The   Dynamic   Steady   State   Universe

 Home    Advance Search    Contact    For Educators (Under Construction)   

NEW ITEMS:


(2017 October): Coming up in a matter of weeks … another powerful research paper … another devastating blow for the Big Bang. (Currently being submitted for peer review. Details to follow.)
 


(2017 Sept): Recently brought to my attention: DSSU material appears on The New Illuminati website accompanied by some amazing graphics.

New Illuminati –The DSSU is The New Cosmology

New Illuminati –Hidden Substrate of Reality
 


(2017 Sept): "Assorted Comments" added to QuestionsAnswersComments.
 


(2017 Sept): Special purchase offer on the book "Guide to the Construction of the Natural Universe". (Mail-in Order Form.)
 


(2017 July): The book The Nature of Gravitational Collapse is now available.
 

The Nature of Gravitational Collapse

Subtitle: How the photon, the particle of light, is responsible for mass, gravity, superneutron stars, and supermassive black holes


—Reveals the truth about stellar and supermassive black holes.


This new work contains 310+ pages, 67 illustrations, references, and index. … Additional details.


(2016 December): “So easy to understand” comment from an Australian engineer.


(2016 November): “Large-Scale Structure of the Dynamic Steady State Universe” now published in the American Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Vol.4, No.6, 2016, pp.65-77. Astract and Links to HTML and PDF.


(2016 June):
Revolutionary research paper:
The Nature of Gravitational Collapse –published in the American Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Vol.4, No.2, 2016, pp.15-33. Abstract and Links:
—Another major DSSU success, as it reveals amazing new insights! The theory has uncovered the mechanism by which mass undergoes a total conversion to energy. Yes, a mass to energy conversion with 100% efficiency!  As everything else in the DSSU, it is a perfectly natural process. Truly amazing!


Have gravity waves really been detected?

Comments updated  2016 June: Comment #19
 


(2016-4-26:)  A mathematical cosmologist claims the values of the Hubble-expansion parameter and the cosmic-background temperature are the most important elements for understanding the real Universe! Letter and response.


(2016 March)  What is the difference between a physical and a mechanical aether? ...
Be aware of the distinctions among the terms commonly applied to aether: Terms such as physical, mechanical, subquantum, and dynamic. Link to new Question & Answer.


The book, Guide to the Construction of the Natural Universe, is  now available at the Niagara Falls Public Library  (Victoria branch). If you live in the Province of Ontario, your local library can request the book from the Niagara Falls Public Library.
 

Participate in a unique exploration of the Cosmos: venture into the sub-atomic realm, even into the sub-quantum realm where the roots of reality reside, and into the domain of cosmic-scale cell-structure and beyond to infinity. Along the way, discover the cause of mass, the cause of gravitation, and rediscover Einstein’s “nonponderable” aether and Heraclitus’ harmony-of-opposites principle. … The book represents the ultimate vindication for all the skeptics who resisted the "preposterous" Big Bang mythology and who refused to join the exploding-cosmos religion.
This new work contains 317 pages, 61 illustrations, references, and index … Available from C-FAR Books.
Or use this mail-in Order Form.

 


My comments on the latest mass media "Official Science" news story:


Do not be misled by the recent reports of the detection of gravity waves.
What the LIGO apparatus measures is the interference from beams of self-generated electromagnetic waves. It seems highly probable that what LIGO actually detected was some vibrational “noise” or some unexplained interference; and NOT gravity waves originating from a distant binary system (in which two extremely massive black holes are supposedly in the process of merging). How the data, the wave patterns, are interpreted is subject to theory and restricted by theory. Naturally the official interpretation must conform to the Officially-sanctioned theory of gravity —Einstein’s general theory of relativity. Thus, the light patterns recorded by LIGO are interpreted via Einstein’s mathematical concept of gravity. The problem is the general-relativity-gravity interpretation, as is well known, ignores the space medium!

Have gravity waves really been detected?
Think about this: The academic experts do not have the cause and mechanism of gravity (Isaac Newton did not, Albert Einstein did not, and today’s big-bang astrophysicists do not). Their theory of gravity is embarrassingly incomplete! So, if they do not yet understand the nature of gravity itself, how then can they claim to be able to recognize the waves that gravity supposedly emits? The experts cannot even answer the simple question: Specifically, what is it that is waving? What is waving back and forth?
    Here is something else the reports fail to mention: The gravity waves that are actually detectable are those associated with the turbulence in the aether flow (the space medium streaming through our Solar System). Australian physicist Reginald T. Cahill has been examining these aether-flow waves for over 15 years. –CR (2016 May)
Updated 2016 June. See Comment #19


(2016 Jan 6) Now published:
Olbers’ Paradox Resolved for the Infinite Non-Expanding Universe
, American Journal of Astronomy & Astrophysics Vol.4, No.1, (2016 January). Abstract & download links.
Excerpts:
● “The man accredited with discovering universe expansion did not believe that the universe was expanding. Hubble was convinced that the key evidence, the cosmic redshift, was caused by some other factor, something more fundamental than mere expansion.”
● “With the recent discovery of a new cosmic-redshift mechanism, and its theoretical validation, it turns out that Hubble was right.”
● Explains how “an infinite, non-expanding, perpetually regenerating universe" is able to predict a dark night sky.


Press Release (2015 Oct 15):
The Big Bang is no longer a viable hypothesis !

(2016 June) FREE DOWNLOAD:
"DSSU Validated by Redshift Theory and Structural Evidence", Physics Essays, Vol.28, No.4, p455-473 (2015 Dec) —Delivers the coup de grâce to the Big Bang. Abstract & Links.
Both Reviewers enthusiastically endorsed this "well-written and incisive article."
 


(2015-Oct 6) Webpage added for article Cosmic-Redshift Distance Law Without c Without H: Comments & Links  Describes the challenge of getting DSSU papers published.
 


(2015 Aug 20:) Allow me to extend a sincere "Thank You" for the many invitations to join social media and professional networks. Unfortunately I must decline. It’s simply a matter of precious time —there is just too little of it. All my available time is taken up by research, writing, and website maintenance —in fact, two more web domains have been purchased. It is all being done for the purpose of providing the educated and interested public with the ammunition to refute and replace the utterly bankrupt big-bang Worldview. (However, not to give the impression of a total recluse, seclusionist, or misanthrope, I do manage to squeeze in a few delightful hours of ballroom dancing every week or two.) –CR
 


(2015 Aug:) Brief update on the status of the neutrino and its adaptation into the DSSU particle theory. See Section 5 of the Discussion webpage for the article: The Fundamental Process of Energy

(2015 Aug:) The article The Universe Is Infinite (Part 1) has been revised.

(2015 July:) Comments and questions from a 14-year old student.
 


RECENT RESEARCH PAPERS:

"The Nature of Gravitational Collapse"
–Published in American Journal of Astronomy & Astrophysics. ( Abstract and Links.)
(Note, there is a typo in AJA&A posted version in the Fig-10 caption. It should read: … acceleration is proportional to 1/r2.)
-------------------------
"Olbers’ Paradox Resolved for the Infinite Non-Expanding Universe" –Published in American Journal of Astronomy & Astrophysics. ( Abstract & download links.)
-------------------------
"DSSU Validated by Redshift Theory and Structural Evidence" published in Physics Essays, Vol.28, No.4, p455-473 (2015 Dec). Abstract.
Both Reviewers enthusiastically endorsed this "well-written and incisive article."
-------------------------
Published in the American Journal of Astronomy & Astrophysics, AJAA, Vol.3, No.2, 2015:
Ellipticity, Its Origin & Progression in Comoving Galaxies  
Local  high-resolution PDF.

HIGHLIGHTS:
• Provides the first-ever natural explanation for the cause of the elliptical shape of nonrotating galaxies
• Retains the foundation premise of all modern cosmology but rejects the absurd concept of whole-universe expansion
• Takes full advantage of the universe’s cosmic cellular structure and exploits the DSSU theory of unified gravity domains
• Amazingly, the mechanism that stretches galaxies turns out to be the very same mechanism that causes the cosmic spectral redshift!


Published Dec 2014 in the American Journal of Astronomy & Astrophysics:

"Cosmic Redshift in the Nonexpanding Cellular Universe” —details the actual causal mechanism. Abstract.
Preprint with larger images.
HIGHLIGHTS:
• Entirely new concept for cosmic redshift mechanism;
• Retains the foundation premise of all modern cosmology;
• But does not require whole-universe expansion;
• A redshift based on the DSSU theory of unified gravity & cosmic cellular structure;
• Remarkable agreement with independently established redshift distances.



Higgs Boson Discovered?
After 50 long years of searching, Physicists claim to have detected the Higgs boson, the "particle" that ostensibly bestows the property of mass on all other such particles. Is it now time to celebrate? … Definitely not.
   The question now is this: If the Higgs ‘particle’ is the giver of mass to all other particles, what then gives the Higgs itself its mass?! (Yes, the newly discovered particle has mass, lots of it!) A difficult and embarrassing question indeed. It is like asking:
If God created everything, then who, or what, created God?
   While physicists think they have solved the mass problem, the reality is that they have unwittingly exposed an even bigger problem —the riddle of “First Cause”.
 

Glossary of Terms used in Cosmology and Astrophysics with particular emphasis on DSSU theory.
(Opens in separate Window or Tab)

GENERAL INTEREST ARTICLES:

Mysteries & Paradoxes that Plague Standard Cosmology  (Updated 2015-7)

Cosmology Crisis of 1998 (Revised 2015-5)

Critique of Conventional Cosmology ... comments relating to the 'preposterous' expanding-universe paradigm.
Bafflement —the remarkable admission of a physicist.
The Cosmology Debate That Never Happened   —During the 20th century there was a decades-long debate: The cataclysmic expanding universe VS the stable expanding universe. But there has never been a debate of the dynamic expanding universe VS the dynamic non-expanding universe. (Posted 2011 Oct)

Models of the Universe —Historical, Expanding, and Cellular universes. INCLUDES A USEFUL TABLE FOR COMPARING THEORIES.

The Universe Is Infinite (Part 1) —overcoming a "central" problem of cosmology theories.

The Universe Is Infinite (Part 2) —an explanation of how the universe can always have existed and will always exist.

DSSU, The Non-Expanding Universe: Structure, Redshift, Distance —A long sought-after goal of astrophysicists has been a formulation of cosmic distance that is independent of the speed of light. The goal has now been achieved. The present Paper details the surprisingly simple distance expression and its validating agreement with Supernova data.

Why Copernicus Did Not Need a Force of Gravity —Explores the question of why no one, except Newton, invoked a force. (Posted April, 2011)

Gravity and Lambda —A Story of Opposites (.htm) —A story of opposites in harmony. Key differences between the Conventional Cosmology and the New Cosmology are presented.

Dynamic Cosmic Cell —The Structural Component of the DSSU —Animated image and discussion of the self-sustaining, self-balancing system.

Why Einstein Did Not Receive the Nobel Prize for His Theory of Relativity —“By 1922 Einstein had been nominated about fifty times —most were for his relativity theories.”


Questions & Answers & Comments
 

COSMOLOGY ARTICLES, etc:

(2016 June) FREE DOWNLOAD details:
DSSU Validated by Redshift Theory and Structural Evidence, Physics Essays, Vol.28, No.4, p455-473 (2015 Dec) —Delivers the coup de grâce to the Big Bang. Abstract & Links.
Both Reviewers enthusiastically endorsed this "well-written and incisive article."


The Dynamic Steady State Universe.
This work brings together the main pieces of the cosmic puzzle in a step-by-step construction of the Natural Universe. Published in Physics Essays Vol.27 No.2 (2014 June issue) (PDF download)  "... the arguments are well-made. The article is competent, enjoyable and readable." —Reviewer for Physics Essays Journal


Revolutionary:
Olbers’ Paradox Resolved for the Infinite Non-Expanding Universe
, American Journal of Astronomy & Astrophysics Vol.4, No.1, (2016 January). Abstract & download links.
Excerpts:
● “The man accredited with discovering universe expansion did not believe that the universe was expanding. Hubble was convinced that the key evidence, the cosmic redshift, was caused by some other factor, something more fundamental than mere expansion.”
● “With the recent discovery of a new cosmic-redshift mechanism, and its theoretical validation, it turns out that Hubble was right.”


"Cosmic Redshift in the Nonexpanding Cellular Universe" (Journal pdf) —details the actual causal mechanism. Published in the American Journal of Astronomy & Astrophysics, Vol.2, No.5 (2014) Abstract.
Local copy with quality images: (Preprint pdf).
HIGHLIGHTS:
• Entirely new concept for cosmic redshift mechanism;
• Retains the foundation premise of all modern cosmology;
• But does not require whole-universe expansion;
• A redshift based on the DSSU theory of unified gravity & cosmic cellular structure;
• Remarkable agreement with independently established redshift distances.

The Cosmology Debate That Never Happened
What historians call "the greatest cosmological debate in history” was between TWO  expanding universes —two hypothetical models that share the same, I repeat, the same foundational property! If one is to claim some great clash of ideas (let alone the "greatest") then surely there must exist some deep dividing difference! (Posted 2011 Oct)

The Case for a Cellular Universe
—the Story of a Baffling Omission in Modern Cosmology    (Revised 2015)
 

Large-Scale Structure of the Dynamic Steady State Universe published in the American Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Vol.4, No.6, 2016, pp.65-77. Astract and Links.
Highlights:
■ Presents the first 2 of the 4 main postulates that define the DSSU.
■ Space-medium expansion and contraction are perpetually held in balance, thus ensuring a non-expanding universe.
■ Explains how the two dynamic processes of the DSSU’s space medium sustain the cellular structure responsible for the pattern of matter distribution in our Universe.

Cosmic-Redshift Distance Law Without c Without H Comments & Links Simplifying the redshift-distance formula by removing the speed-of-light constant and the Hubble parameter —while maintaining agreement with observational evidence.
 

DSSU Theory:

DSSU Validated by Redshift Theory and Structural Evidence, Physics Essays, Vol.28, No.4, p455-473 (2015 Dec) —Delivers the coup de grâce to the Big Bang. Abstract & Links.
Both Reviewers enthusiastically endorsed this "well-written and incisive article."



Theoretical Foundation and Pillars of the DSSU (Introduction) —This introductory essay gives a thematic tour of historical and modern universes culminating with the Natural Universe.

Currently undergoing revision and updating: Theoretical Foundation and Pillars of the Dynamic Steady State Universe (pdf) —The first complete presentation of all four postulates of DSSU theory. A powerful paper that resolves the cause-of-causes paradox, explains the non-independent nature of time, and reveals the 'supreme advantage'. It includes a concise comparison with standard cosmology focusing on real-world viability.
Supplementary Discussion: The Primary Process

 


The Fundamental Process of Energy —A Qualitative Unification of Energy, Mass, and Gravity. (Abstract & Reviews & Links) … This article reveals the secret behind photon confinement. (Contains only a bare minimum of mathematics and mainly in one of the 14 sections.)
PART 1 published in Infinite Energy Magazine Issue #113 (Jan/Feb 2014)
PART 2 published in Infinite Energy Magazine    Issue #114 (Mar/Apr 2014)

Headlined as:
A "Conceptual Unification of Energy, Mass and Gravity"



Dynamic Cosmic Cell —The Structural Component of the DSSU —Animated image and discussion of the self-sustaining, self-balancing system.

Unified Gravitation Cells of the DSSU —Constructing the Universe with Cosmic Gravity Cells

Space Flow Equations and Expansion-Contraction Rates (pdf) —This paper explores the mathematical aspects of the two space postulates of DSSU theory —and uncovers some profound consequences.
 

ARTICLES on AETHER:

Documentary movie footage in which Einstein states, "There exists an aether"
High resolution .mpg video.
Low resolution .wmv video.


The Aether Experiments and the Impact on Cosmology —The aether has been detected at least 6 times in recent history. Its most recent "re-discovery", in 2001, led to the long-sought causal mechanism of gravity —a discovery which, in turn, is revolutionizing cosmology.

Michelson-Morley and the Story of the Aether Theory —Richard Milton's analysis of the historical details involving the misrepresentation, bias, and cover-up that hampered the Aether theory.

The History of the Aether Theory —The historic development of the aether as a scientific theory of space itself. What started as the "fifth element" of Antiquity becomes molded by theoretical constraints and experimental evidence into the dual-dynamic sub-quantum medium —the Essence of the Universe. (Updated 2016-2)

Relativity of Time in the Aether-Space of the DSSU —How intrinsic time and relative time are related.

DSSU Relativity –The Lorentz Transformations Applied to Aether-Space —Ranzan
Reprinted by permission of Physics Essays Publication, Physics  Essays Vol.23, No.3, p520. (2010). ABSTRACT

The Physical Nature of Length Contraction —the DSSU Theory of Length Contraction Induced by Absolute Motion.
An easy to follow examination of how the mode by which matter is “conducted” through luminiferous aether causes the matter to contract. A simple derivation of the mathematical expression for this physical phenomenon is presented. There is also a brief discussion of relevant historical aspects and of nonphysical length contraction.
Reviewer's comments: “This is amazing …”  “The paper is interesting …” –Applied Physics Research reviewer. Published in Applied Physics Research journal Vol.5, No.1 (2013 Feb).

Contradiction Divides Two Aether Theories —An exploration into the three parts of the speed-of-light postulate.
Reprinted by permission of PEP, from  Physics Essays Journal (Vol 24, No.3, Sept, 2011) ... ABSTRACT

Basic - level mathematical and graphical exploration of dynamic aether flow: PDF

Here is an external webpage with an extensive list of research papers on the aether-drift experiments, and the larger question of energy in space.

DSSU RESEARCH PAPERS:

DSSU Cosmic Redshift-Distance Relation (htm) —Converting the cosmic redshift into distance for our Cellular Universe using a simple and elegant equation.

Large Scale Structure of the Dynamic Steady State Universe (pdf)  How a dual-dynamic space medium sustains the cellular structure (published in AJAA in 2016).
  —Presents the postulates and implications of regional space-medium expansion and contraction.

Cosmic-Scale Structural Features Explained (pdf) (Chapter 2 of original DSSU Manuscript)
—The Spacing of Clusters
—Sheets of Galaxies
—Supernodes
—Right-angled Walls of Galaxies.


The Cosmic Background Radiation in the DSSU —The natural explanation of the microwave background radiation applicable to the natural Cellular Universe.

Ellipticity, Its Origin & Progression in Comoving GalaxiesAmerican Journal of Astronomy & Astrophysics, AJAA, Vol.3, No.2, 2015.
Local  high-resolution PDF.
HTML version available from AJAA here.

GRAVITY:

"The Nature of Gravitational Collapse"
–Published in American Journal of Astronomy & Astrophysics Vol.4, No.2, 2016, pp.15-33. (Abstract and Links.)
(Note, there is a typo in AJA&A posted version in the Fig-10 caption. It should read: … acceleration is proportional to 1/r2.)



The Processes of Gravitation –The Cause and Mechanism of Gravitation by C. Ranzan –A revolutionary paper on gravity published in the Journal of Modern Physics and Applications Vol.2014:3  (2014).
( Abstract & Reviews & Links. Includes link to hi-resolution PDF) "Revolutionary".



Why Copernicus Did Not Need a Force of Gravity —Explores the question of why no one, except Newton, invoked a force. (Rev 2011-9)

First ever, journal-published paper featuring the DSSU:
The Story of Gravity and Lambda –How the Theory of Heraclitus Solved the Dark Matter Mystery –Ranzan

Reprinted by permission of PEP, from Physics Essays, Vol 23, No1, p75-87 (2010 Mar). ABSTRACT
This is the cure for the fallacious belief in cosmic-scale Dark Matter.

The Story of Gravity and Lambda –How the Theory of Heraclitus Solved the Dark Matter Mystery (Color version) Ranzan Considered "an excellent contribution to the [PE journal]" --professional reviewer.

Unified Gravitation Cells of the DSSU —Constructing the Universe with Cosmic Gravity Cells

 

RELATIVITY ARTICLES:

Why Einstein Did Not Receive the Nobel Prize for His Theory of Relativity (●Abstract ●Links ●Excerpts ●Extras) —“By 1922 Einstein had been nominated about fifty times —most were for his relativity theories.”

Einstein’s Simple Mathematical Trick –and the Illusion of a Constant Speed of Light  (Abridged version with links to Journal-published version. Posted July 2013)

Extended Relativity –Exploiting the Loopholes in Einstein's Relativity. A Logical extension of special relativity. Reprinted by permission of PEP, from Physics Essays Vol.25, No.3 (2012 Sept).
Abstract & Links & Reviews


The Three Components of the Speed-of-Light Postulate.  Published in Physics Essays journal Vol.26,No.1 (2013 March)
Local copy: The Three Components of the Speed-of-Light Postulate (pdf) Absolute vs relative. Variance vs invariance. Another instance of the Heraclitian "Harmony of Opposites." (Reprinted by permission of PEP, from Physics Essays, Vol.26, No.1, 2013).

Relativity of Time in the Aether Medium of the DSSU —Absolute Motion and Intrinsic Time

Resolving a Paradox in Special Relativity –Absolute Motion and the Unified Doppler Equation.
(Posted 2011, July). Reprinted by permission of PEP, from Physics  Essays Vol.23, No.4, p594 (2010). ABSTRACT

How DSSU Relativity Resolves the Speed Paradox (Introductory Discussion)   —Absolute Motion Resolves a (speed) Paradox in Einstein’s Special Relativity. (Supplementary Discussion)

DSSU Relativity –The Lorentz Transformations Applied to Aether-Space (Posted 2011, July). Reprinted by permission of Physics Essays Publication, Physics  Essays Vol.23, No.3, p520. (2010). ABSTRACT

The Key that Extends Einstein’s Relativity (Part 1) —Response to a reviewer critical of DSSU aether-space relativity
The Key that Extends Einstein’s Relativity (Part 2) —How to convert abstract-space equations into aether-space equations

Restoring the Physical Meaning of Energy
Published in Applied Physics Research journal Vol.5, No.2 (2013 May).
LOCAL COPY: Restoring the Physical Meaning of Energy —distinguishing between the apparent energy and the real energy of moving mass.
 

An Open Letter to the Scientific Community
(Published in New Scientist, May 22, 2004)

"The big bang today relies on a growing number of hypothetical entities, things that we have never observed-- inflation, dark matter and dark energy are the most prominent examples. Without them, there would be a fatal contradiction between the observations made by astronomers and the predictions of the big bang theory. In no other field of physics would this continual recourse to new hypothetical objects be accepted as a way of bridging the gap between theory and observation. It would, at the least, raise serious questions about the validity of the underlying theory. ..."  continues ...
 

A devastating Declaration of opposition to Big Bang cosmology signed by more than 400 Researchers.

For the full text click on:
CosmologyStatement.org or alternate site.

INTELLECTUAL FREEDOM:
This website is mainly concerned with revisionism in cosmology. Those of us involved in replacing the unnatural expanding-universe paradigm are aware of the difficulties involved.
   However, other revisionists have unimaginable difficulties. Consider the ongoing persecution of revisionists in other fields of intellectual pursuit: 
"It makes you wonder —about the immense effort being made by State and State-sponsored organizations with budgets of tens of millions of dollars and thousands of employees and associates to smother and punish these few men and women. Every punishing instrument imaginable is used, every vicious slander conceivable, every flagrant and pervasive form of censorship that law allows, including the imprisonment of simple writers for thought crimes against the State. ... Makes you wonder."Bradley R. Smith (2011)


"Discussing truth is so controversial, so dangerous … In most of the world it is simply illegal.” Gordon Duff, Senior Editor, Veterans Today (2011)

DEDICATION: This website is solemnly dedicated to those individuals who have conducted research in their chosen field and have informed others of their inquiries and suffered the consequences when subpoenaed by the Inquisition or some variant thereof. The dedication extends to those individuals currently imprisoned, and those facing trial and persecution simply for exercising their basic human right of freedom of expression supposedly granted to them under the UN Charter of Human Rights.
"Every year, hundreds of writers and other literary professionals around the world are imprisoned, prosecuted, persecuted, attacked, threatened, forced into exile or even murdered as a result of their work."

ALSO: Be aware of the continuing threat to our precious freedom of expression on the Internet. The threat is serious and relentless. It is described as “… the formal effort to mimic Communist China’s system of Internet censorship.” See The Secret Behind SOPA  (2012-Jan). Update.
More information on threats to internet freedom: https://battleforthenet.com/


Reporter-journalist Arthur Topham, Canadian victim of the Inquisition, arrested (2012) for posting his research.
“Arthur Topham faces prison time for daring to speak his mind on his own website, as he faces criminal charges under Canada’s hate crimes legislation contained in Section 318 - 320 of the criminal code.” –Rights and Freedoms Bulletin Issue No. 204 Feb 7, 2015.
VERDICT: Arthur Topham found “guilty” AND “not guilty” of hate speech by a brain-dead jury!
 –Dr. James Sears, reporting in “The world’s Largest Anti-Marxist Publication” (Issue 2015 December, http://www.yourwardnews.com/backissues.html)
2016 Update: Panel Discussion on The Trial of Arthur Topham


Free-speech crusader Bill Whatcott defies British Colombia Human Rights Tribunal efforts to impose gender language tyranny

“I have no intention on wasting money on a lawyer for the Morgane Oger vs Bill Whatcott case, as human rights tribunals are kangaroo courts and the odds of … getting justice in these biased tribunals is next to zero.” –2017 June (www.freenorthamerica.ca …)



The struggle for freedom and justice in Canada lost its greatest champion, its most dedicated defender. On March 11, 2013, Douglas Christie passed away.



British Maverick Psychologist jailed for publishing his research. … “The ambivalence of librarians getting writers imprisoned quite defies comprehension.” –Simon Sheppard (2013)



The repression of free speech in Canada has degenerated to the point where …

■ Freedom advocates, such as Marc Lemire, are censured for merely expressing their reasoned opinions. Freedomsite, whose motto is “Fighting for freedom against the censorship enforcers”, documents the official persecution.
■ A tenured professor has lost his position for revealing his research and views on history. This is unprecedented. Professor Anthony J. Hall at the University of Lethbridge, Alberta, has been suspended (2016 October 5) without pay.
“… Any thinking person should recognize that there is something deeply wrong when a history professor is persecuted for saying we should be able to examine our history.” –Monika Schaefer 2017
■ A publisher/editor, for expressing his reality-based views, has been denied postal services. Dr. James Sears, publisher and editor of Your Ward News was stripped of Canada Post Mail Service by government order (2016 June).
■ A violin teacher and truth revealer, Monika Schaefer, for posting a video (an apology to her dead mother), has been attacked by various so-called community leaders.

The treatment of violinist Monika Schaefer signals the end of our free and democratic society.” –The American Herald Tribune, 2016 Sept

American Speaker Arrested in Canada for the textual material on his iPad
—2017 June 24
While the invasion continues, the “guardians” of the nation are busy suppressing the freedom of expression: going after deemed violations in what people think and write and say.
 


The Continuing Struggle for Freedom

A ray of hope in the ongoing struggle for freedom. Populist and nationalist movements around the world are gaining ascendancy over the New World Order’s effort to establish global governance and impose tyrannical control over every last square meter of the Earth’s surface. –The Barnes Review Vol.23 No.1 (2017 Jan p70)


For more on Freedom (and Objectivism),
visit: Just Right Media
(Website: http://www.justrightmedia.org)



... about the author ...


© Copyright 2005-2017 by
Conrad RanzanDSSU Research
All Rights Reserved
  For information regarding permission to reproduce selected material herein, please contact:

D S S U  Research
Niagara Falls, Canada
16th year on the Internet.
Most recent update:
2017 Oct 15

Visits since mid-2010 : Hit Counter

2017-10-15

Cosmology Crisis of 1998

C. Ranzan

 

 Contents:
1   The Year the Standard Big Bang Model Failed
2   Model Patching
3   Standard Cosmology Response
4   The Patch
5   The Crisis on a Fundamental Level
6   Harmonious Match
7   Historical Roots of the CrisisI
8   Resolution of the Crisis

 



Breakthrough of the Year. ...
Scientists and philosophers will be grappling with the implications for years to come.

 
Science magazine 1998

1   The Year the Standard Big Bang Model Failed

In 1998 one of the biggest science news story in decades unfolded. In 1998 the generally accepted theory of the universe failed. The dramatic events were almost immediately detailed in a PBS NOVA science program; and four years later (in 2002) it was a televised feature story on the news program 60 Minutes. To convey the unexpected nature of the discovery the 60 Minutes story compared it to casually tossing your car keys into the air and finding that they don’t fall back down! It was a memorable demonstration of a puzzlement confronting Big Bang cosmology. Here was a situation that had caught professional physicists off guard. The New York Times (January 1, 2002) reported the response to the discovery from one such expert:
 

 

It’s definitely the strangest experimental finding since I’ve been in physics,
–Dr. Edward Witten of the Institute for Advanced Studies in Princeton

 

Astronomers use a certain class of supernovae in a sophisticated technique to measure cosmic distance. The class members serve as "standard candles" for measuring and calibrating extraordinary cosmic distances. Referred to as Type 1a, these extremely massive exploding stars have a known absolute brightness and a characteristic brightness profile, making the explosion event ideal for determining distance independent of the customary redshift method. The brightness profile identifies an astronomical object as Type 1a. A comparison between its theoretically known brightness and the apparent brightness makes it possible to estimate its distance.
    By 1998 researchers had perfected the method.  And in that year two independent teams discovered that the universe of their authoritative textbooks —the universe they thought they understood— was not behaving the way it is supposed to. At first it seemed too incredible to be believed. After an exhaustive check ruled out potential errors, they eventually accepted the conclusion coded in the data. The consensus was that the few dozen Supernovae tested were 20 to 25 percent farther away than expected. Now it may not seem like much, roughly a 1/4 fractional difference, but in terms of absolute distance we are talking about a three-billion-lightyear discrepancy (as determined with the DSSU redshift-distance equation).
   The astronomer-physicists reluctantly concluded that their Big Bang (BB) universe is not slowing down its expansion as had been predicted, but rather it appears to be expanding at an ever faster rate!
   The Big Bang universe was now accelerating! Or so it was believed.

 

The fact that the universe is speeding up might be the biggest mystery in all of science. –Michael Turner, University of Chicago (Science Update, July 3 2003)

 

What a predicament. An embarrassing contradiction of standard theory. And there was no explanation (at least momentarily) as to why the universe seems to be speeding up, seems to be in acceleration mode. And so, 1998 was a crisis year for BB cosmology.
 

In the crisis year of 1998  astronomers found to their amazement that the predicted distance (bottom curve) of Supernova stars did not agree with their actual distance (as measured be methods independent of their redshift). The Supernovae were actually about 25 percent farther away. If astrophysicists had recognize the fundamental fact that the real Universe is structured into repeating regions, that it has a grand-scale cellular structure, then they would have found a remarkable agreement between measured distance and predicted distance (upper curve). Their failure to recognize this fact, embodied in the simple, elegant and valid, DSSU formulation (top equation), serves to further compound the crisis. (300Mly is the size of each cosmic cell measured in million lightyears. zcc is the redshift across one cosmic cell. Redshift index spanned by this graph is from 0 to 10.)
 

2  Model Patching

Needless to say, BB proponents don’t like to call the failure of their cherished model “a crisis” —too suggestive of a pending disaster. The BB model, it should be pointed out, has struggled, and survived, through more than three-quarters of a century. It survived the attacks from the traditional Steady State models and also the Quasi Steady State model. In hindsight, it should have died long ago but its faithful devotees keep coming up with one or another life-supporting patch. For instance, some years ago when someone checked the numbers, an embarrassing mismatch was uncovered: The universe was predicted to be considerably younger than many of the objects it contains. The universe was supposed to be10 billion years old while its oldest known stars were estimated to be about 14 billion years old! [*] [**]  A patch was needed and quickly adopted —something called inflation. Now almost everyone knows the meaning of monetary inflation, but what is the meaning of big bang inflation? ... Well, instead of just an ordinary big bang, this inflation magically turns it into a supersonic big bang. Inflation is the hypothesized super-fast (hyper-lightspeed-fast) expansion of space, a brief birthing phase that launched the main Big Bang event. But keeping in mind the original purpose, wouldn’t a universe that grew faster be a younger universe? Wouldn’t this make the age discrepancy worse instead better? The experts assured us the explanation is counterintuitive and so the BB theory survived the age-of the-universe problem.

   Then there was the horizon problem. It deals with the question of why the temperature of the distant-and-early universe, which astronomers observe in opposite directions, is so uniform. Regions that are at opposite ends of the visible universe and unrelated with respect to cause and effect inexplicably have identical energy states! To solve the horizon problem, the inflation patch was adjusted and re-applied. Professor Edward Wright provides a detailed explanation, aimed at the initiated, which may be helpful in gaining understanding (but no promises).
   The patched-up model of the 1970s and 1980s became known as the inflationary BB model.

   Jumping ahead to the year 1998, we find the BB model confronted with the formidable problem discussed earlier. Distant supernovae were found to be farther away than their redshifts suggest. As highlighted in the graph, above, their actual distance is significantly greater than what had been predicted. And since prediction is based on the redshift-versus-distance equation, the equation had to be wrong.
   Faced with the unexpected mismatch between redshift and distance of their 1a-supernova standard candles, what do you think the experts did? ... Exactly, a new patch was cooked-up before you could say, “your expanding-universe premise is wrong, try a new model.” 

References:
* Timothy Ferris, The Whole Shebang, p36.
** E. Wright, www.astro.ucla.edu/~wright/age.html

3   Standard Cosmology Response

The response of astrophysicists was predictable. Instead of recognizing that the Universe we live in is cellular and not expanding, they clung to the expansion-of-the-whole-universe doctrine. Instead of thinking outside the box and notice an infinity of cosmic bubbles, they reaffirmed their faith in universal expansion. Instead of adopting the simple and elegant cellular formulation (as expressed in the upper curve of the graph) and thereby immediately resolving the crisis; they declared that the expansion of the universe is accelerating. The universe is supposedly getting bigger and bigger, faster and faster.
   Did the experts ask themselves, is the acceleration something real? or is it only apparent? ... Maybe they did. Maybe some concluded that fundamental revisions were needed. And there is no question of the fact that some of the most brilliant and dedicated minds on Earth are involved in the quest for understanding. However, meaningful revisionism is rarely tolerated; the official paradigm rules; whatever the field of enquiry, this is the way it is. And in the field of cosmology, proposing a foundational change becomes unappealing to career astro-researchers.
  
   And so, in 1998 astronomers and physicists convinced themselves that the universe is accelerating. But with acceleration, a new mystery emerged. ... In addition to the fundamental question of why the universe is expanding in the first place, now there is the utterly baffling mystery of why it is expanding with a vengeance.

 

In other ways this new dark universe [dark because acceleration leads to dilution which leads to darkness] is utterly baffling, a road map to new mysteries. Dr. Marc Davis, a cosmologist at the University of California at Berkeley, called it ‘a universe chock full of exotics that don’t make sense to anybody.’
–Dennis Overbye (The New York Times July 23, 2002)

 

No doubt, it must be deeply discouraging when the correspondence between evidence and theory “doesn’t make sense to anybody.”

4   The Patch

In the aftermath of the 1998 discovery, as may be well imagined, a host of big bang variants were proposed and presented in scientific circles. The cause of acceleration was of foremost concern as well as reformulating, or adjusting, relevant equations.

   For the theoretical cause of acceleration, the experts proposed that the universe was being subjected to a mysterious dark energy that expands space and causes an increase in the rate of expansion of the universe. They’re not sure if it is the Lambda force (the one that Einstein introduced into his universe model in 1917) or if it is another bout of inflation —a re-inflation phase. But to be fair, they haven’t ruled out a force called Quintessence that may be responsible for the apparent exponential growth of the universe.

   As for the practical application of the patch: it simply meant re-evaluating an adjustable factor in the BB equation. An important parameter known as the matter density parameter, Ωo, was given a new value. As I said earlier there was no fundamental change in the model; notably the same equation was used. The original value of Omega, Ωo, was 1.0 (unity), the new value was anywhere between 0.25 and 0.35. By selecting the appropriate Omega value, astrophysicists are able to position the curve almost anywhere they want on a graph of distance (similar to the graph shown above). By selecting the appropriate Omega value, the curve representing the BB theory can always be made to agree with the data. Almost like magic. And so, with the judicious choice of numerical factors, the crisis seemingly disappears.
 

5   The Crisis on a Fundamental Level

 In practical terms, the BB model is much like the Ptolemaic model; with the proper adjustment of variables, it all seems to work. The Ptolemaic model was able to account for the observed motions of the planets of the Solar system with the help of various geometric contrivances to modify the predicted orbital trajectories. Similarly, the BB model is able to account for the apparent "motions" of the observable universe, all with the help of about 12 parameters, which, according to astronomer and physicist Mark Whittle, “… accurately measure the properties of the Universe [and] provide a stunning degree of agreement and coherence.”[*] Clearly, the Ptolemaic and BB models work well in an empirical way.

The problem, however, is fundamental. While both models may be praiseworthy as intricate reflections of appearances, neither model is a representation of reality. The central error of the Ptolemaic system is placing the Earth at the center of the universe; and for the BB system the central error is universal expansion and its extrapolation to whole-cosmos expansion.
    Let us examine the implications for the cosmic distance formulation.

Here are the key inputs used for the cosmic-redshift method of determining reception distance under BB rules:

1) Z is the redshift index. It is the essential and primary value measured by astronomers. This is the actual value that varies with distance.
2) Ho is the Hubble constant. It is a measure of the rate of expansion of space itself —a rate applicable to the present era of the evolving BB universe. Although it is considered a constant, it varies with location.
3) H is the Hubble parameter (not to be confused with the Hubble constant). It represents the rate of space expansion as a function of the age of the BB universe. That is, it varies with evolutionary time.
4) Ω, Omega, is the ratio of the average density of the total mass-and-energy present in the universe compared to the total matter density required for the universe to achieve a critical balance, a balance that will just prevent it from collapsing in on itself. In its simplest form:

Ω = (Actual density of matter) / (Critical density of matter).

There are a number of problems associated with the Hubble constant; some relate to the BB others relate to the real Universe.
    One is the long-standing problem of determining an accurate value. Astronomers have come to recognize that the rate of expansion of space varies in different parts of the universe. With such regional variation it is hard to pin down a precise "constant" value. In practice, an estimated average value is used for the BB cosmic distance equation.
    A deeper concern with profound implications: If the distance equation is to include a measure for the expansion of space, it should also have a measure for the contraction of space. As Einstein well understood when he referred to "contractile" gravity, the gravitational effect tends to contract, or shrink, space. If one includes both factors, a factor for expansion and another for contraction, that is, one to take care of the space expanded within cosmic voids, the other to take care of the space contracted in and around the great galaxy clusters (as well as isolated field galaxies), then one will find a marvelous balance. One will find that, although space expands (albeit regionally) the universe does not expand. If, however, the "contraction" effect is not recognized, and not taken into account, the result must be an out-of-balance expanding cosmos. Such oversight leads to the prediction of a big-bang-type universe.

Another serious problem is that the Hubble constant is based on a flawed interpretation of the cosmic redshift. The traditional interpretation of the cause of redshift is that distant galaxies are receding with the space vacuum in which they are embedded. This produces a Doppler effect on the galactic light that is eventually received on Earth. It is, according to this interpretation, simply a measure of the increase of the intervening space (vacuum) between our galaxy and the distant galaxy. It is usually expressed as the rate that a distance of 1 million light years, a tiny portion of the total distance, increases in one second of time. As an example, 1Mly typically expands by 15 to 20 kilometers per second. The key point is that the cosmic redshift is taken to be a Doppler effect. The problem is, in the real Universe, galaxies are not receding; there is no Hubble-based Doppler effect.
    What actually causes the cosmic redshift is a simple recently-discovered process called velocity-differential redshifting. It is amazing that in their search among countless varieties of tired-light mechanisms theorists had somehow overlooked this particular, rather self-evident, process.[**]  Significantly, the velocity-differential redshift is applicable to both types of cosmic regions —those where the vacuum is expanding and also where the vacuum is contracting.
    On the cosmic scale of distances the Hubble constant is irrelevant. Notice, it does not appear in the Cellular universe cosmic-distance equation:

.

Turning to the Omega parameter, in order to make the distance equation fit the observations (such as those made by the Supernova Cosmology Project and the High-Z Supernova Search and reported in 1998), the density of all matter has to be about 0.30 as a decimal fraction of critical density (for a balanced expanding universe). What is needed is for Omegao to be equal to 0.30:

Ωo ≈ (0.30) / (1.0) .

But all the visible and detectable matter of the universe yields a density that is only about 0.02 as a fraction of critical density. This means that the balance of the fraction, or 0.28, must consist of some unknown kind of matter! Its only known characteristic is that of having a gravitational nature.

,

Ωo ≈ (0.02 + 0.28) / (1.0) = 0.30 .

To summarize, to make the distance graph fit properly, Ωo must be about 0.30; but because visible-and-detectable matter only contributes a tiny 0.02 proportion, a large proportional amount of "dark matter" has to be invented.
    There is, however, no evidence, none whatsoever, that this mysterious dark stuff exists.
    Since it serves no useful purpose for an intrinsically cellular universe, Omega does not appear in the DSSU cosmic-distance formula.
    What about the energy of the vacuum? … The term representing the vacuum energy is included in the denominator, and often explicitly expressed as:

.

In the BB universe, the vacuum energy overwhelmingly dominates. It is essentially what keeps the BB from collapsing. And herein lies the simplified explanation for acceleration. As the universe expands there is ever more space, more vacuum, and more vacuum energy; ΩVACUUM increases. However, ΩMATTER does not increase; the matter content of the universe remains constant. Obviously, Ωo gets smaller and smaller; which, in turn, means the BB distance curve tends higher and higher. The result is, essentially, a runaway effect —the acceleration effect.

In contrast, the DSSU maintains the vacuum energy in harmonious balance with all the other forms of energy.

The differences in cosmologies are fundamental; and so are the consequences.

References:
* M. Whittle, 2008. Cosmology: The History and Nature of Our Universe (The Teaching Co.) Lecture 26, Guidebook p141]

** C. Ranzan, (2014) Cosmic Redshift in the Nonexpanding Cellular Universe: Velocity-Differential Theory of Cosmic Redshift, American Journal of Astronomy & Astrophysics  Vol.2, No.5, 2014, pp.47-60. Doi: 10.11648/j.ajaa.20140205.11 (Abstract & links)

 6   Harmonious Match

The crisis of 1998 may have been a serious blow to BB cosmology, but it represents a harmonious match between theory and evidence for the DSSU theory. The decay characteristics of the flash from Supernovae revealed their extraordinary distance —and these distances agree with the DSSU redshift-versus-distance formulation. As the upper curve in the graph indicates, what the observers found and what the equation predicts agree with each other. DSSU theory converts redshift to distance using underlying principles that are almost totally alien to standard cosmology and yet it all agrees with corroborating evidence. The theory uses principles that are outright heretical —if proclaimed in another age they would herald instant condemnation from BB orthodoxy and excommunication for the innovator. They are: (1) The universe is not expanding. (2) The universe is infinite. (3) The universe had no genesis, will have no doomsday. (4) Notwithstanding the perpetual existence of the universe, everything, every entity, in (and of) the universe, has a limited term of existence. There are continuous non-cyclical regeneration processes, thus, the overall appearance of the universe never changes. These principles match reality.

The crisis of 1998 focuses attention on an uncompromising fact: the wonderful match between theory and observation is best achieved when one’s theory holds that the universe is statically cellular structured and correspondingly non-expanding.
 

 7   Historical Roots of the Crisis

The BB model fails as a scientific theory. It has always been and always will be merely a hypothesis. Any theory that incorporates the invalid conclusion of the historic Michelson-Morley (MM) experiment: is either incomplete or just plain wrong. Einstein’s relativity theories are classified under the former —they are incomplete and physicists know they are incomplete. The Big Bang, the Steady State, and all expansion-of-the-whole-universe theories are classified under the latter —they are just plain wrong.

    The roots of the crisis in cosmology (as well as physics) trace back to the decade of the 1880s, the decade of the most historic but misunderstood experiments in physics. Professor Reginald Cahill of Flinders University in Australia has investigated and reanalyzed those pivotal experiments and maintains,

 

“... here physics took a wrong turn, a mistake of ghastly proportions, from which it has yet to recover.” [*]

 

 Albert Michelson and Edward Morley had doubted their own measurements and followed up their doubts by reporting their failure to detect the Earth’s absolute motion through space—its motion with respect to the vacuum, or the aether. This unjustified “null” interpretation was translated into the invalid conclusion that the aether does not exist. The concept of absolute space, or equivalently a space medium, was henceforth banished from mainstream physics. A ghastly mistake.
    As discussed in greater detail in various articles posted on the Cellular Universe website, the invalid conclusion of the MM experiment was incorporated into a number of important theories and many of the models of the universe that were developed during the decades after the 1880s. Of interest in the present brief discussion is that the expansion-of-the-universe model conceived by Willem de Sitter, Alexander Friedmann, and others during the 1920s perpetuated what is probably the biggest scientific blunder in modern history. In the years that followed, the fantastical creativity of Georges Lemaître transformed the simple expanding-universe model into the expanding-universe-from-an-unstable-speck-of-almost-nothing model —we call it the Big Bang hypothesis for short. It stands foremost in perpetuating the blunder.
    The roots of the crisis in the standard model, as the foregoing suggests, are deep indeed.

Reference: * R.T. Cahill. (2004) Space and Gravitation, Magister Botanicus, Vol.2, pp13-22, January 2004 (www.mountainman.com.au/process_physics/HPS20.pdf) ]

8   Resolution of the Crisis

Any meaningful resolution must necessarily include the following:

First, recognize that our Universe is not accelerating; it is not even expanding (only regional space is expanding). Face the reality that the Universe is already fully expanded —always has been and always will be.
   Second, accept what has actually been observed (by astute astronomers like Jaan Einasto); accept what has been logically deduced. Accept that the Universe has a grand scale cellular structure. Our Universe is a cellular universe.
   Third, adopt the DSSU redshift-distance formulation for calculating significant cosmic distances. The standard redshift-distance equation used by astronomers (and shown in the graph) simply will not work in a multi-cellular non-expanding universe. A logarithmic formulation must be used.
    And lastly, understand that the cosmic redshift is caused by a velocity differential effect acting on light waves as they propagate in both expanding-vacuum and contracting-vacuum regions of the cosmos.

 Viewing these requisites in the light of a bureaucratic academia coursing in the opposing direction and having the inertia of a fully loaded supertanker leads one to conclude that implementing the resolution to the 1998 crisis constitutes nothing less than a revolution in astronomy and cosmology.   □

Copyright ©  by Conrad Ranzan          E-mail:   Ranzan@CellularUniverse.org
2005; 2008 04; rev 2014 09


FURTHER READING:

For the technical details of high-Z supernovae go to: www.harvard.edu/cfa/oir/Research/supernova/HighZ.html
and www.supernova.lbl.gov/

For other aspects of the crisis in Conventional Cosmology see Mysteries and Paradoxes that Plague Standard Cosmology at www.CellularUniverse.org/MysteriesParadoxes.htm

For other views visit the website of an international symposium focusing on the crisis: www.cosmology.info/2005conference  which documents the 1st Crisis in Cosmology Conference (CCC-1), June 23-25, 2005. Here is the link to their posted Articles/Papers


Top of page           Back to DSSU Home Page

Copyright © 2005-2017
All rights reserved.
  C. Ranzan Email:
DSSUresearch@CellularUniverse.org
  Site updated: 17-04-23