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ANNOUNCEMENTS & NEW ITEMS:



(2018 December 1): Unification-of-gravity paper has been accepted for publication.

(2018 November 22): Here we go again! Latest paper rejected.
   Reason? “The paper contains too many acronyms …” How many? Hey! It contains only one well-known acronym (DSSU)!
   Although clearly written and logically presented with an easy to follow style (text, examples, mathematics, graphics), the Reviewer/Editor found the article “impenetratable [sic] and therefore impossible to referee in any detail.” … No examples, no particulars, it was just hopelessly “impossible to referee.”
   The seeking and exposing of errors is the essence of a legitimate review process. Evidently the Reviewer/Editor failed to find anything that could be considered demonstrably false, and so, found it necessary to concoct BS objections (well-known acronym for bovine excrement). What happened here was simply a fake review. –CR

(2018 September 27): New research paper on GRAVITY is currently under review. … Details the unification of all five aspects of gravity … Presents a remarkable new development in the theoretical nature of gravity waves. …



(2018 September):
Fan of DSSU comments on the “train wreck” of modern physics and on big bang mythology.



(2018 September 1): PUBLISHED: Natural Mechanism for the Generation and Emission of Extreme Energy Particles, Physics Essays Vol.31, No.3, pp.358-376 (2018).

(2018 August): Press Release (2018 August): "The mechanism driving astrophysical jets has been discovered"

(2018 July 31): What’s the delay? Yes, the usual publication frustrations:
■ Journal 1: peer reviewed, no errors in the logic, no flaws in the science, tentative ACCEPTANCE, then REJECTED !
■ Journal 2: peer reviewed, no errors in the logic, no flaws in the science, REJECTED !
   Could it be that the editors promoting fake astro-science feel threatening by the DSSU revolution? …
■ Journal 3: peer reviewed, “This is a scholarly and erudite article that deserves to be published in recognition of its tutorial nature and … the validity of the author’s proposals.” ACCEPTED for publication.
The article —Natural Mechanism for the Generation and Emission of Extreme Energy Particles— is toxic and revolutionary! Details to follow. –CR

(2018 May 24): Two papers are currently under review. Meanwhile, work has begun on a new research paper ---delving deeper into the amazing properties of aether.

(2018 April 28):
Question: What drives astrophysical jets?
What process or mechanism generates the stupendous power of those spectacular emission jets associated with certain stars? (I’m talking about gamma photons and neutrinos with energy equivalent to a million hydrogen atoms!! Imagine that much energy contained in a single gamma photon or neutrino!)
    This has been one of the biggest mysteries of the universe —one that has baffled the academic cognoscenti for decades.
    The answer will be revealed in the next research article, which is currently under review. And as the followers of DSSU theory have come to expect, the answer is perfectly natural; the concepts are straightforward, the arguments logical, the conclusions compelling, the implications profound.



(2018 February 1): Research paper Sachs-Wolfe Effect Disproof has been published in in the International Journal of Astrophysics and Space Science. Abstract & links.
Reprint (download PDF).



(2017 December 30) Press release: The Sacks-Wolfe Effect has now been disproved. … Expansion Cosmology has lost its last supporting pillar. …



(2017 December 29): Another powerful research paper … another devastating blow for the Big Bang … the "Sacks-Wolfe Effect Disproof " has been accepted for publication in an international journal for astrophysics. (Details to follow within a few days.)



(2017 December): Comment posted: Galaxy age misinterpretation. Does cosmic distant have any relationship to a galaxy’s age?



(2017 December): 2nd printing of "The Nature of Gravitational Collapse": (Details)



(2017 November): Special purchase offer on the book "Guide to the Construction of the Natural Universe": (Mail-in Order Form.)



(2017 Sept): Recently brought to my attention: DSSU material appears on The New Illuminati website accompanied by some amazing graphics.

New Illuminati –The DSSU is The New Cosmology

New Illuminati –Hidden Substrate of Reality
–History of the Aether Theory



(2017 Sept): "Assorted Comments" added to QuestionsAnswersComments.



(2017 July): The book The Nature of Gravitational Collapse is now available.
 

The Nature of Gravitational Collapse

Subtitle: How the photon, the particle of light, is responsible for mass, gravity, superneutron stars, and supermassive black holes


—Reveals the truth about stellar and supermassive black holes.


This work contains 311+ pages, 67 illustrations, references, and index. …
Second printing details (2017 November)
First printing details (Lambert Academic Publishing).



(2016 December): “So easy to understand” comment from an Australian engineer.



(2016 November): “Large-Scale Structure of the Dynamic Steady State Universe” now published in the American Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Vol.4, No.6, 2016, pp.65-77. Astract and Links to HTML and PDF.



(2016 June):
Revolutionary research paper:
The Nature of Gravitational Collapse –published in the American Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Vol.4, No.2, 2016, pp.15-33. Abstract and Links:
—Another major DSSU success, as it reveals amazing new insights! The theory has uncovered the mechanism by which mass undergoes a total conversion to energy. Yes, a mass to energy conversion with 100% efficiency!  As everything else in the DSSU, it is a perfectly natural process. Truly amazing!



(2016-4-26):  A mathematical cosmologist claims the values of the Hubble-expansion parameter and the cosmic-background temperature are the most important elements for understanding the real Universe! Letter and response.



(2016 March):  What is the difference between a physical and a mechanical aether? ...
Be aware of the distinctions among the terms commonly applied to aether: Terms such as physical, mechanical, subquantum, and dynamic. Link to new Question & Answer.



The book, Guide to the Construction of the Natural Universe, is now available at the Niagara Falls Public Library  (Victoria branch). If you live in the Province of Ontario, your local library can request the book from the Niagara Falls Public Library.

Participate in a unique exploration of the Cosmos: venture into the sub-atomic realm, even into the sub-quantum realm where the roots of reality reside, and into the domain of cosmic-scale cell-structure and beyond to infinity. Along the way, discover the cause of mass, the cause of gravitation, and rediscover Einstein’s “nonponderable” aether and Heraclitus’ harmony-of-opposites principle. … The book represents the ultimate vindication for all the skeptics who resisted the "preposterous" Big Bang mythology and who refused to join the exploding-cosmos religion.
The book contains 317 pages, 61 illustrations, references, and index …
Available from C-FAR Books.
Or use this mail-in Order Form.

 


My comments on the 2016 "Official Science" news story:


Do not be misled by the recent reports of the detection of gravity waves. What the LIGO apparatus measures is the interference from beams of self-generated electromagnetic waves. It seems highly probable that what LIGO actually detected was some vibrational “noise” or some unexplained interference; and NOT gravity waves originating from a distant binary system (in which two extremely massive black holes are supposedly in the process of merging). How the data, the wave patterns, are interpreted is subject to theory and restricted by theory. Naturally the official interpretation must conform to the Officially-sanctioned theory of gravity —Einstein’s general theory of relativity. Thus, the light patterns recorded by LIGO are interpreted via Einstein’s mathematical concept of gravity. The problem is the general-relativity-gravity interpretation, as is well known, ignores the space medium!

Have gravity waves really been detected?
Think about this: The academic experts do not have the cause and mechanism of gravity (Isaac Newton did not, Albert Einstein did not, and today’s big-bang astrophysicists do not). Their theory of gravity is embarrassingly incomplete! So, if they do not yet understand the nature of gravity itself, how then can they claim to be able to recognize the waves that gravity supposedly emits? The experts cannot even answer the simple question: Specifically, what is it that is waving? What is waving back and forth?
    Here is something else the reports fail to mention: The gravity waves that are actually detectable are those associated with the turbulence in the aether flow (the space medium streaming through our Solar System). Australian physicist Reginald T. Cahill has been examining these aether-flow waves for over 15 years. –CR (2016 May)
Updated 2016 June. See Comment #19


(2016 Jan 6) Published:
Olbers’ Paradox Resolved for the Infinite Non-Expanding Universe
, American Journal of Astronomy & Astrophysics Vol.4, No.1, (2016 January). Abstract & download links.
Excerpts:
● “The man accredited with discovering universe expansion did not believe that the universe was expanding. Hubble was convinced that the key evidence, the cosmic redshift, was caused by some other factor, something more fundamental than mere expansion.”
● “With the recent discovery of a new cosmic-redshift mechanism, and its theoretical validation, it turns out that Hubble was right.”
● Explains how “an infinite, non-expanding, perpetually regenerating universe" is able to predict a dark night sky.


Press Release (2015 Oct 15):
The Big Bang is no longer a viable hypothesis !

(2016 June) FREE DOWNLOAD:
"DSSU Validated by Redshift Theory and Structural Evidence", Physics Essays, Vol.28, No.4, pp.455-473 (2015 Dec) —Delivers the coup de grâce to the Big Bang. Abstract & Links.
Both Reviewers enthusiastically endorsed this "well-written and incisive article."


(2015-Oct 6): Webpage added for article Cosmic-Redshift Distance Law Without c Without H: Comments & Links  Describes the challenge of getting DSSU papers published.


(2015 Aug 20): Allow me to extend a sincere "Thank You" for the many invitations to join social media and professional networks. Unfortunately I must decline. It’s simply a matter of precious time —there is just too little of it. All my available time is taken up by research, writing, and website maintenance —in fact, two more web domains have been purchased. It is all being done for the purpose of providing the educated and interested public with the ammunition to refute and replace the utterly bankrupt big-bang Worldview. (However, not to give the impression of a total recluse, seclusionist, or misanthrope, I do manage to squeeze in a few delightful hours of ballroom dancing every week or two.) –CR


(2015 Aug): Brief update on the status of the neutrino and its adaptation into the DSSU particle theory. See Section 5 of the Discussion webpage for the article: The Fundamental Process of Energy

(2015 Aug): The article The Universe Is Infinite (Part 1) has been revised.

(2015 July): Comments and questions from a 14-year old student.



(2013): Higgs Boson Discovered?
After 50 long years of searching, Physicists claim to have detected the Higgs boson, the "particle" that ostensibly bestows the property of mass on all other such particles. Is it now time to celebrate? … Definitely not.
   The question now is this: If the Higgs ‘particle’ is the giver of mass to all other particles, what then gives the Higgs itself its mass?! (Yes, the newly discovered particle has mass, lots of it!) A difficult and embarrassing question indeed. It is like asking:
If God created everything, then who, or what, created God?
   While physicists think they have solved the mass problem, the reality is that they have unwittingly exposed an even bigger problem —the riddle of “First Cause”.
 


RECENT RESEARCH PAPERS:


Natural Mechanism for the Generation and Emission of Extreme Energy Particles –Published in Physics Essays Vol.31, No.3, p358 (2018). (Reprint)
-------------------------
Sachs-Wolfe Effect Disproof –Published in the International Journal of Astrophysics and Space Science, Vol.6, No.1, 2018. ( Abstract & Links.)

"The Nature of Gravitational Collapse"
–Published in American Journal of Astronomy & Astrophysics. ( Abstract and Links.)
(Note, there is a typo in AJA&A posted version in the Fig-10 caption. It should read: … acceleration is proportional to 1/r2.)
-------------------------
"Olbers’ Paradox Resolved for the Infinite Non-Expanding Universe" –Published in American Journal of Astronomy & Astrophysics. ( Abstract & download links.)
-------------------------
"DSSU Validated by Redshift Theory and Structural Evidence" published in Physics Essays, Vol.28, No.4, p455-473 (2015 Dec). Abstract.
Both Reviewers enthusiastically endorsed this "well-written and incisive article."
-------------------------
Published in the American Journal of Astronomy & Astrophysics, AJAA, Vol.3, No.2, 2015:
Ellipticity, Its Origin & Progression in Comoving Galaxies  
Local  high-resolution PDF.

HIGHLIGHTS:
• Provides the first-ever natural explanation for the cause of the elliptical shape of nonrotating galaxies
• Retains the foundation premise of all modern cosmology but rejects the absurd concept of whole-universe expansion
• Takes full advantage of the universe’s cosmic cellular structure and exploits the DSSU theory of unified gravity domains
• Amazingly, the mechanism that stretches galaxies turns out to be the very same mechanism that causes the cosmic spectral redshift!


Glossary of Terms used in Cosmology and Astrophysics with particular emphasis on DSSU theory.
(Opens in separate Window or Tab)

GENERAL INTEREST ARTICLES:

Mysteries & Paradoxes that Plague Standard Cosmology  (Updated 2015-7)

Cosmology Crisis of 1998 (Revised 2015-5)

Critique of Conventional Cosmology ... comments relating to the 'preposterous' expanding-universe paradigm.
Bafflement —the remarkable admission of a physicist.
The Cosmology Debate That Never Happened   —During the 20th century there was a decades-long debate: The cataclysmic expanding universe VS the stable expanding universe. But there has never been a debate of the dynamic expanding universe VS the dynamic non-expanding universe. (Posted 2011 Oct)

Models of the Universe —Historical, Expanding, and Cellular universes. INCLUDES A USEFUL TABLE FOR COMPARING THEORIES.

The Universe Is Infinite (Part 1) —overcoming a "central" problem of cosmology theories.

The Universe Is Infinite (Part 2) —an explanation of how the universe can always have existed and will always exist.

DSSU, The Non-Expanding Universe: Structure, Redshift, Distance —A long sought-after goal of astrophysicists has been a formulation of cosmic distance that is independent of the speed of light. The goal has now been achieved. The present Paper details the surprisingly simple distance expression and its validating agreement with Supernova data.

Why Copernicus Did Not Need a Force of Gravity —Explores the question of why no one, except Newton, invoked a force. (Posted April, 2011)

Gravity and Lambda —A Story of Opposites (.htm) —A story of opposites in harmony. Key differences between the Conventional Cosmology and the New Cosmology are presented.

Dynamic Cosmic Cell —The Structural Component of the DSSU —Animated image and discussion of the self-sustaining, self-balancing system.

Why Einstein Did Not Receive the Nobel Prize for His Theory of Relativity —“By 1922 Einstein had been nominated about fifty times —most were for his relativity theories.”


Questions & Answers & Comments
 

COSMOLOGY ARTICLES, etc:

(2016 June) FREE DOWNLOAD details:
DSSU Validated by Redshift Theory and Structural Evidence, Physics Essays, Vol.28, No.4, p455-473 (2015 Dec) —Delivers the coup de grâce to the Big Bang. Abstract & Links.
Both Reviewers enthusiastically endorsed this "well-written and incisive article."


The Dynamic Steady State Universe.
This work brings together the main pieces of the cosmic puzzle in a step-by-step construction of the Natural Universe. Published in Physics Essays Vol.27 No.2 (2014 June issue) (PDF download)  "... the arguments are well-made. The article is competent, enjoyable and readable." —Reviewer for Physics Essays Journal


Revolutionary:
Olbers’ Paradox Resolved for the Infinite Non-Expanding Universe
, American Journal of Astronomy & Astrophysics Vol.4, No.1, (2016 January). Abstract & download links.
Excerpts:
● “The man accredited with discovering universe expansion did not believe that the universe was expanding. Hubble was convinced that the key evidence, the cosmic redshift, was caused by some other factor, something more fundamental than mere expansion.”
● “With the recent discovery of a new cosmic-redshift mechanism, and its theoretical validation, it turns out that Hubble was right.”


Cosmic Redshift in the Nonexpanding Cellular Universe  ( Journal links ) —details the actual causal mechanism. Published in the American Journal of Astronomy & Astrophysics, Vol.2, No.5 (2014) Abstract.
Local copy with quality images: (Reprint pdf).
HIGHLIGHTS:
• Entirely new concept for cosmic redshift mechanism;
• Retains the foundation premise of all modern cosmology;
• But does not require whole-universe expansion;
• A redshift based on the DSSU theory of unified gravity & cosmic cellular structure;
• Remarkable agreement with independently established redshift distances.

The Cosmology Debate That Never Happened
What historians call "the greatest cosmological debate in history” was between TWO  expanding universes —two hypothetical models that share the same, I repeat, the same foundational property! If one is to claim some great clash of ideas (let alone the "greatest") then surely there must exist some deep dividing difference! (Posted 2011 Oct)

The Case for a Cellular Universe
—the Story of a Baffling Omission in Modern Cosmology    (Revised 2015)
 

Large-Scale Structure of the Dynamic Steady State Universe published in the American Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Vol.4, No.6, 2016, pp.65-77. Astract and Links.
Highlights:
■ Presents the first 2 of the 4 main postulates that define the DSSU.
■ Space-medium expansion and contraction are perpetually held in balance, thus ensuring a non-expanding universe.
■ Explains how the two dynamic processes of the DSSU’s space medium sustain the cellular structure responsible for the pattern of matter distribution in our Universe.

Cosmic-Redshift Distance Law Without c Without H Comments & Links Simplifying the redshift-distance formula by removing the speed-of-light constant and the Hubble parameter —while maintaining agreement with observational evidence.
 

DSSU Theory:

DSSU Validated by Redshift Theory and Structural Evidence, Physics Essays, Vol.28, No.4, p455-473 (2015 Dec) —Delivers the coup de grâce to the Big Bang. Abstract & Links.
Both Reviewers enthusiastically endorsed this "well-written and incisive article."



Theoretical Foundation and Pillars of the DSSU (Introduction) —This introductory essay gives a thematic tour of historical and modern universes culminating with the Natural Universe.

Currently undergoing revision and updating: Theoretical Foundation and Pillars of the Dynamic Steady State Universe (pdf) —The first complete presentation of all four postulates of DSSU theory. A powerful paper that resolves the cause-of-causes paradox, explains the non-independent nature of time, and reveals the 'supreme advantage'. It includes a concise comparison with standard cosmology focusing on real-world viability.
Supplementary Discussion: The Primary Process

 


The Fundamental Process of Energy —A Qualitative Unification of Energy, Mass, and Gravity. (Abstract & Reviews & Links) … This article reveals the secret behind photon confinement. (Contains only a bare minimum of mathematics and mainly in one of the 14 sections.)
PART 1 published in Infinite Energy Magazine Issue #113 (Jan/Feb 2014)
PART 2 published in Infinite Energy Magazine    Issue #114 (Mar/Apr 2014)

Headlined as:
A "Conceptual Unification of Energy, Mass and Gravity"



Dynamic Cosmic Cell —The Structural Component of the DSSU —Animated image and discussion of the self-sustaining, self-balancing system.

Unified Gravitation Cells of the DSSU —Constructing the Universe with Cosmic Gravity Cells

Space Flow Equations and Expansion-Contraction Rates (pdf) —This paper explores the mathematical aspects of the two space postulates of DSSU theory —and uncovers some profound consequences.
 

ARTICLES on AETHER:

Documentary movie footage in which Einstein states, "There exists an aether"
High resolution .mpg video.
Low resolution .wmv video.


The Aether Experiments and the Impact on Cosmology —The aether has been detected at least 6 times in recent history. Its most recent "re-discovery", in 2001, led to the long-sought causal mechanism of gravity —a discovery which, in turn, is revolutionizing cosmology.

Michelson-Morley and the Story of the Aether Theory —Richard Milton's analysis of the historical details involving the misrepresentation, bias, and cover-up that hampered the Aether theory.

The History of the Aether Theory —The historic development of the aether as a scientific theory of space itself. What started as the "fifth element" of Antiquity becomes molded by theoretical constraints and experimental evidence into the dual-dynamic sub-quantum medium —the Essence of the Universe. (Updated 2016-2)

Relativity of Time in the Aether-Space of the DSSU —How intrinsic time and relative time are related.

DSSU Relativity –The Lorentz Transformations Applied to Aether-Space —Ranzan
Reprinted by permission of Physics Essays Publication, Physics  Essays Vol.23, No.3, p520. (2010). ABSTRACT

The Physical Nature of Length Contraction —the DSSU Theory of Length Contraction Induced by Absolute Motion.
An easy to follow examination of how the mode by which matter is “conducted” through luminiferous aether causes the matter to contract. A simple derivation of the mathematical expression for this physical phenomenon is presented. There is also a brief discussion of relevant historical aspects and of nonphysical length contraction.
Reviewer's comments: “This is amazing …”  “The paper is interesting …” –Applied Physics Research reviewer. Published in Applied Physics Research journal Vol.5, No.1 (2013 Feb).

Contradiction Divides Two Aether Theories —An exploration into the three parts of the speed-of-light postulate.
Reprinted by permission of PEP, from  Physics Essays Journal (Vol 24, No.3, Sept, 2011) ... ABSTRACT

Basic-level mathematical and graphical exploration of dynamic aether flow: PDF

Here is an external webpage with an extensive list of research papers on the aether-drift experiments, and the larger question of energy in space.

DSSU RESEARCH PAPERS:

Sachs-Wolfe Effect Disproof (published in in the International Journal of Astrophysics and Space Science Vol.6, No.1, 2018.)
Abstract & links.

DSSU Cosmic Redshift-Distance Relation (htm) —Converting the cosmic redshift into distance for our Cellular Universe using a simple and elegant equation.

Large Scale Structure of the Dynamic Steady State Universe (pdf)   How a dual-dynamic space medium sustains the cellular structure (published in AJAA in 2016).
  —Presents the postulates and implications of regional space-medium expansion and contraction.

Cosmic-Scale Structural Features Explained (pdf) (Chapter 2 of original DSSU Manuscript)
—The Spacing of Clusters
—Sheets of Galaxies
—Supernodes
—Right-angled Walls of Galaxies.


The Cosmic Background Radiation in the DSSU —The natural explanation of the microwave background radiation applicable to the natural Cellular Universe.

Ellipticity, Its Origin & Progression in Comoving GalaxiesAmerican Journal of Astronomy & Astrophysics, AJAA, Vol.3, No.2, 2015.
Local  high-resolution PDF.
HTML version available from AJAA here.

GRAVITY:

"The Nature of Gravitational Collapse"
–Published in American Journal of Astronomy & Astrophysics Vol.4, No.2, 2016, pp.15-33. (Abstract and Links.)
(Note, there is a typo in AJA&A posted version in the Fig-10 caption. It should read: … acceleration is proportional to 1/r2.)



The Processes of Gravitation –The Cause and Mechanism of Gravitation by C. Ranzan –A revolutionary paper on gravity published in the Journal of Modern Physics and Applications Vol.2014:3  (2014).
( Abstract & Reviews & Links. Includes link to hi-resolution PDF) "Revolutionary".



Why Copernicus Did Not Need a Force of Gravity —Explores the question of why no one, except Newton, invoked a force. (Rev 2011-9)

First ever, journal-published paper featuring the DSSU:
The Story of Gravity and Lambda –How the Theory of Heraclitus Solved the Dark Matter Mystery –Ranzan
Reprinted by permission of PEP, from Physics Essays, Vol 23, No1, p75-87 (2010 Mar). ABSTRACT
This is the cure for the fallacious belief in cosmic-scale Dark Matter.

The Story of Gravity and Lambda –How the Theory of Heraclitus Solved the Dark Matter Mystery (Color version) –Ranzan Considered "an excellent contribution to the [PE journal]" --professional reviewer.

Unified Gravitation Cells of the DSSU —Constructing the Universe with Cosmic Gravity Cells

RELATIVITY ARTICLES:

Why Einstein Did Not Receive the Nobel Prize for His Theory of Relativity (●Abstract ●Links ●Excerpts ●Extras) —“By 1922 Einstein had been nominated about fifty times —most were for his relativity theories.”

Einstein’s Simple Mathematical Trick –and the Illusion of a Constant Speed of Light  (Abridged version with links to Journal-published version. Posted July 2013)

Extended Relativity –Exploiting the Loopholes in Einstein's Relativity. A Logical extension of special relativity. Reprinted by permission of PEP, from Physics Essays Vol.25, No.3 (2012 Sept).
Abstract & Links & Reviews


The Three Components of the Speed-of-Light Postulate.  Published in Physics Essays journal Vol.26,No.1 (2013 March)
Local copy: The Three Components of the Speed-of-Light Postulate (pdf) Absolute vs relative. Variance vs invariance. Another instance of the Heraclitian "Harmony of Opposites." (Reprinted by permission of PEP, from Physics Essays, Vol.26, No.1, 2013).

Relativity of Time in the Aether Medium of the DSSU —Absolute Motion and Intrinsic Time

Resolving a Paradox in Special Relativity –Absolute Motion and the Unified Doppler Equation.
(Posted 2011, July). Reprinted by permission of PEP, from Physics  Essays Vol.23, No.4, p594 (2010). ABSTRACT

How DSSU Relativity Resolves the Speed Paradox (Introductory Discussion)   —Absolute Motion Resolves a (speed) Paradox in Einstein’s Special Relativity. (Supplementary Discussion)

DSSU Relativity –The Lorentz Transformations Applied to Aether-Space (Posted 2011, July). Reprinted by permission of Physics Essays Publication, Physics  Essays Vol.23, No.3, p520. (2010). ABSTRACT

The Key that Extends Einstein’s Relativity (Part 1) —Response to a reviewer critical of DSSU aether-space relativity
The Key that Extends Einstein’s Relativity (Part 2) —How to convert abstract-space equations into aether-space equations

Restoring the Physical Meaning of Energy
Published in Applied Physics Research journal Vol.5, No.2 (2013 May).
LOCAL COPY: Restoring the Physical Meaning of Energy —distinguishing between the apparent energy and the real energy of moving mass.
 

An Open Letter to the Scientific Community
(Published in New Scientist, May 22, 2004)

"The big bang today relies on a growing number of hypothetical entities, things that we have never observed-- inflation, dark matter and dark energy are the most prominent examples. Without them, there would be a fatal contradiction between the observations made by astronomers and the predictions of the big bang theory. In no other field of physics would this continual recourse to new hypothetical objects be accepted as a way of bridging the gap between theory and observation. It would, at the least, raise serious questions about the validity of the underlying theory. ..."  continues ...
A devastating Declaration of opposition to Big Bang cosmology signed by more than 400 Researchers.

For the full text click on:
CosmologyStatement.org or alternate site.
 

INTELLECTUAL FREEDOM:
This website is mainly concerned with revisionism in cosmology. Those of us involved in replacing the unnatural expanding-universe paradigm are aware of the difficulties involved.
   However, other revisionists have unimaginable difficulties. Consider the ongoing persecution of revisionists in other fields of intellectual pursuit: 
"It makes you wonder —about the immense effort being made by State and State-sponsored organizations with budgets of tens of millions of dollars and thousands of employees and associates to smother and punish these few men and women. Every punishing instrument imaginable is used, every vicious slander conceivable, every flagrant and pervasive form of censorship that law allows, including the imprisonment of simple writers for thought crimes against the State. ... Makes you wonder."Bradley R. Smith (2011)


"Discussing truth is so controversial, so dangerous … In most of the world it is simply illegal.” Gordon Duff, Senior Editor, Veterans Today (2011)

"The further a society drifts from truth the more it will hate those who speak it." –George Orwell


DEDICATION: This website is solemnly dedicated to those individuals who have conducted research in their chosen field and have informed others of their inquiries and suffered the consequences when subpoenaed by the Inquisition or some variant thereof. The dedication extends to those individuals currently imprisoned, and those facing trial and persecution simply for exercising their basic human right of freedom of expression supposedly granted to them under the UN Charter of Human Rights.
"Every year, hundreds of writers and other literary professionals around the world are imprisoned, prosecuted, persecuted, attacked, threatened, forced into exile or even murdered as a result of their work."

ALSO: Be aware of the continuing threat to our precious freedom of expression on the Internet. The threat is serious and relentless. It is described as “… the formal effort to mimic Communist China’s system of Internet censorship.” See The Secret Behind SOPA  (2012-Jan). Update.
More information on threats to internet freedom: https://battleforthenet.com/


Reporter-journalist Arthur Topham, Canadian victim of the Inquisition, arrested (2012) for posting his research.
“Arthur Topham faces prison time for daring to speak his mind on his own website, as he faces criminal charges under Canada’s hate crimes legislation contained in Section 318 - 320 of the criminal code.” –Rights and Freedoms Bulletin Issue No. 204 Feb 7, 2015.
VERDICT: Arthur Topham found “guilty” AND “not guilty” of hate speech by a brain-dead jury!
 –Dr. James Sears, reporting in “The world’s Largest Anti-Marxist Publication” (Issue 2015 December, http://www.yourwardnews.com/backissues.html)
2016 Update: Panel Discussion on The Trial of Arthur Topham



Free-speech crusader
Bill Whatcott defies British Colombia Human Rights Tribunal efforts to impose gender language tyranny.

“I have no intention on wasting money on a lawyer for the Morgane Oger vs Bill Whatcott case, as human rights tribunals are kangaroo courts and the odds of … getting justice in these biased tribunals is next to zero.” –2017 June (www.freenorthamerica.ca …)



End of free speech in Britain:

A hostile jury, by a hasty unanimous verdict, decided that Nationalist Leader Jez Turner deserves to be sent to jail for his critical views! Report (2018-5-15).

British Maverick Psychologist jailed for publishing his research. … “The ambivalence of librarians getting writers imprisoned quite defies comprehension.” –Simon Sheppard (2013)



The repression of free speech in Canada has degenerated to the point where …

■ Freedom advocates, such as Marc Lemire, are censured for merely expressing their reasoned opinions. Freedomsite, whose motto is “Fighting for freedom against the censorship enforcers”, documents the official persecution.
■ A tenured professor has lost his position for revealing his research and views on history. This is unprecedented. Professor Anthony J. Hall at the University of Lethbridge, Alberta, has been suspended (2016 October 5) without pay.
“… Any thinking person should recognize that there is something deeply wrong when a history professor is persecuted for saying we should be able to examine our history.” –Monika Schaefer 2017
■ A publisher/editor, for expressing his reality-based views, has been denied postal services. Dr. James Sears, publisher and editor of Your Ward News was stripped of Canada Post Mail Service by government order (2016 June).
■ A violin teacher and truth revealer, Monika Schaefer, for posting a video (an apology to her dead mother), has been attacked by various so-called community leaders.

The treatment of violinist Monika Schaefer signals the end of our free and democratic society.” –The American Herald Tribune, 2016 Sept

American Speaker Arrested in Canada for the textual material on his iPad
—2017 June 24
While the invasion continues, the “guardians” of the nation are busy suppressing the freedom of expression: going after deemed violations in what people think and write and say.

Canada Claims Authority to Censor Your Internet Searches –Reason magazine
The "justice" system is being used to suppress opinions: In a legal battle (2018) for freedom of speech in Canada ... the prosecution and silencing of Dr. James Sears expected to cost taxpayers $20 million!

“I estimate the Board of Review, police investigating and Crown prosecuting us on criminal matters, will cost the taxpayers over $20 million, assuming no appeals past 2018 (murderers & rapists will walk free as huge blocks of court time bump their cases, causing them to be thrown out).”
–Dr. James Sears, Your Ward News, Fall, 2018, p17

 



The Continuing Struggle for Freedom

A ray of hope in the ongoing struggle for freedom. Populist and nationalist movements around the world are gaining ascendancy over the New World Order’s effort to establish global governance and impose tyrannical control over every last square meter of the Earth’s surface. –The Barnes Review Vol.23 No.1 (2017 Jan p70)


"This Is Very Serious" –S. Molyneux, 2018-7
(7-minute video on the importance of freedom of speech)
 


In repressive Germany:

Ursula Haverbeck, 89, Sentenced to 14 Months in Jail for Heresy! –2017 November
This amazing 89-year-old woman continues advocating under the dictum: "Only the truth will set you free”.
Mrs. Haverbeck, along with her late husband, founded the education facility Collegium Humanum in 1963, but which was banned by the Marxist thought police in 2008.

UPDATE (2018-5-16): Ursula Haverbeck will celebrate her 90th birthday in a German prison cell. The sprightly grandmother is now serving a two-year prison term without parole merely for stating a sincerely held opinion that is supported by acclaimed academics worldwide!!
“Frau Haverbeck is now sentenced to two years in prison, merely for her peaceful historical research” –The Barnes Review Vol.24, No.5 (Sept/Oct 2018) p71

INFO on Monika Schaefer's case: https://wir-sind-monika.com/
For expressing her opinion on historical events, Canadian citizen Monika Schaefer has been arrested and imprisoned (2018-1-3) in Germany. She had committed no crime. Author Mike Walsh warns potential visitors to Germany to stay away from this dangerous police state. –Merkel Madness Grips Germany, (2018-1-7)
... Still not charged or sentenced, as of Aug 31 (2018)!!
 


For more on Freedom (and Objectivism),
visit:
Freedomain Radio (www.freedomainradio.com)
presented by Stefan Molyneux.

 Just Right Media (www.justrightmedia.org)
 



... about the author ...


© Copyright 2005-2018 by
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2018-12-1

Einstein’s Simple Mathematical Trick
–and the Illusion of a Constant Speed of Light

Conrad Ranzan
2011

Abridged version of an article published in Applied Physics Research Vol.5, No.4, 2013
(websites: www.ccsenet.org/apr & www.ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/apr/issue/view/852 )

 

Contents:

1. Introduction
2. Basic Motion
3. How Einstein achieves the illusion of lightspeed INVARIANCE
4. How Nature Achieves the Illusion of Lightspeed Invariance
5. In the Real World
6. Conclusion

 

 

As Einstein regarded the situation, the [aether] experiments, seemed to indicate a "conspiracy" on the part of nature against man's efforts to obtain knowledge of the physical world,
–Science writer Lillian R. Lieber (1945)

 

 

1.   Introduction

In the real world aether exists and serves as the conducting medium of light waves.

Pay no attention to the contrary assertion in your high school and college texts which invariably state that there is no such thing as aether. The aether is described as just an old discarded concept; strictly 19th-century voodoo science. Do, however, pay attention to what is written in the research articles of the various physics journals. It is now commonly accepted that the Universe is permeated by aether (a generic term for the space medium). While the existence of aether is not at issue, the properties of aether are subject to considerable debate.

Also understand that most professionals are embarrassed to actually use the term “aether” with its negative historical connotations. They prefer to use more exotic terms such as quantum foam, cosmic substratum, dynamic three-space, background substructure, and others. … Can’t really blame them. It is entirely understandable. Imagine having to acknowledge that you had it all wrong; and that your profession had it wrong for almost 100 years!  This is embarrassing to say the least.
 

2.  Basic Motion

The most fundamental equation of motion is

(distance traveled) = (speed) × (interval of time).

And when rearranged,

(interval of time) = (distance) ÷ (speed),  or

.                              (2-1)

Consider an airplane making a two-way crossing of a lake on a windy day. (See Fig. 1.) The time-of-travel going with the wind will obviously be shorter than the travel time for the crossing going against the wind. It is simply because the plane is flying with a constant speed with respect to the air, but the air itself is moving with respect to the Earth’s surface, including the lake.

   
 

Fig. 1.   In the presence of the atmospheric wind, the plane's flight time going from A to B is less than the time going from B to A. (υp is the air-speed of the plane.)

 

During the outbound crossing the speed is, in our example, (uPLANE + uAIR). And, during the return flight, assuming the wind has not changed, the speed must be (uPLANEuAIR). Here uPLANE is the plane’s speed with respect to the surrounding air. (And uAIR is the atmospheric wind with respect to the Earth reference frame.)

All you need to understand is that the plane moves at some FIXED speed through the air, while the air itself also moves (as “wind”).

Here are the equations of motion for the flights between runways A and B (as labeled in Fig. 1):

.               (2-2)

Simple enough. Anyway, the propagation of light waves through the aether works in the same way. … Yes, I know what you were taught; but just follow along with me.

Light waves pass through the aether —that is, they are conducted by the aether— with a fixed speed of about 300,000 kilometers per second. In shorthand, c = 300,000 km/s. (Note that symbol “c” is not a variable, it represents a constant of Nature.) Meanwhile the aether itself may be in motion —a motion historically called the aether wind.

We now consider a light pulse beaming outward across the lake, and then being reflected back to the starting point. We have a lightspeed round trip from A to B, then back across to A. See Fig. 2.

   
 

Fig. 2.   As a consequence of the "aether wind", the travel time of the light pulse going from A to B is less than the time going from B to A.

 

Obviously the two time intervals will be different:

  .                         (2-3)

This means that the speed of the light pulse is not the same for the two directions. Speed (c + ua) is not the same as speed (c – ua).

Now here comes the good part. I will show how Einstein makes the speed of light the same (constant) for both directions. Then later, I will detail how Nature actually makes it appear that the speed of light is constant!
 

3.  How Einstein Achieves the Illusion of Lightspeed INVARIANCE

Einstein uses a simple procedure to make the speed of light constant.

First he deems the two travel times to be identical. That’s right, as if by magic.

In his own words:

“… we establish by definition that the “time” required by light to travel from A to B equals the “time” it requires the light to travel from B to A.”

(From Einstein’s famous 1905 paper, page 40)

He simply declares,  (∆timeA to B ) = (∆timeB to A ).

Which is the same as declaring:

 .                           (3-1)

Essentially, this makes ua equal to zero. (Just solve the equation for ua and you will find that ua = 0.) It is in the application of his definition that Einstein disconnects from the real world and makes any speed with respect to aether equal to zero! (In effect, he declares aether to be non-existent!)

Now comes the math part of the illusion. Einstein has a core definition for the fundamentally important concepts of time interval and simultaneity. See the adjacent textbox.

And Einstein uses it in the simple mathematical trick to achieve the illusion of a constant speed of light:

From his core definition of time interval and simultaneity, a pulse’s travel time from A to B is,

 

Einstein’s Core Definition and Averaging Procedure

Einstein recognized that, in a discussion at this fundamental level, the intuitive notion of time intervals (say, between events at different places) is inadequate. And so, he devised an operational definition of simultaneity and time-interval at different places as follows: Suppose time-intervals at different points (points A and B) of a given coordinate system are measured by clocks of similar construction; we may then synchronize these clocks by means of light signals. A emits a light ray at time tA by A’s clock, it is received and reflected by B at time tB by B’s clock, and returns to A at t′A by A’s clock. Then B’s time tB is defined to be simultaneous with A’s time ½(t′A + tA).”  [1]

 Essentially, this says a light pulse’s travel time ∆tAB , from A to B, is:

    ∆tAB = ½ (∆timeA to B  + ∆timeB to A );

And, similarly

     ∆tBA = ½ (∆timeB to A + ∆timeA to B ).

This is deviously clever: ∆tAB is made equal to ∆tBA —even for cases when ∆timeA to B does NOT equal ∆timeB to A !!  Check it for yourself. Try it with some test values. It's foolproof !
 

Time A to B = ½ (∆timeA to B  + ∆timeB to A ).                 (3-2)

But from the basic motion equation (see above) a pulse’s travel time is

 .                                                (3-3)

Therefore, combining (3-2) and (3-3)

(Distance) ÷ (pulse speed) = ½ (∆tA to B + ∆tB to A ) .     (3-4)

Substituting expressions (for ∆tA to B and ∆tB to A) from (2-3)

.

Apply Einstein’s definition —the one that makes ua equal to zero, and:

,

Which simplifies to

pulse speed = c .

The same argument, of course, applies to the travel time in the opposite direction, from B to A. And so regardless of the magnitude of the aether wind, the observed speed of light should always be c.

This remarkable mathematical illusion became enshrined in Einstein’s second postulate, making the speed of light invariant for any non-accelerating observer.
 

But what about the real world?
 

4.  How Nature Achieves the Illusion of Lightspeed Invariance

In the real world ∆tAB does not equal ∆tBA !  And yet amazingly the speed of a light pulse still appears to be invariant!

Brace yourself for some real magic. As for the mathematics, I promise nothing more complicated than basic algebra.

 We again start with the basic equation of motion

.

 The “measured speed” that we are interested in is the apparent speed of the light pulse:

  .                              (4-1)

 Consider the set-up shown in Fig. 3. Ignore the impracticality of trying to use a stopwatch to time the round-trip motion of a light pulse; simply focus on the equation for the apparent speed of light  and the two effects that influence it.

   
 

Fig. 3.   Method for measuring the speed of light. We already know that the speed of the light pulse is constant c with respect to aether. But what is the measured (the apparent) speed of the light pulse?

 

Now if we are not careful here we might be tempted to replace ∆t with the sum of the two expressions from eqn (2-3). But we would get the wrong answer —meaning disagreement with actual experimental results.

The reality is that we must take into consideration the affect that the aether wind has on the rigid platform and on the clock.

The pulse being measured has an absolute speed c with respect to aether. The speed ua is the flow of the aether itself (this is the same as saying that the apparatus frame, in Fig. 3, is moving through the aether with absolute speed ua). Now, to be consistent, object-length D and clock-time Dt must likewise be expressed in terms of their motion through aether. In other words, they must be expressed in their aether-altered form.

To be consistent with “absolute” c and “absolute” ua, everything on the equation’s right side, the apparent length and apparent time-interval, must be converted into intrinsic terms. This means that both length contraction and clock slowing must be taken into account.

 

The problem of measuring the motion-induced contraction of rigid objects: The problem is that the length of objects (such as that of the platform in Fig. 3) is not something that can be measured directly. If one attempts a carpenter’s method of using a standardized meter stick, one would find that the particular length being checked will always measure the same value —regardless of motion: the numeric value will be the same whether performed while at absolute rest with respect to the aether or while moving at some significant fraction of the speed of light. Keep in mind there is NO Einsteinean relative motion here; the carpenter-experimenter, the meter-stick, and the apparatus-platform are all moving together.

Incidentally, only object dimensions in the direction of motion are actually contracted and NOT spatial lengths.[2]

If one wants to know the actual contracted length, one must do the calculation. The formula is [3]

Dcontracted = Dapparent / γ ,

Dapp = Dcon γ .                     (4-2)
 

The conversion expression we need for length is (from textbox, above)

Dapp = Dcon γ .                                    (4-2)

Where g is the gamma factor, g = 1 / (1− ua2/c2 )1/2, also known as the Lorentz factor. In the form 1/g it is known as the contraction factor. Notice that it contains the aether-referenced speed ua. For the derivation, see The Physical Nature of Length Contraction.[4]  What is quite interesting, and not well known, is that clock slowing (due to absolute motion) is caused by length contraction (see textbox, below) and for this reason the gamma factor also appears in the time-interval conversion.

And the conversion expression [5] we need for time is

Dtreal = γ Dtapp.slow , or 

Dtapp.slow = Dtreal /γ .                            (4-3)

(The “apparent slow” time is always less than, or equal to, the “real” absolute-rest time. Note that γ is always greater than, or equal to, one. But don’t worry about γ, it cancels out in the end.) Next, we apply the conversions (4-2) and (4-3) to expression (4-1), now properly subscripted,

                             (4-4)

.        (4-5)

The real round-trip time, when expressed with the real velocities shown in Fig. 3, is,

,

.                           (4-6)

Which then allows eqn (4-5) to be simplified to:

.             (4-7)

The apparent speed of light equals c which is a constant (and has the well-known value of about 300,000 km/s).

Thus, it is the contraction of object length and the slowing of clocks that gives us the remarkable illusion of the constancy of the speed of light under the conditions just described.

The illusion depends entirely on length contraction:
The illusion depends on the aether wind via the length-contraction factor. But what about the time measured by the clock(s), you ask? . . . It turns out that the slowing of clocks is the direct result of length contraction within the components of the particular clock —no matter what components are involved (even the atomic-scale parts of atomic clocks, even bio-tissue of a beating heart). *

Thus, the illusion of the constant speed of light (in our example of non-relative motion, with everything being in the same reference frame) is caused solely by the real phenomenon of length contraction.

* There is one exception whereby it is possible to have a clock that “slows” without invoking length contraction: a so-called light-clock in which the light pulses travel perpendicular to the direction of motion. No length contraction is involved. Nevertheless, the “ticking” rate will agree perfectly with an identical light-clock oriented so that the path of the light-pulses is aligned with the direction of motion.

For an alternate and more technical proof of the “remarkable illusion” of invariance, the reader may wish to check into Professor Stephan Gift’s article in Physics Essays.[6]
 

So, what then is the secret behind the magic of this illusion? …Well, the illusion only works when a two-way light-path method is used. Note, however, that the two-way light-path method is not always obvious.  Imagine, for example, a one-way light-path set-up. The light pulse is timed from the moment it departs from distant point B to the split-second instant it is received by the observer at A. For this to work the clocks at A and B must obviously be synchronized. And there’s the catch. You see, in order to synchronize those clocks, one has to follow Einstein’s defined procedure (see textbox, above, Einstein’s Averaging Procedure). And doing so requires a two-way light-path method. There really is no other way. It’s a catch 22, if you will.

The result is a built-in, cleverly hidden, synchronization error; and the illusion of invariance still holds. It still fools the audience.

But in the real world …
 

5.  In the Real World

The astute reader, at this point, might claim that the above analysis of Fig. 3 could also be interpreted as proof that Einstein was right; that ua equals zero, or even that there is no aether and no aether wind.

But no, that interpretation is not an option. It is not an option because the one-way speed of light has been shown, by actual experiments, to be VARIANT. That is, the propagation speed of the pulse from A to B is NOT the same as the speed from B to A.

This difference can only arise in the presence of a light-conducting aether which is in motion!

In the real world the actual one-way speed of light
 is not constant.

Notwithstanding the observable illusion described in the previous section, the real world speed of light is not invariant. In the real world the actual one-way speed of light VARIES with the aether wind!

Here is a selection of the experimental evidence and supporting theory. The experiments detailed by the various authors somehow manage to overcome Einstein’s clock-synchronization problem which usually contaminates one-way lightspeed measurements. [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14]

One such experiment, the Marinov (1974, 1977a, 1980b) coupled-mirrors experiment, has been described as “one of the most brilliant and ingenious experiments of all time. It measures the very small quantity u/c, where u is the absolute velocity of the observer, by using very clever stratagems.” The coupled-mirrors experiment demonstrated that the absolute velocity of the solar system is of the order of 300 ±20 km/sec, and that the speed of light is − u in the direction of motion of the solar system, and u in the opposite direction. [15]
 

6.  Conclusion

Whether you are a student or a teacher or a researcher, pay close attention.

Here’s the bottom line: Your text books are wrong. The glaring factual error in most textbooks is the claim, “It is impossible to detect our motion relative to the aether.” Also in error is the claim that the famous Michelson-Morley experiment had a “null result”. The truth is, Albert Michelson and Edward Morley back in 1887 did measure an aether wind —it was merely less than had been expected. They had simply failed to take into account the physical length contraction of their apparatus, (a phenomenon of which they were unaware at the time).

The fact is, lightspeed invariance is merely an illusion. The illusion depends on the measuring method.

What you need to know is that the ONE-WAY speed of light has long been proven to be non-constant. (References: [7] to [15] )

The one-way speed of light is not what Einstein’s postulate says it is.

* * * *

LINKS to the full-length printable research paper (which addresses the question of How Nature Achieves the Illusion Even Without Rigid-platform Length-contraction, when there is no length contraction between measuring point A and reflection point B):

Journal published:
C. Ranzan, Einstein’s Simple Mathematical Trick –and the Illusion of a Constant Speed of Light,
Applied Physics Research Vol.5, No.4, p85, (2013 Aug); Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/apr.v5n4p85

(Download PDF)

 


References and Notes

  1. ^ Mary B. Hesse,  Forces and Fields (a study of action at a distance in the history of physics) (Littlefield, Adams & Co., Totown, New Jersey, 1965) p231
  2. ^ Joseph Lévy,  From Galileo to Lorentz... and Beyond, Principles of a Fundamental Theory of Space and Time (Published by C. Roy Keys Inc., Montreal, Canada, 2003) “It should be pointed out that according to the Lorentz assumptions, it is matter that is contracted, not space.” –Lévy p41
  3. ^ C. Ranzan,  DSSU Relativity –The Lorentz Transformations Applied to Aether-Space.  Physics Essays Vol.23, No.3, p520 (2010) Posted at: http://www.CellularUniverse.org/
  4. ^ C. Ranzan,  The Physical Nature of Length Contraction –the DSSU Theory of Length Contraction Induced by Absolute Motion. (2012) Posted at: http://www.CellularUniverse.org/
  5. ^ C. Ranzan,  DSSU Relativity –The Lorentz Transformations Applied to Aether-Space.  Physics Essays Vol.23, No.3, p520 (2010) Posted at: http://www.CellularUniverse.org/
  6. ^ S.J.G. Gift,  Light Speed Invariance is a Remarkable Illusion, Physics Essays Vol.23, 1, 2010
  7. ^ F. Selleri,  Noninvariant one-way velocity of lightFound. Phys 26, 641-664, 1996. Posted at: http://www.ba.infn.it/~selleri/
  8. ^ S.J.G. Gift, One-Way Light Speed Determination Using the Range Measurement Equation of the GPS.
    Posted at:  http://vixra.org/pdf/1008.0035v1.pdf
  9. ^  S.J.G. Gift, One-Way Light Speed Measurement Using the Synchronized Clocks of the Global Positioning System (GPS), Physics Essays, Vol.23, No.2, pp271-275, June 2010
  10. ^  S.J.G. Gift, Light Speed Invariance is a Remarkable Illusion, Physics Essays Vol.23, 1, 2010
  11. ^  S.J.G. Gift, Doppler Shift Reveals Light Speed Variation, Apeiron, Vol.17, 13, 2010
  12. ^  S.J.G. Gift, The Relative Motion of the Earth and the Ether Detected, Journal of Scientific Exploration Vol.20, 201, 2006
  13. ^ A. Kelly,  Challenging Modern Physics (BrownWalker Press, Florida, 2005)
  14. ^ M. Sato,  The Velocity of Electromagnetic Wave is Observed Differently Depending on the Observer’s Velocity, Physics Essays, Vol.23, 405, 2010
  15. ^ J. Lévy,  From Galileo to Lorentz... and Beyond, Principles of a Fundamental Theory of Space and Time (C. Roy Keys Inc., Montreal, Canada, 2003) p49

2011-12


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