, a new patch was cooked-up before you could say, “your expanding-universe premise is wrong, try a new model.

3.   Standard Cosmology Response

The response of astrophysicists was predictable. Instead of recognizing that the Universe we live in is cellular and not expanding, they clung to the expansion-of-the-whole-universe doctrine. Instead of thinking outside the box and notice an infinity of cosmic bubbles, they reaffirmed their faith in universal expansion. Instead of adopting the simple and elegant cellular formulation (as expressed in the upper curve of the graph) and thereby immediately resolving the crisis; they declared that the expansion of the universe is accelerating. The universe is supposedly getting bigger and bigger, faster and faster.

Did the experts ask themselves, is the acceleration something real? or is it only apparent? ... Maybe they did. Maybe some concluded that fundamental revisions were needed. And there is no question of the fact that some of the most brilliant and dedicated minds on Earth are involved in the quest for understanding. However, meaningful revisionism is rarely tolerated; the official paradigm rules; whatever the field of enquiry, this is the way it is. And in the field of cosmology, proposing a foundational change becomes unappealing to career astro-researchers.

And so, in 1998 astronomers and physicists convinced themselves that the universe is accelerating. But with acceleration, a new mystery emerged.  In addition to the fundamental question of why the universe is expanding in the first place, now there is the utterly baffling mystery of why it is expanding with a vengeance.


In other ways this new dark universe [dark because acceleration leads to dilution which leads to darkness] is utterly baffling, a road map to new mysteries. Dr. Marc Davis, a cosmologist at the University of California at Berkeley, called it ‘a universe chock full of exotics that don’t make sense to anybody.’
–Dennis Overbye (The New York Times, July 23, 2002)


No doubt, it must be deeply discouraging when the correspondence between evidence and theory “doesn’t make sense to anybody.”

4.   The Patch

In the aftermath of the 1998 discovery, as may be well imagined, a host of big bang variants were proposed and presented in scientific circles. The cause of acceleration was of foremost concern as well as reformulating, or adjusting, relevant equations.

For the theoretical cause of acceleration, the experts proposed that the universe was being subjected to a mysterious dark energy that expands space and causes an increase in the rate of expansion of the universe. They were not sure if it is the Lambda force (the one that Einstein introduced into his universe model in 1917) or if it is another bout of inflation —a re-inflation phase. Some theorists turned to something called Quintessence —a force that may be responsible for the apparent exponential growth of the universe.

As for the practical implementation of the patch: it simply meant re-evaluating an adjustable factor in the BB equation. An important parameter known as the matter density parameter, Ωo, was given a new value. As I said earlier there was no fundamental change in the model; notably, the same equation continued to be used. The original value of Omega, Ωo, was 1.0 (unity), the new value was anywhere between 0.25 and 0.35. By selecting the appropriate Omega value, astrophysicists are able to position the curve almost anywhere they want on a graph of distance (similar to the graph shown above). By selecting the appropriate Omega value, the curve representing the BB theory can always be made to agree with the data. Almost like magic. And so, with the judicious choice of numerical factors, the crisis seemingly disappeared.

5.   The Crisis on a Fundamental Level

 In practical terms, the BB model is much like the Ptolemaic model; with the proper adjustment of variables, it all seems to work. The Ptolemaic model was able to account for the observed motions of the planets of the Solar system with the help of various geometric contrivances to modify the predicted orbital trajectories. Similarly, the BB model is able to account for the apparent "motions" of the observable universe, all with the help of about 12 parameters, which, according to astronomer-and-physicist Mark Whittle, “… accurately measure the properties of the Universe [and] provide a stunning degree of agreement and coherence.” [5] Clearly, the Ptolemaic and BB models work well in an empirical way.

The problem, however, is fundamental. While both models may be praiseworthy as intricate reflections of appearances, neither model is a representation of reality. The central error of the Ptolemaic system is placing the Earth at the center of the universe; and for the BB system the central error is universal expansion and its extrapolation to whole-cosmos expansion.

Let us examine the implications for the cosmic distance formulation.

Here are the key inputs used for the cosmic-redshift method of determining reception distance under BB rules:

  1. Z is the redshift index. It is the essential and primary value measured by astronomers. This is the actual value that varies with distance.
  2. Ho is the Hubble constant. It is a measure of the rate of expansion of space itself —a rate applicable to the present era of the evolving BB universe. Although it is considered a constant, it varies with location.
  3. H is the Hubble parameter (not to be confused with the Hubble constant). It represents the rate of space expansion as a function of the age of the BB universe. That is, it varies with evolutionary time.
  4. Ω, Omega, is the ratio of the average density of the total mass-and-energy present in the universe compared to the total matter density required for the universe to achieve a critical balance, a balance that will just prevent it from collapsing in on itself. In its simplest form:

Ω = (Actual density of matter) / (Critical density of matter).

There are a number of problems associated with the Hubble constant; some relate to the BB others relate to the real Universe.

One is the long-standing problem of determining an accurate value. Astronomers have come to recognize that the rate of expansion of space varies in different parts of the universe. With such regional variation it is hard to pin down a precise "constant" value. In practice, an estimated average value is used for the BB cosmic distance equation.

A deeper concern with profound implications: If the distance equation is to include a measure for the expansion of space, it should also have a measure for the contraction of space. As Einstein well understood when he referred to "contractile" gravity, the gravitational effect tends to contract, or shrink, space. If one includes both factors, a factor for expansion and another for contraction, that is, one to take care of the space expanded within cosmic voids, the other to take care of the space contracted in and around the great galaxy clusters (as well as isolated field galaxies), then one will find a marvelous balance. One will find that, although space expands (albeit regionally) the universe does not expand. If, however, the "contraction" effect is not recognized, and not taken into account, the result must be an out-of-balance expanding cosmos. Such oversight leads to the prediction of a big-bang-type universe.

Another serious problem is that the Hubble constant is based on a flawed interpretation of the cosmic redshift. The traditional interpretation of the cause of redshift is that distant galaxies are receding with the space vacuum in which they are embedded. This produces a Doppler effect on the galactic light that is eventually received on Earth. It is, according to this interpretation, simply a measure of the increase of the intervening space (vacuum) between our galaxy and the distant galaxy. It is usually expressed as the rate that a distance of 1 million light years, a tiny portion of the total distance, increases in one second of time. As an example, 1Mly typically expands by 15 to 20 kilometers per second. The key point is that the cosmic redshift is taken to be a Doppler effect. The problem is, in the real Universe, galaxies are not receding; there is no Hubble-based Doppler effect.

What actually causes the cosmic redshift is a simple recently-discovered process called velocity-differential redshifting. It is amazing that in their search among countless varieties of tired-light mechanisms theorists had somehow overlooked this particular, rather self-evident, process.[6]  Significantly, the velocity-differential redshift is applicable to both types of cosmic regions —those where the vacuum is expanding and also where the vacuum is contracting.

On the cosmic scale of distances the Hubble constant is irrelevant. Notice, it does not appear in the Cellular universe cosmic-distance equation:


Turning to the Omega parameter, in order to make the distance equation fit the observations (such as those made by the Supernova Cosmology Project and the High-Z Supernova Search and reported in 1998), the density of all matter has to be about 0.30 as a decimal fraction of critical density (for a balanced expanding universe). What is needed is for Omegao to be equal to 0.30:

Ωo ≈ (0.30) / (1.0) .

But all the visible and detectable matter of the universe yields a density that is only about 0.02 as a fraction of critical density. This means that the balance of the fraction, or 0.28, must consist of some unknown kind of matter! Its only known characteristic is that of having a gravitational nature.


Ωo ≈ (0.02 + 0.28) / (1.0) = 0.30 .

To summarize: In order for the “distance” curve to fit the data properly (see the graph above), Ωo must be about 0.30; but because visible-and-detectable matter only contributes a tiny 0.02 proportion, a large proportional amount of "dark matter" has to be invented.

There is, however, no evidence, none whatsoever, that this mysterious dark stuff exists.

Since it serves no useful purpose for an intrinsically cellular universe, Omega does not appear in the DSSU cosmic-distance formula.

What about the energy of the vacuum? … The term representing the vacuum energy is included in the denominator, and often explicitly expressed as:


In the BB universe, the vacuum energy overwhelmingly dominates. It is essentially what keeps the BB from collapsing. And herein lies the simplified explanation for acceleration. As the universe expands there is ever more space, more vacuum, and more vacuum energy; ΩVACUUM increases. However, ΩMATTER does not increase; the matter content of the universe remains constant. Obviously, Ωo gets smaller and smaller; which, in turn, means the BB distance curve tends higher and higher. The result is, essentially, a runaway effect —the acceleration effect.

In contrast, the DSSU maintains the vacuum energy in harmonious balance with all the other forms of energy.

The differences in cosmologies are fundamental; and the consequences are profound.

 6.   Harmonious Match

The crisis of 1998 may have been a serious blow to BB cosmology, but it represented a harmonious match between theory and evidence for the DSSU theory. The decay characteristics of the flash from supernovae revealed their extraordinary distance —and these distances agree with the DSSU redshift-versus-distance formulation. As the upper curve in the graph indicates, what the observers found and what the equation predicts agree with each other. DSSU theory converts redshift to distance using underlying principles that are almost totally alien to standard cosmology and yet it all agrees with corroborating evidence. The theory uses principles that are outright heretical —if proclaimed in another age they would herald instant condemnation from BB orthodoxy and excommunication for the innovator. They are: (1) The universe is not expanding. (2) The universe is infinite. (3) The universe had no genesis, will have no doomsday. (4) Notwithstanding the perpetual existence of the universe, everything, every entity, in (and of) the universe, has a limited term of existence. There are continuous non-cyclical regeneration processes, thus, the overall appearance of the universe never changes. These principles match reality.

The crisis of 1998 focuses attention on an uncompromising fact: the wonderful match between theory and observation is best achieved when one’s theory holds that the universe is statically cellularly structured and correspondingly nonexpanding.

 7.   Historical Roots of the Crisis

The BB model fails as a scientific theory. It has always been and always will be merely a hypothesis. Any theory that incorporates the invalid conclusion of the historic Michelson-Morley (MM) experiment: is either incomplete or just plain wrong. Einstein’s relativity theories are classified under the former —they are incomplete and physicists know they are incomplete. The Big Bang, the Steady State, and all expansion-of-the-whole-universe theories are classified under the latter —they are just plain wrong.

The roots of the crisis in cosmology (as well as physics) trace back to the decade of the 1880s, the decade of the most historic but misunderstood experiments in physics. Professor Reginald Cahill of Flinders University in Australia has investigated and reanalyzed those pivotal experiments and maintains,


“... here physics took a wrong turn, a mistake of ghastly proportions, from which it has yet to recover.”  [7]


 Albert Michelson and Edward Morley had doubted their own measurements and followed up their doubts by reporting their failure to detect the Earth’s absolute motion through space—its motion with respect to the vacuum, or the aether. This unjustified “null” interpretation was translated into the invalid conclusion that the aether does not exist. The concept of absolute space, or equivalently a space medium, was henceforth banished from mainstream physics. A ghastly mistake.

As discussed in greater detail in various articles posted on the Cellular Universe website, the invalid conclusion of the MM experiment was incorporated into a number of important theories and many of the models of the universe that were developed during the decades after the 1880s. Of interest in the present brief discussion is that the expansion-of-the-universe model conceived by Willem de Sitter, Alexander Friedmann, and others during the 1920s perpetuated what is probably the biggest scientific blunder in modern history. In the years that followed, the fantastical creativity of Georges Lemaître transformed the simple expanding-universe model into the expanding-universe-from-an-unstable-speck-of-almost-nothing model —we call it the Big Bang hypothesis for short. It stands foremost in perpetuating the blunder.

The roots of the crisis in the standard model, as the foregoing suggests, are deep indeed.

8.   Resolution of the Crisis

Any meaningful resolution must necessarily include the following:

First, recognize that our Universe is not accelerating; it is not even expanding (only regional "space" is expanding). Face the reality that the Universe is already fully expanded —always has been and always will be.

   Second, accept what has actually been observed (by astute astronomers like Jaan Einasto and Anthony P. Fairall); accept what has been logically deduced. Accept that the Universe has a grand scale cellular structure. Our Universe is a cellular universe.

   Third, adopt the DSSU redshift-distance formulation for calculating significant cosmic distances. The standard redshift-distance equation used by astronomers (and shown in the graph) simply will not work in a multi-cellular non-expanding universe. A logarithmic formulation must be used.

    And lastly, understand that the cosmic redshift is caused by a velocity differential effect acting on light waves as they propagate in both expanding-vacuum and contracting-vacuum regions of the cosmos.

 Viewing these requisites in the light of a bureaucratic academia coursing in the opposing direction and having the inertia of a fully loaded supertanker leads one to conclude that implementing the resolution to the 1998 crisis constitutes nothing less than a revolution in astronomy and cosmology.   □

This article is an open-access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

2005; rev 2015-5

Copyright © by
Conrad Ranzan          (


References and Notes

  1. ^ Accelerating Universe Theory Dispels Dark Energy, Nature, Science Update (July 3, 2003)
  2. ^ Timothy Ferris, The Whole Shebang, A State-of-the-Universe(s) Report (Simon & Schuster, N.Y., 1997) p36.
  3. ^ E. Wright,
  4. ^ E. Wright,
  5. ^ M. Whittle,  Cosmology: The History and Nature of Our Universe (The Teaching Co., Chantilly, Virginia, 2008) Lecture 26, Guidebook p141
  6. ^ C. Ranzan, Cosmic Redshift in the Nonexpanding Cellular Universe: Velocity-Differential Theory of Cosmic Redshift, American Journal of Astronomy & Astrophysics Vol.2, No.5, pp47-60 (2014).
    Doi:  |  (Abstract & links)  |  (Download "Reprint" PDF)
  7. ^ R.T. Cahill, Space and Gravitation, Magister Botanicus, Vol.2, pp.13-22 (Jan 2004).
    (Posted at: )



For the background and technical details of high-Z supernova research go to:
The High-Z SN Search:

For other aspects of the crisis in Conventional Cosmology see Mysteries and Paradoxes that Plague Standard Cosmology at

For other views check these links relating to international symposiums focusing on the crisis:
1st Crisis in Cosmology Conference, CCC-1, (2005). Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference CCC-1. Report published in Progress in Physics, Vol.1, Issue 3, 2005.
Report on the 1st Crisis in Cosmology Conference CCC-1, (2005) by popular astronomer/cosmologist Hilton Ratcliffe.
2nd Crisis in Cosmology Conference, CCC-2, (2008): Here is the link to their posted Articles/Papers: Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference CCC-2

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